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MK Classification and Dynamical Masses for Late-Type Visual Binaries
On the basis of slit spectra obtained with the SCORPIO spectral cameraattached to the 2.6 m telescope of the V. Ambartsumian ByurakanAstrophysical Observatory (Armenia), MK classifications for 30 visualbinaries comprising mostly late K and M type stars are presented.Comparison with other determinations shows that this configurationprovides a reliable MK classification. Dynamical masses for 25 systemsare computed. Using standard mass-luminosity calibrations, individualmass sums for 11 pairs consisting of virtually single, nonvariabledwarfs are calculated, showing a good agreement with correspondingdynamical masses. The dynamical parallax of HIP 112354 is closer to thetrigonometric parallax given in the Yale General Catalogue ofTrigonometric Stellar Parallaxes (van Altena et al.) than to theHipparcos parallax.

Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission Lines in Late-K and M Dwarfs
We have measured the profiles of the Ca II H and K chromosphericemission lines in 147 main-sequence stars of spectral type M5-K7 (masses0.30-0.55 Msolar) using multiple high-resolution spectraobtained during 6 years with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck Itelescope. Remarkably, the average FWHM, equivalent widths, and lineluminosities of Ca II H and K increase by a factor of 3 with increasingstellar mass over this small range of stellar masses. We fit the Ca II Hand K lines with a double-Gaussian model to represent both thechromospheric emission and the non-LTE central absorption. Most of thesample stars display a central absorption that is typically redshiftedby ~0.1 km s-1 relative to the emission. This implies thatthe higher level, lower density chromospheric material has a smalleroutward velocity (or higher inward velocity) by 0.1 km s-1than the lower level material in the chromosphere, but the nature ofthis velocity gradient remains unknown. The FWHM of the Ca II H and Kemission lines increase with stellar luminosity, reminiscent of theWilson-Bappu effect in FGK-type stars. Both the equivalent widths andFWHM exhibit modest temporal variability in individual stars. At a givenvalue of MV, stars exhibit a spread in both the equivalentwidth and FWHM of Ca II H and K, due both to a spread in fundamentalstellar parameters, including rotation rate, age, and possiblymetallicity, and to the spread in stellar mass at a given MV.The K line is consistently wider than the H line, as expected, and itscentral absorption is more redshifted, indicating that the H and K linesform at slightly different heights in the chromosphere where thevelocities are slightly different. The equivalent width of Hαcorrelates with Ca II H and K only for stars having Ca II equivalentwidths above ~2 Å, suggesting the existence of a magneticthreshold above which the lower and upper chromospheres become thermallycoupled.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by both NASA and theUniversity of California.

Spot patterns and differential rotation in the eclipsing pre-cataclysmic variable binary, V471 Tau
We present surface spot maps of the K2V primary star in thepre-cataclysmic variable binary system, V471 Tau. The spot maps show thepresence of large high-latitude spots located at the sub-white dwarflongitude region. By tracking the relative movement of spot groups overthe course of four nights (eight rotation cycles), we measure thesurface differential rotation rate of the system. Our results revealthat the star is rotating rigidly with a surface shear rate, dΩ=1.6 +/- 6mradd-1. The single active star AB Dor has a similarspectral type, rotation period and activity level as the K star in V471Tau, but displays much stronger surface shear (46 < dΩ <58mradd-1). Our results suggest that tidal locking mayinhibit differential rotation; this reduced shear, however, does notaffect the overall magnetic activity levels in active K dwarfs.

