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TYC 4179-1178-1 (Proxima Ursae Minoris)



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Rotation and Magnetic Activity in a Sample of M-Dwarfs
We have analyzed the rotational broadening and chromospheric activity ina sample of 123 M-dwarfs, using spectra taken at the W.M. KeckObservatory as part of the California Planet Search program. We findthat only seven of these stars are rotating more rapidly than ourdetection threshold of v sin i ? 2.5 km s-1.Rotation appears to be more common in stars later than M3 than in theM0-M2.5 mass range: we estimate that less than 10% of early-M stars aredetectably rotating, whereas roughly a third of those later than M4 showsigns of rotation. These findings lend support to the view thatrotational braking becomes less effective in fully convective stars. Bymeasuring the equivalent widths of the Ca II H and K lines for the starsin our sample, and converting these to approximate L Ca/Lbol measurements, we also provide constraints on theconnection between rotation and magnetic activity. Measurable rotationis a sufficient, but not necessary condition for activity in our sample:all the detectable rotators show strong Ca II emission, but so too do asmall number of non-rotating stars, which we presume may lie at highinclination angles relative to our line of sight. Our data areconsistent with a "saturation-type" rotation-activity relationship, withactivity roughly independent of rotation above a threshold velocity ofless than 6 km s-1. We also find weak evidence for a"gap" in L Ca/L bol between a highly activepopulation of stars, which typically are detected as rotators, andanother much less active group.

The minimum Jeans mass, brown dwarf companion IMF, and predictions for detection of Y-type dwarfs
Cool L- and T-type objects were discovered first as companions to starsin 1988 and 1995, respectively. A certain example of the even coolerY-type spectral class (T_eff ⪉ 500 K) has not been seen. Recentinfrared-imaging observations of stars and brown dwarfs indicate thatsubstellar companions with large semi-major axes and with masses lessthan the brown dwarf/giant planet dividing line ( 13.5{M}_J) are rare.Theoretical considerations of the Jeans mass fragmentation of molecularclouds are consistent with this minimum mass cutoff and also with thesemi-major axis (hundreds of AU) characteristic of the lowest massimaged companions. As a consequence, Y-class companions with largesemi-major axes should be scarce around stars <2 Gyr old, and alsoaround substellar primaries of all ages. By focusing on brown dwarfcompanions to young stellar primaries, it is possible to derive a firstestimate of the brown dwarf IMF over the entire range of brown dwarfmasses (13{M}J to 79{M}_J) - the number of companion browndwarfs is proportional to the mass to the -1.2±0.2 power.

The effect of activity on stellar temperatures and radii
Context: Recent analyses of low-mass eclipsing binary stars haveunveiled a significant disagreement between the observations andpredictions of stellar structure models. Results show that theoreticalmodels underestimate the radii and overestimate the effectivetemperatures of low-mass stars but yield luminosities that accord withobservations. A hypothesis based upon the effects of stellar activitywas put forward to explain the discrepancies. Aims: In this paper westudy the existence of the same trend in single active stars and providea consistent scenario to explain systematic differences between activeand inactive stars in the H-R diagram reported earlier. Methods: Theanalysis is done using single field stars of spectral types late-K and Mand computing their bolometric magnitudes and temperatures throughinfrared colours and spectral indices. The properties of the stars insamples of active and inactive stars are compared statistically toreveal systematic differences. Results: After accounting for a numberof possible bias effects, active stars are shown to be cooler thaninactive stars of similar luminosity therefore implying a larger radiusas well, in proportions that are in excellent agreement with those foundfrom eclipsing binaries. Conclusions: The present results generalisethe existence of strong radius and temperature dependences on stellaractivity to the entire population of low-mass stars, regardless of theirmembership in close binary systems.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/478/507