Simulating observable comets. III. Real stellar perturbers of the Oort cloud and their output
Context: .This is the third of a series of papers on simulating themechanisms acting currently on the Oort cloud and producing the observedlong-period comets.Aims.In this paper we investigate the influence ofcurrent stellar perturbers on the Oort cloud of comets under thesimultaneous galactic disk tide. We also analyse the past motion of theobserved long-period comets under the same dynamical model to verify thewidely used definition of dynamically new comets. Methods.The action ofnearby stars and the galactic disk tide on the Oort cloud was simulated.The original orbital elements of all 386 long-period comets of qualityclasses 1 and 2 were calculated, and their motion was followednumerically for one orbital revolution into the past, down to theprevious perihelion. We also simulated the output of the close futurepass of GJ 710 through the Oort cloud. Results.The simulated flux of theobservable comets resulting from the current stellar and galacticperturbations, as well as the distribution of perihelion direction, wasobtained. The same data are presented for the future passage of GJ 710.A detailed description is given of the past evolution of aphelion andperihelion distances of the observed long-period comets. Conclusions. Weobtained no fingerprints of the stellar perturbations in the simulatedflux and its directional structure. The mechanisms producing observablecomets are highly dominated by galactic disk tide because all currentstellar perturbers are too weak. Also the effect of the close passage ofthe star GJ 710 is very difficult to recognise on the background of theGalactic-driven observable comets. For the observed comets we found only45 to be really dynamically "new" according to our definition based onthe previous perihelion distance value.

Metallicity of M dwarfs. I. A photometric calibration and the impact on the mass-luminosity relation at the bottom of the main sequence
We obtained high resolution ELODIE and CORALIE spectra for bothcomponents of 20 wide visual binaries composed of an F-, G- or K-dwarfprimary and an M-dwarf secondary. We analyse the well-understood spectraof the primaries to determine metallicities ([Fe/H]) for these 20systems, and hence for their M dwarf components. We pool thesemetallicities with determinations from the literature to obtain aprecise (±0.2 dex) photometric calibration of M dwarfmetallicities. This calibration represents a breakthrough in a fieldwhere discussions have had to remain largely qualitative, and it helpsus demonstrate that metallicity explains most of the large dispersion inthe empirical V-band mass-luminosity relation. We examine themetallicity of the two known M-dwarf planet-host stars, Gl876 (+0.02 dex) and Gl 436 (-0.03 dex), inthe context of preferential planet formation around metal-rich stars. Wefinally determine the metallicity of the 47 brightest single M dwarfs ina volume-limited sample, and compare the metallicity distributions ofsolar-type and M-dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood.

An old nearby quadruple system Gliese 225.2
We discovered a new component E in the nearby multiple system Gliese225.2, making it quadruple. We derive a preliminary 24-yr astrometricorbit of this new sub-system C,E and a slightly improved orbit of the68-yr pair A,B. The orientations of the A,B and C,E orbits indicate thatthey may be close to coplanarity. The orbit of AB,CE is rather wide anddoes not allow to determine its curvature reliably. Thus, the 390 yrorbit computed by Baize (1980, Inf. Circ. IAU Comm., 26(80)) waspremature. The infrared colors and magnitudes of components A, B, and Cmatch standard values for dwarfs of spectral types K5V, M0V, and K4V,respectively. The new component E, 3 magnitudes below the Main Sequence,has an anomalously blue color index. We estimate its mass as roughly 0.2solar from the astrometric orbit, although there remains someinconsistency in the data hinting on a higher mass or on the existenceof additional components in the system. Large space velocities indicatethat Gliese 225.2 belongs to the thick Galactic disk and is not young.This quadruple system survived for a long time and should be dynamicallystable.

Carbon monoxide in low-mass dwarf stars
We compare high-resolution infrared observations of the CO 2-0 bands inthe 2.297-2.310 μm region of M dwarfs and one L dwarf withtheoretical expectations. We find a good match between the observationaland synthetic spectra throughout the 2000-3500 K temperature regimeinvestigated. None the less, for the 2500-3500 K temperature range, thetemperatures that we derive from synthetic spectral fits are higher thanexpected from more empirical methods by several hundred kelvin. In orderto reconcile our findings with the empirical temperature scale, it isnecessary to invoke warming of the model atmosphere used to constructthe synthetic spectra. We consider that the most likely reason for theback-warming is missing high-temperature opacity due to water vapour. Wecompare the water vapour opacity of the Partridge-Schwenke line listused for the model atmosphere with the output from a preliminarycalculation by Barber & Tennyson. While the Partridge-Schwenke linelist is a reasonable spectroscopic match for the new line list at 2000K, by 4000 K it is missing around 25 per cent of the water vapouropacity. We thus consider that the offset between empirical andsynthetic temperature scales is explained by the lack of hot watervapour used for computation of the synthetic spectra. For our coolestobjects with temperatures below 2500 K, we find best fits when usingsynthetic spectra which include dust emission. Our spectra also allow usto constrain the rotational velocities of our sources, and thesevelocities are consistent with the broad trend of rotational velocitiesincreasing from M to L.

High Proper Motion Stars. IV. Radial Velocities of 166 Luyten Half-Second Stars
We present 178 radial velocity measurements for 166 late-type starsselected from the Luyten half-second (LHS) proper motion catalog. Spacevelocities are given for all but two of them. Most of the stars liewithin 25 pc of the Sun, but the list includes a handful ofhigh-velocity transients from the halo population. None of the derivedspace velocities is high enough, however, to provide any constraint onthe escape speed at the solar circle. Twenty-six stars are discussed insomewhat more detail, and evidence is adduced that several of them maybe velocity variables.

The structure of our stellar system.
Not Available

The χ Factor: Determining the Strength of Activity in Low-Mass Dwarfs
We describe a new, distance-independent method for calculating themagnetic activity strength in low-mass dwarfs,LHα/Lbol. Using a well-observed sample ofnearby stars and cool standards spanning spectral type M0.5 to L0, wecompute χ, the ratio between the continuum flux near Hα andthe bolometric flux, fλ6560/fbol. Thisratio can be multiplied by the measured equivalent width of the Hαemission line to yield LHα/Lbol. We provideχ values for all objects in our sample, and also fits to χ as afunction of color and average values by spectral type. This method wasused by West et al. to examine trends in magnetic activity strength inlow-mass stars.

Multicolour CCD measurements of nearby visual double stars. II
We present accurate CCD astrometric and photometric data for 31 nearbyvisual double stars in the standard filters BVRI. The observations werecollected with a 1.3-m telescope in 2001-2002 The results consist ofrelative astrometric positions (epoch, angular separation and positionangle) and differential BVRI photometry of the components. Mean errorsare: 0.01 arcsec for the separation; 0.06 ° for the position angle;and 0.015m for the photometric data. Comparing the relative positions atdifferent epochs, we evaluate the physical association of the systems.We additionally derive fractional masses and true separations for themost probable binary systems and, whenever orbits are available, alsototal and component masses.Table \ref{t2} is only available in the electronic form athttp:www.edpsciences.org. Tables \ref{t4} and \ref{t5} are onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/422/1023Based on data obtained at the Skinakas Observatory and by the Hipparcosastrometry satellite. The Skinakas Observatory is a collaborativeproject of the University of Crete, the Foundation for Research andTechnology - Hellas, and the Max-Planck-Institut fürExtraterrestrische Physik.

Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M Stars
We present chromospheric Ca II H and K activity measurements, rotationperiods, and ages for ~1200 F, G, K, and M type main-sequence stars from~18,000 archival spectra taken at Keck and Lick Observatories as a partof the California and Carnegie Planet Search Project. We have calibratedour chromospheric S-values against the Mount Wilson chromosphericactivity data. From these measurements we have calculated medianactivity levels and derived R'HK, stellar ages,and rotation periods from general parameterizations for 1228 stars,~1000 of which have no previously published S-values. We also presentprecise time series of activity measurements for these stars.Based on observations obtained at Lick Observatory, which is operated bythe University of California, and on observations obtained at the W. M.Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University ofCalifornia and the California Institute of Technology. The KeckObservatory was made possible by the generous financial support of theW. M. Keck Foundation.