Structure and Evolution of Nearby Stars with Planets. II. Physical Properties of ~1000 Cool Stars from the SPOCS Catalog
We derive detailed theoretical models for 1074 nearby stars from theSPOCS (Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars) Catalog. The Californiaand Carnegie Planet Search has obtained high-quality (R~=70,000-90,000,S/N~=300-500) echelle spectra of over 1000 nearby stars taken with theHamilton spectrograph at Lick Observatory, the HIRES spectrograph atKeck, and UCLES at the Anglo Australian Observatory. A uniform analysisof the high-resolution spectra has yielded precise stellar parameters(Teff, logg, vsini, [M/H], and individual elementalabundances for Fe, Ni, Si, Na, and Ti), enabling systematic erroranalyses and accurate theoretical stellar modeling. We have created alarge database of theoretical stellar evolution tracks using the YaleStellar Evolution Code (YREC) to match the observed parameters of theSPOCS stars. Our very dense grids of evolutionary tracks eliminate theneed for interpolation between stellar evolutionary tracks and allowprecise determinations of physical stellar parameters (mass, age,radius, size and mass of the convective zone, surface gravity, etc.).Combining our stellar models with the observed stellar atmosphericparameters and uncertainties, we compute the likelihood for each set ofstellar model parameters separated by uniform time steps along thestellar evolutionary tracks. The computed likelihoods are used for aBayesian analysis to derive posterior probability distribution functionsfor the physical stellar parameters of interest. We provide a catalog ofphysical parameters for 1074 stars that are based on a uniform set ofhigh-quality spectral observations, a uniform spectral reductionprocedure, and a uniform set of stellar evolutionary models. We explorethis catalog for various possible correlations between stellar andplanetary properties, which may help constrain the formation anddynamical histories of other planetary systems.

Probing long-period companions to planetary hosts. VLT and CFHT near infrared coronographic imaging surveys
Aims.We present the results of a deep imaging survey of stars surroundedby planets detected with the radial velocity technique. The purpose isto search for and to characterize long-period stellar and substellarcompanions. The sample contains a total of 26 stars, among which 6exhibit additional radial velocity drifts. Methods: .We usedNACO, at the ESO Very Large Telescope, and PUEO-KIR, at the CandianFrench Hawaiian Telescope, to conduct a near-infrared coronographicsurvey with adaptive optics of the faint circumstellar environment ofthe planetary hosts. The domain investigated ranges between 0.1'' to15'' (i.e. about 3 to 500 AU, according to the mean distance of thesample). The survey is sensitive to companions within the stellar andthe substellar domains, depending on the distance to the central starsand on the star properties. Results: .The images of 14 stars donot reveal any companions once the field objects are removed. 8 starshave close potential companions that need to be re-observed within 1-2years to check for physical companionship. 4 stars are surrounded byfaint objects which are confirmed or very probable companions. Thecompanion to HD 13445 (Gl 86) is already known. The HD 196885 star is anew close visual binary system with a high probability of being bound.The 2 newly discovered companions, HD 1237 B and HD 27442 B, sharecommon proper motions with the central stars. Orbital motion is detectedfor HD 1237 B. HD 1237 B is likely a low-mass M star, located at 70 AU(projected distance) from the primary. HD 27442 B is most probably awhite dwarf companion located at about 240 AU (projected distance).

Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission Lines in Late-K and M Dwarfs
We have measured the profiles of the Ca II H and K chromosphericemission lines in 147 main-sequence stars of spectral type M5-K7 (masses0.30-0.55 Msolar) using multiple high-resolution spectraobtained during 6 years with the HIRES spectrometer on the Keck Itelescope. Remarkably, the average FWHM, equivalent widths, and lineluminosities of Ca II H and K increase by a factor of 3 with increasingstellar mass over this small range of stellar masses. We fit the Ca II Hand K lines with a double-Gaussian model to represent both thechromospheric emission and the non-LTE central absorption. Most of thesample stars display a central absorption that is typically redshiftedby ~0.1 km s-1 relative to the emission. This implies thatthe higher level, lower density chromospheric material has a smalleroutward velocity (or higher inward velocity) by 0.1 km s-1than the lower level material in the chromosphere, but the nature ofthis velocity gradient remains unknown. The FWHM of the Ca II H and Kemission lines increase with stellar luminosity, reminiscent of theWilson-Bappu effect in FGK-type stars. Both the equivalent widths andFWHM exhibit modest temporal variability in individual stars. At a givenvalue of MV, stars exhibit a spread in both the equivalentwidth and FWHM of Ca II H and K, due both to a spread in fundamentalstellar parameters, including rotation rate, age, and possiblymetallicity, and to the spread in stellar mass at a given MV.The K line is consistently wider than the H line, as expected, and itscentral absorption is more redshifted, indicating that the H and K linesform at slightly different heights in the chromosphere where thevelocities are slightly different. The equivalent width of Hαcorrelates with Ca II H and K only for stars having Ca II equivalentwidths above ~2 Å, suggesting the existence of a magneticthreshold above which the lower and upper chromospheres become thermallycoupled.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by both NASA and theUniversity of California.