An Assessment of Dynamical Mass Constraints on Pre-Main-Sequence Evolutionary Tracks
We have assembled a database of stars having both masses determined frommeasured orbital dynamics and sufficient spectral and photometricinformation for their placement on a theoretical H-R diagram. Our sampleconsists of 115 low-mass (M<2.0 Msolar) stars, 27pre-main-sequence and 88 main-sequence. We use a variety of availablepre-main-sequence evolutionary calculations to test the consistency ofpredicted stellar masses with dynamically determined masses. Despitesubstantial improvements in model physics over the past decade, largesystematic discrepancies still exist between empirical and theoreticallyderived masses. For main-sequence stars, all models considered predictmasses consistent with dynamical values above 1.2 Msolar andsome models predict consistent masses at solar or slightly lower masses,but no models predict consistent masses below 0.5 Msolar,with all models systematically underpredicting such low masses by5%-20%. The failure at low masses stems from the poor match of mostmodels to the empirical main sequence below temperatures of 3800 K, atwhich molecules become the dominant source of opacity and convection isthe dominant mode of energy transport. For the pre-main-sequence samplewe find similar trends. There is generally good agreement betweenpredicted and dynamical masses above 1.2 Msolar for allmodels. Below 1.2 Msolar and down to 0.3 Msolar(the lowest mass testable), most evolutionary models systematicallyunderpredict the dynamically determined masses by 10%-30%, on average,with the Lyon group models predicting marginally consistent masses inthe mean, although with large scatter. Over all mass ranges, theusefulness of dynamical mass constraints for pre-main-sequence stars isin many cases limited by the random errors caused by poorly determinedluminosities and especially temperatures of young stars. Adopting awarmer-than-dwarf temperature scale would help reconcile the systematicpre-main-sequence offset at the lowest masses, but the case for this isnot compelling, given the similar warm offset at older ages between mostsets of tracks and the empirical main sequence. Over all age ranges, thesystematic discrepancies between track-predicted and dynamicallydetermined masses appear to be dominated by inaccuracies in thetreatment of convection and in the adopted opacities.

NEXXUS: A comprehensive ROSAT survey of coronal X-ray emission among nearby solar-like stars
We present a final summary of all ROSAT X-ray observations of nearbystars. All available ROSAT observations with the ROSAT PSPC, HRI and WFChave been matched with the CNS4 catalog of nearby stars and the resultsgathered in the Nearby X-ray and XUV-emitting Stars data base, availablevia www from the Home Page of the Hamburger Sternwarte at the URLhttp://www.hs.uni-hamburg.de/DE/For/Gal/Xgroup/nexxus. Newvolume-limited samples of F/G-stars (dlim = 14 pc), K-stars(dlim = 12 pc), and M-stars (dlim = 6 pc) areconstructed within which detection rates of more than 90% are obtained;only one star (GJ 1002) remains undetected in a pointed follow-upobservation. F/G-stars, K-stars and M-stars have indistinguishablesurface X-ray flux distributions, and the lower envelope of the observeddistribution at FX ≈ 104 erg/cm2/sis the X-ray flux level observed in solar coronal holes. Large amplitudevariations in X-ray flux are uncommon for solar-like stars, but maybemore common for stars near the bottom of the main sequence; a largeamplitude flare is reported for the M star LHS 288. Long term X-raylight curves are presented for α Cen A/B and Gl 86, showingvariations on time scales of weeks and demonstrating that α Cen Bis a flare star.Tables 1-3 are also available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/417/651

Target Selection for SETI. II. Tycho-2 Dwarfs, Old Open Clusters, and the Nearest 100 Stars
We present the full target list and prioritization algorithm developedfor use by the microwave search for technological signals at the SETIInstitute. We have included the Catalog of Nearby Habitable StellarSystems (HabCat, described in Paper I), all of the nearest 100 stars and14 old open clusters. This is further augmented by a subset of theTycho-2 catalog based on reduced proper motions, and this larger catalogshould routinely provide at least three target stars within the largeprimary field of view of the Allen Telescope Array. The algorithm forprioritizing objects in the full target list includes scoring based onthe subset category of each target (i.e., HabCat, cluster, Tycho-2, ornearest 100), its distance (if known), and its proximity to the Sun onthe color-magnitude diagram.

Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised Catalog
We complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

The radii and spectra of the nearest stars
We discuss direct measurements of the radii of 36 stars located closerthan 25 parsecs to the Sun. We present the data on 307 radii and 326spectral types and luminosity classes for the nearest stars locatedinside the sphere with a radius of 10 parsecs.

Advanced Undergraduate Computer Based Astronomy Lab. The Astrometric Binary Kruger 60.
A challenging computer based lab for astronomy undergraduate studentshas been developed to determine the masses of the components of thevisual binary system Kruger 60 = HD 239960 = BD+56 2783 using archivalastrometric observations. The data consist of separations and positionangles from 1898 to 1949 (Lippincott 1953; Van de Kamp 1967) of Kruger60B relative to Kruger 60A covering a complete orbit. After reviewingKepler's 3rd or Harmonic Law and Newton's revision, they analyze thedata using Microsoft Excel to calculate a best fitting elliptical orbitto the relative orbit of Kruger 60B. The importance of deriving stellarmasses from such binaries is emphasized by discussing the significanceof mass in the role of stellar evolution. This lab is one in a seriesbeing designed to provide astronomy majors practical experience inmathematically modeling astronomical data.This research was supported inpart by NASA LaSPACE LURA Grant LSU 3115-30-5199.

Radial Velocities for 889 Late-Type Stars
We report radial velocities for 844 FGKM-type main-sequence and subgiantstars and 45 K giants, most of which had either low-precision velocitymeasurements or none at all. These velocities differ from the standardstars of Udry et al. by 0.035 km s-1 (rms) for the 26 FGKstandard stars in common. The zero point of our velocities differs fromthat of Udry et al.: =+0.053km s-1. Thus, these new velocities agree with the best knownstandard stars both in precision and zero point, to well within 0.1 kms-1. Nonetheless, both these velocities and the standardssuffer from three sources of systematic error, namely, convectiveblueshift, gravitational redshift, and spectral type mismatch of thereference spectrum. These systematic errors are here forced to be zerofor G2 V stars by using the Sun as reference, with Vesta and day sky asproxies. But for spectral types departing from solar, the systematicerrors reach 0.3 km s-1 in the F and K stars and 0.4 kms-1 in M dwarfs. Multiple spectra were obtained for all 889stars during 4 years, and 782 of them exhibit velocity scatter less than0.1 km s-1. These stars may serve as radial velocitystandards if they remain constant in velocity. We found 11 newspectroscopic binaries and report orbital parameters for them. Based onobservations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operatedjointly by the University of California and the California Institute ofTechnology, and on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, whichis operated by the University of California.

Revised Coordinates and Proper Motions of the Stars in the Luyten Half-Second Catalog
We present refined coordinates and proper-motion data for the highproper-motion (HPM) stars in the Luyten Half-Second (LHS) catalog. Thepositional uncertainty in the original Luyten catalog is typicallygreater than 10" and is often greater than 30". We have used the digitalscans of the POSS I and POSS II plates to derive more accurate positionsand proper motions of the objects. Out of the 4470 candidates in the LHScatalog, 4323 objects were manually reidentified in the POSS I and POSSII scans. A small fraction of the stars were not found because of thelack of finder charts and digitized POSS II scans. The uncertainties inthe revised positions are typically ~2" but can be as high as ~8" in afew cases, which is a large improvement over the original data.Cross-correlation with the Tycho-2 and Hipparcos catalogs yielded 819candidates (with mR<~12). For these brighter sources, theposition and proper-motion data were replaced with the more accurateTycho-2/Hipparcos data. In total, we have revised proper-motionmeasurements and coordinates for 4040 stars and revised coordinates for4330 stars. The electronic version of the paper5 contains the updated information on all 4470stars in the LHS catalog.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. II. Relative Astrometry Measures during 1998-2000
Five hundred twelve relative astrometry measures are presented for 253double stars, including 53 double stars discovered by Hipparcos. In 15cases, relative astrometry is reported for the first time for newlyconfirmed pairs. In addition, 20 high-quality nondetections ofcompanions are reported for stars suspected of being nonsingle byHipparcos. Observations were taken using a fast-readout CCD camerasystem at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. In comparingthese measures with ephemeris predictions for binary stars with verywell known orbits, we find that the measurement precision is better than3 mas in separation and 1° in position angle per individualobservation. Measurement precision and detection capabilities are fullydiscussed, and confirmed orbital motion is reported in four cases of theHipparcos double star discoveries. The WIYN Observatory is a jointfacility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University,Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