Speckle interferometry of nearby multiple stars. III.
Not Available

A Catalog of Northern Stars with Annual Proper Motions Larger than 0.15" (LSPM-NORTH Catalog)
The LSPM catalog is a comprehensive list of 61,977 stars north of theJ2000 celestial equator that have proper motions larger than 0.15"yr-1 (local-background-stars frame). The catalog has beengenerated primarily as a result of our systematic search for high propermotion stars in the Digitized Sky Surveys using our SUPERBLINK software.At brighter magnitudes, the catalog incorporates stars and data from theTycho-2 Catalogue and also, to a lesser extent, from the All-SkyCompiled Catalogue of 2.5 million stars. The LSPM catalog considerablyexpands over the old Luyten (Luyten Half-Second [LHS] and New LuytenTwo-Tenths [NLTT]) catalogs, superseding them for northern declinations.Positions are given with an accuracy of <~100 mas at the 2000.0epoch, and absolute proper motions are given with an accuracy of ~8 masyr-1. Corrections to the local-background-stars propermotions have been calculated, and absolute proper motions in theextragalactic frame are given. Whenever available, we also give opticalBT and VT magnitudes (from Tycho-2, ASCC-2.5),photographic BJ, RF, and IN magnitudes(from USNO-B1 catalog), and infrared J, H, and Ks magnitudes(from 2MASS). We also provide an estimated V magnitude and V-J color fornearly all catalog entries, useful for initial classification of thestars. The catalog is estimated to be over 99% complete at high Galacticlatitudes (|b|>15deg) and over 90% complete at lowGalactic latitudes (|b|>15deg), down to a magnitudeV=19.0, and has a limiting magnitude V=21.0. All the northern starslisted in the LHS and NLTT catalogs have been reidentified, and theirpositions, proper motions, and magnitudes reevaluated. The catalog alsolists a large number of completely new objects, which promise to expandvery significantly the census of red dwarfs, subdwarfs, and white dwarfsin the vicinity of the Sun.Based on data mining of the Digitized Sky Surveys (DSSs), developed andoperated by the Catalogs and Surveys Branch of the Space TelescopeScience Institute (STScI), Baltimore.Developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), aspart of the NASA/NSF NStars program.

An L0 dwarf companion in the brown dwarf desert, at 30 AU
We present the discovery of an L0 companion to the nearby M1.5 dwarf G239-25, at a projected distance of 31 AU. It is the faintest companiondiscovered so far in our adaptive optics survey of all known M dwarfswithin 12 pc, and it lies at the stellar/substellar limit. Given theassumed age of the primary star, the companion is likely an extremelylow mass star. The long orbital period of G 239-25 AB (?100 years)precludes a direct mass determination, but the relatively wide angularseparation will allow detailed analyses of its near infrared and visiblespectra.Based on observations made at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, operatedby the National Council of Canada, the Centre National de la RechercheScientifique de France and the University of Hawaii, at the Observatoirede Haute Provence, operated by the Centre National de la RechercheScientifique de France and at the William Herschel Telescopes operatedby the Isaac Newton Group at the Instituto de Astrofísica deCanarias.

The Solar Neighborhood. IX. Hubble Space Telescope Detections of Companions to Five M and L Dwarfs within 10 Parsecs of the Sun
We report the detections of low-mass companions to five M and L dwarfswithin 10 pc of the Sun using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Follow-upobservations using the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and FineGuidance Sensor 1r (FGS1r) confirm our NICMOS discoveries of companionsto the L4.5 dwarf GJ 1001B (LHS 102B) and the M5 dwarf LHS 224,respectively. Images obtained with the Astrophysical Research Consortium3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory verify our discovery of acompanion to the M3 dwarf G239-25. Our NICMOS images confirm thepreviously suspected duplicity of the M3 dwarfs GJ 54 and GJ 84. Thecomponents of GJ 1001BC and LHS 224AB have nearly equal luminosities inall the ACS and/or NICMOS bandpasses in which they were observed. Themagnitudes of GJ 54A and B in one FGS1r bandpass and four NICMOSbandpasses differ by <~1. GJ 84B and G239-25B are ~4 mag fainter thantheir M3 companions in the NICMOS bandpasses. We estimate from ourNICMOS photometry that GJ 84B and G239-25B have spectral types M7 andM8, respectively, and masses near the lower limit for sustained hydrogenburning. The apparent separations of GJ 1001BC, GJ 54AB, and LHS 224ABsuggest orbital periods less than 5 yr. These binary dwarfs are idealcandidates for continued astrometric monitoring that will quickly yieldaccurate dynamic masses needed to constrain the mass-luminosity relationfor low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.

Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M Stars
We present chromospheric Ca II H and K activity measurements, rotationperiods, and ages for ~1200 F, G, K, and M type main-sequence stars from~18,000 archival spectra taken at Keck and Lick Observatories as a partof the California and Carnegie Planet Search Project. We have calibratedour chromospheric S-values against the Mount Wilson chromosphericactivity data. From these measurements we have calculated medianactivity levels and derived R'HK, stellar ages,and rotation periods from general parameterizations for 1228 stars,~1000 of which have no previously published S-values. We also presentprecise time series of activity measurements for these stars.Based on observations obtained at Lick Observatory, which is operated bythe University of California, and on observations obtained at the W. M.Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University ofCalifornia and the California Institute of Technology. The KeckObservatory was made possible by the generous financial support of theW. M. Keck Foundation.

A systematic study of X-ray variability in the ROSAT all-sky survey
We present a systematic search for variability among the ROSAT All-SkySurvey (RASS) X-ray sources. We generated lightcurves for about 30 000X-ray point sources detected sufficiently high above background. For ourvariability study different search algorithms were developed in order torecognize flares, periods and trends, respectively. The variable X-raysources were optically identified with counterparts in the SIMBAD, theUSNO-A2.0 and NED data bases, but a significant part of the X-raysources remains without cataloged optical counterparts. Out of the 1207sources classified as variable 767 (63.5%) were identified with stars,118 (9.8%) are of extragalactic origin, 10 (0.8%) are identified withother sources and 312 (25.8%) could not uniquely be identified withentries in optical catalogs. We give a statistical analysis of thevariable X-ray population and present some outstanding examples of X-rayvariability detected in the ROSAT all-sky survey. Most prominent amongthese sources are white dwarfs, apparently single, yet neverthelessshowing periodic variability. Many flares from hitherto unrecognisedflare stars have been detected as well as long term variability in theBL Lac 1E1757.7+7034.The complete version of Table 7 is only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/247

Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised Catalog
We complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Radial Velocities for 889 Late-Type Stars
We report radial velocities for 844 FGKM-type main-sequence and subgiantstars and 45 K giants, most of which had either low-precision velocitymeasurements or none at all. These velocities differ from the standardstars of Udry et al. by 0.035 km s-1 (rms) for the 26 FGKstandard stars in common. The zero point of our velocities differs fromthat of Udry et al.: =+0.053km s-1. Thus, these new velocities agree with the best knownstandard stars both in precision and zero point, to well within 0.1 kms-1. Nonetheless, both these velocities and the standardssuffer from three sources of systematic error, namely, convectiveblueshift, gravitational redshift, and spectral type mismatch of thereference spectrum. These systematic errors are here forced to be zerofor G2 V stars by using the Sun as reference, with Vesta and day sky asproxies. But for spectral types departing from solar, the systematicerrors reach 0.3 km s-1 in the F and K stars and 0.4 kms-1 in M dwarfs. Multiple spectra were obtained for all 889stars during 4 years, and 782 of them exhibit velocity scatter less than0.1 km s-1. These stars may serve as radial velocitystandards if they remain constant in velocity. We found 11 newspectroscopic binaries and report orbital parameters for them. Based onobservations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operatedjointly by the University of California and the California Institute ofTechnology, and on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, whichis operated by the University of California.