The Palomar/MSU Nearby Star Spectroscopic Survey. III. Chromospheric Activity, M Dwarf Ages, and the Local Star Formation History
We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of 676 nearby M dwarfs.Our measurements include radial velocities, equivalent widths ofimportant chromospheric emission lines, and rotational velocities forrapidly rotating stars. We identify several distinct groups by theirHα properties and investigate variations in chromospheric activityamong early (M0-M2.5) and mid (M3-M6) dwarfs. Using a volume-limitedsample together with a relationship between age and chromosphericactivity, we show that the rate of star formation in the immediate solarneighborhood has been relatively constant over the last 4 Gyr. Inparticular, our results are inconsistent with recent large bursts ofstar formation. We use the correlation between Hα activity and ageas a function of color to set constraints on the properties of L and Tdwarf secondary components in binary systems. We also identify a numberof interesting stars, including rapid rotators, radial velocityvariables, and spectroscopic binaries. Observations were made at the 60inch telescope at Palomar Mountain, which is jointly owned by theCalifornia Institute of Technology and the Carnegie Institution ofWashington.

High-Resolution Optical Observations of Extreme-Ultraviolet-selected Active Late-type Stars
We present high-resolution optical spectra of EUV-selected late-typestars. We have detected seven new spectroscopic binaries, including apair of F stars and an RS Canum Venaticorum candidate. Many of the starsin our sample show remarkable Hα emission with equivalent widthsup to 8 Å. Several sources show strong He I 5876 Å emission.We use cross-correlation techniques to estimate line-of-sight rotationalvelocities and find that they range from less than 5 to over 80 kms-1. Several of the stars show a strong Li 6707 Å line,which we use to determine their Li abundances. The EUV-to-bolometricluminosity, a measure of the coronal heating efficiency, is as high as10-3. The present sample extends the EUV-selected late-typestars to lower Rossby numbers and makes the coronal saturation boundarybetter pronounced. Our results indicate that there is a drop in the EUVemission from the corona in late M dwarfs possibly because of a changein the nature of the magnetic dynamo in fully convective stars.

A Near-Infrared, Wide-Field, Proper-Motion Search for Brown Dwarfs
A common proper-motion survey of M dwarf stars within 8 pc of the Sunreveals no new stellar or brown dwarf companions at wide separations(~100-1400 AU). This survey tests whether the brown dwarf ``desert''extends to large separations around M dwarf stars and further exploresthe census of the solar neighborhood. The sample includes 66 stars northof -30° and within 8 pc of the Sun. Existing first-epoch images arecompared with new J-band images of the same fields an average of 7 yrlater to reveal proper-motion companions within a ~4' radius of theprimary star. No new companions are detected to a J-band limitingmagnitude of ~16.5, corresponding to a companion mass of ~40 Jupitermasses for an assumed age of 5 Gyr at the mean distance of the objectsin the survey, 5.8 pc.

The Solar Neighborhood. VI. New Southern Nearby Stars Identified by Optical Spectroscopy
Broadband optical spectra are presented for 34 known and candidatenearby stars in the southern sky. Spectral types are determined using anew method that compares the entire spectrum with spectra of more than100 standard stars. We estimate distances to 13 candidate nearby starsusing our spectra and new or published photometry. Six of these starsare probably within 25 pc, and two are likely to be within the ResearchConsortium on Nearby Stars (RECONS) horizon of 10 pc.

Stellar encounters with the solar system
We continue our search, based on Hipparcos data, for stars which haveencountered or will encounter the solar system(García-Sánchez et al. \cite{Garcia}). Hipparcos parallaxand proper motion data are combined with ground-based radial velocitymeasurements to obtain the trajectories of stars relative to the solarsystem. We have integrated all trajectories using three different modelsof the galactic potential: a local potential model, a global potentialmodel, and a perturbative potential model. The agreement between themodels is generally very good. The time period over which our search forclose passages is valid is about +/-10 Myr. Based on the Hipparcos data,we find a frequency of stellar encounters within one parsec of the Sunof 2.3 +/- 0.2 per Myr. However, we also find that the Hipparcos data isobservationally incomplete. By comparing the Hipparcos observations withthe stellar luminosity function for star systems within 50 pc of theSun, we estimate that only about one-fifth of the stars or star systemswere detected by Hipparcos. Correcting for this incompleteness, weobtain a value of 11.7 +/- 1.3 stellar encounters per Myr within one pcof the Sun. We examine the ability of two future missions, FAME andGAIA, to extend the search for past and future stellar encounters withthe Sun.

Studies of multiple stellar systems - IV. The triple-lined spectroscopic system Gliese 644
We present a radial velocity study of the triple-lined system Gliese 644and derive spectroscopic elements for the inner and outer orbits withperiods of 2.9655 and 627d. We also utilize old visual data, as well asmodern speckle and adaptive optics observations, to derive a newastrometric solution for the outer orbit. These two orbits togetherallow us to derive masses for each of the three components in thesystem: MA=0.410+/-0.028 (6.9 per cent),MBa=0.336+/-0.016 (4.7 per cent), andMBb=0.304+/-0.014 (4.7 per cent)Msolar. We suggestthat the relative inclination of the two orbits is very small. Ourindividual masses and spectroscopic light ratios for the three M starsin the Gliese 644 system provide three points for the mass-luminosityrelation near the bottom of the main sequence, where the relation ispoorly determined. These three points agree well with theoretical modelsfor solar metallicity and an age of 5Gyr. Our radial velocities forGliese 643 and vB 8, two common proper motion companions of Gliese 644,support the interpretation that all five M stars are moving together ina physically bound group. We discuss possible scenarios for theformation and evolution of this configuration, such as the formation ofall five stars in a sequence of fragmentation events leading directly tothe hierarchical configuration now observed, versus formation in a smallN cluster with subsequent dynamical evolution into the presenthierarchical configuration.

A Coronagraphic Survey for Companions of Stars within 8 Parsecs
We present the technique and results of a survey of stars within 8 pc ofthe Sun with declinations δ>-35° (J2000.00). The survey,designed to find without color bias faint companions, consists ofoptical coronagraphic images of the 1' field of view centered on eachstar and infrared direct images with a 32" field of view. The imageswere obtained through the optical Gunn r and z filters and the infraredJ and K filters. The survey achieves sensitivities up to 4 absolutemagnitudes fainter than the prototype brown dwarf, Gliese 229B. However,this sensitivity varies with the seeing conditions, the intrinsicbrightness of the star observed, and the angular distance from the star.As a result, we tabulate sensitivity limits for each star in the survey.We used the criterion of common proper motion to distinguish companionsand to determine their luminosities. In addition to the brown dwarf Gl229B, we have identified six new stellar companions of the sample stars.Since the survey began, accurate trigonometric parallax measurements formost of the stars have become available. As a result, some of the starswe originally included should no longer be included in the 8 pc sample.In addition, the 8 pc sample is incomplete at the faint end of the mainsequence, complicating our calculation of the binary fraction of browndwarfs. We assess the sensitivity of the survey to stellar companionsand to brown dwarf companions of different masses and ages.

Multicolour observations of nearby visual double stars. New CCD measurements and orbits
We present multicolour CCD observations of nine nearby visual doublestars obtained in August and September 1999 with the 1.3-m telescope atSkinakas Observatory. The results consist of relative positions (epochs,angular separations and position angles) and differential BV RIphotometry. We confirm the physical association in eight cases.Previously known orbits do not match the new data for three systems.Orbits have been recalculated when sufficient data were available. Weprincipally improve the precision of the known orbits for three binariesand show the acute lack of precision in two other cases. In one case,the components are shown to move apart with a linear relative speed of0.050\arcsec/yr. Skinakas Observatory is a collaborate project of theUniversity of Crete, the Foundation for Research and Technology -Hellas, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:22h28m00.38s
Apparent magnitude:9.764
Distance:4.008 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:11.82
V-T magnitude:9.934

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesKruger 60
HD 1989HD 239960
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3991-92-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1425-13468552
HIPHIP 110893

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