The Palomar/MSU Nearby Star Spectroscopic Survey. III. Chromospheric Activity, M Dwarf Ages, and the Local Star Formation History
We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of 676 nearby M dwarfs.Our measurements include radial velocities, equivalent widths ofimportant chromospheric emission lines, and rotational velocities forrapidly rotating stars. We identify several distinct groups by theirHα properties and investigate variations in chromospheric activityamong early (M0-M2.5) and mid (M3-M6) dwarfs. Using a volume-limitedsample together with a relationship between age and chromosphericactivity, we show that the rate of star formation in the immediate solarneighborhood has been relatively constant over the last 4 Gyr. Inparticular, our results are inconsistent with recent large bursts ofstar formation. We use the correlation between Hα activity and ageas a function of color to set constraints on the properties of L and Tdwarf secondary components in binary systems. We also identify a numberof interesting stars, including rapid rotators, radial velocityvariables, and spectroscopic binaries. Observations were made at the 60inch telescope at Palomar Mountain, which is jointly owned by theCalifornia Institute of Technology and the Carnegie Institution ofWashington.

Meeting the Cool Neighbors. I. Nearby Stars in the NLTT Catalogue: Defining the Sample
We are currently undertaking a program aimed at identifying previouslyunrecognized late-type dwarfs within 20 pc of the Sun. As a first step,we have cross-referenced Luyten's NLTT proper-motion catalog against thesecond incremental release of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)Point Source Catalog and use optical/infrared colors, derived bycombining Luyten's mr estimates with 2MASS data, to identifycandidate nearby stars. This paper describes the definition of areference sample of 1245 stars and presents a compilation of literaturedata for more than one-third of the sample. Only 274 stars havetrigonometric parallax measurements, but we have used data for nearbystars with well-determined trigonometric parallaxes to computecolor-magnitude relations in the (MV, V-K), (MV,V-I), and (MI, I-J) planes and use those relations todetermine photometric parallaxes for NLTT stars with optical photometry.Based on the 2MASS JHKs data alone, we have identified afurther 42 ultracool dwarfs (J-Ks>0.99) and useJ-Ks colors to estimate photometric parallaxes. Combiningthese various techniques, we identify 308 stars with formal distances ofless than 20 pc, while a further 46 have distance estimates within 1σ of our survey limit. Of these 354 stars, 75, including 39 of theultracool dwarfs, are new to nearby-star catalogs. Two stars with bothoptical and near-infrared photometry are potential additions to theimmediate solar neighborhood, with formal distance estimates of lessthan 10 pc.

Photometric Measurements of the Fields of More than 700 Nearby Stars
In preparation for optical/IR interferometric searches for substellarcompanions of nearby stars, we undertook to characterize the fields ofall nearby stars visible from the Northern Hemisphere to determinesuitable companions for interferometric phase referencing. Because theKeck Interferometer in particular will be able to phase-reference oncompanions within the isoplanatic patch (30") to about 17th magnitude atK, we took images at V, r, and i that were deep enough to determine iffield stars were present to this magnitude around nearby stars using aspot-coated CCD. We report on 733 fields containing 10,629 measurementsin up to three filters (Gunn i, r and Johnson V) of nearby stars down toabout 13th magnitude at V.

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of the nearby stars
We present X-ray data for all entries of the Third Catalogue of NearbyStars \cite[(Gliese & Jahreiss 1991)]{gli91} that have been detectedas X-ray sources in the ROSAT all-sky survey. The catalogue contains1252 entries yielding an average detection rate of 32.9 percent. Inaddition to count rates, source detection parameters, hardness ratios,and X-ray fluxes we also list X-ray luminosities derived from Hipparcosparallaxes. Catalogue also available at CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

An H-alpha survey of neglected Vyssotsky Catalog stars
Consideration is given to a significant number of Vyssotsky K- andM-dwarfs that have either no published radial velocity (71 stars), or avelocity based on a single measure (22), or with an uncertaintly greaterthan 5 km/s (19). An 'in flare' observation of Vys 250A compared to itsquiescent state, and an example of the double-lined phase of Vys 250Bare illustrated. Mean values from the observations are given in tabularform.

The Palomar/MSU Nearby Star Spectroscopic Survey.II.The Southern M Dwarfs and Investigation of Magnetic Activity
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....112.2799H&db_key=AST

Space Motions of Low-Mass Stars. II: Radial Velocities
Radial velocities are presented for 53 dwarf K and M stars, eight ofwhich are radial velocity standards. This is the second list in aprogram to determine space motions for all of the stars in the McCormicklists of dwarf stars. The observations reported here differ from thoseof the first list in that they were made using the 1.88m David Dunlapreflector. One of the stars varies in radial velocity, consistent with aspectroscopic binary with a period of about 48 days. (SECTION: Stars)

The Palomar/MSU Nearby-Star Spectroscopic Survey. I. The Northern M Dwarfs -Bandstrengths and Kinematics
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.1838R&db_key=AST

Photometry of dwarf K and M stars
An observational program using UBVRI photometry is presented for 688stars from among the dwarf K and M stars already found spectroscopicallyby Vyssotsky (1958). Of these, 211 have not been observedphotometrically. These observations were obtained over a period ofseveral years at the Kitt Peak National Observatory using a GaAsphotomultiplier with an 0.9 m reflector. Based on night-to-nightvariations in the measures of individual stars, the internal errors maybe estimated to be roughly 0.01 mag for the colors and 0.015 for the Vmagnitudes. The photometric parallaxes reported for each star werecomputed in the manner discussed by Weis (1986).

Photometric parallaxes for selected stars of color class M from the NLTT Catalog. IV - The declination zone +45 to +90 deg
VRI photometry and photometric parallaxes are presented for a sample of524 stars of color class m in the NLTT Catalog Luyten (1979) for whichno trigonometric parallaxes have been measured. Additional photometry of106 stars with trigonometric parallaxes is also presented. For theprogram stars, 67 have photometric parallaxes of not less than 0.04arcsec.

Dwarf K and M stars of high proper motion found in a hemispheric survey
A recently completed visual/red spectral region objective-prism surveyof more than half the sky found some 2200 dwarf K and M stars ofnegligible proper motion (Stephenson, 1986). The present paper adds the1800-odd spectroscopically identified dwarfs that did prove to havesignificant proper motions. About half of these had previous spectralclassifications of some sort, especially by Vyssotsky (1952, 1956). Forthe great majority, the present coordinates are more accurate thanprevious data. The paper includes about 50 stars with unpublishedparallaxes, likely to have parallaxes of 0.05 arcsec or more. Combiningthe present data with the first paper suggests that the number oflow-proper-motion stars in that paper was not unreasonable.

Spectral classification of high-proper-motion stars
Spectral types have been found for about 900 stars of high proper motioncontained in the Lowell Observatory Northern Hemisphere proper-motionstar survey using all blue-region objective prism plates. The spectralclassification criteria are given. About eighty stars of largetangential velocity have been classified using slit spectrograms takenwith a 36-in. reflector. A new calibration of Luyten's absolutemagnitude vs reduced proper motion relation is made, and its dependenceon spectral type is investigated.

Predicted infrared brightness of stars within 25 parsecs of the sun
Procedures are given for transforming selected optical data intoinfrared flux densities or irradiances. The results provide R, T(eff)blackbody approximations for about 2000 of the stars in Woolley et al.'sCatalog of Stars (1970) within 25 pc of the sun, and additional whitedwarfs, with infrared flux densities predicted for them at ninewavelengths from 2.2 to 101 microns including the Infrared AstronomySatellite bands.

Photovisual magnitudes of 418 dwarf M stars and 34 parallax stars.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1956AJ.....61..219S&db_key=AST

Dwarf M stars found spectrophotometrically .
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1956AJ.....61..201V&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Kleiner Bär
Right ascension:14h42m21.56s
Apparent magnitude:10.848
Distance:9.868 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-309.1
Proper motion Dec:-33.4
B-T magnitude:12.959
V-T magnitude:11.023

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesProxima Ursae Minoris
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4179-1178-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1500-05831044
HIPHIP 71898

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