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 Early-type stars observed in the ESO UVES Paranal Observatory Project - I. Interstellar NaI UV, TiII and CaII K observations*We present an analysis of interstellar NaI (λair=3302.37 and 3302.98 Å), TiII(λair= 3383.76Å) and CaII K (λair= 3933.66 Å) absorptionfeatures for 74 sightlines towards O- and B-type stars in the Galacticdisc. The data were obtained from the Ultraviolet and Visual EchelleSpectrograph Paranal Observatory Project, at a spectral resolution of3.75 km s-1 and with mean signal-to-noise ratios per pixel of260, 300 and 430 for the NaI, TiII and CaII observations, respectively.Interstellar features were detected in all but one of the TiIIsightlines and all of the CaII sightlines. The dependence of the columndensity of these three species with distance, height relative to theGalactic plane, HI column density, reddening and depletion relative tothe solar abundance has been investigated. We also examine the accuracyof using the NaI column density as an indicator of that for HI. Ingeneral, we find similar strong correlations for both Ti and Ca, andweaker correlations for Na. Our results confirm the general belief thatTi and Ca occur in the same regions of the interstellar medium (ISM) andalso that the TiII/CaII ratio is constant over all parameters. We henceconclude that the absorption properties of Ti and Ca are essentiallyconstant under the general ISM conditions of the Galactic disc. The Remarkable Be Star HD 110432 (BZ Crucis)HD 110432 (B1e) has gained considerable recent attention because it is ahard, variable X-ray source with local absorption and also because itsoptical spectrum is affected by an extensive Be disk. From time-serialechelle data obtained over 2 weeks during 2005 January and February, wehave discovered several remarkable characteristics in the star's opticalspectrum. The line profiles show rapid variations on some nights, whichcan most likely be attributed to irregularly occurring and short-livedmigrating subfeatures. Such features have been found in spectra ofγ Cas and AB Dor, two stars for which it is believed magneticfields force circumstellar clouds to corotate over the star's surface.The star's optical spectrum also exhibits a number of mainly Fe II andHe I emission features with double-lobed profiles typical of anoptically thin circumstellar disk viewed nearly edge-on. Using spectralsynthesis techniques for the January data, we find that its temperatureand column density are close to 9800 K and roughly3×1022 cm-2, respectively. Its projecteddisk size covers remarkably large 100 stellar areas, and the emittingvolume resides at a surprisingly large distance of 1 AU from the star.Surprisingly, we also find that the absorption wings of the strongestoptical and UV lines in the spectrum extend to at least +/-1000 kms-1, even though the rotational velocity is 300-400 kms-1. We are unable to find a satisfactory explanation forthese extreme line broadenings. Otherwise, HD 110432 and γ Casshare similarly peculiar X-ray and optical characteristics. Theseinclude a high X-ray temperature, erratic X-ray variability ontimescales of a few hours, optical metallic emission lines, andsubmigrating features in optical line profiles. Because of thesesimilarities, we suggest that HD 110432 is a member of a select newclass of γ Cas analogs.'' Attempts to measure the magnetic field of the pulsating B star ν EridaniWe report on attempts to measure the magnetic field of the pulsating Bstar ν Eridani with the Musicos spectropolarimeter attached to the 2m telescope at the Pic du Midi, France. This object is one of the mostextensively studied stars for pulsation modes, and the existence of amagnetic field was suggested from the inequality of the frequencyseparations of a triplet in the stars' oscillation spectrum. We showthat the inferred 5-10 kG field was not present during our observations,which cover about one year. We discuss the influence of the strongpulsations on the analysis of the magnetic field strength and set anupper limit to the effective longitudinal field strength and to thefield strength for a dipolar configuration. We also find that theobserved wind line variability is caused by the pulsations. Effects of metallicity, star-formation conditions, and evolution in B and Be stars. I. Large Magellanic Cloud, field of NGC 2004Aims.To statistically study the effects of the metallicity,star-formation conditions, and evolution on the behaviour of massivestars and, more particularly, of B and Be stars, we observed largesamples of stars in the Magellanic Clouds for the first time. In thisarticle we present the first part of this study. Methods:.Spectroscopic observations of hot stars belonging to the young clusterLMC-NGC 2004 and its surrounding region were carried out with theVLT-GIRAFFE facilities in MEDUSA mode. We determined the fundamentalparameters (T_eff, log~g, V sin i, and radial velocity) for all B and Bestars in the sample thanks to a code developed in our group. The effectof fast rotation (stellar flattening and gravitational darkening) aretaken into account in this study. We also determined the age of observedclusters. We then compared the mean V sin i obtained for field andcluster B and Be stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the onesin the Milky Way (MW). Results: .We find, in particular, that Bestars rotate faster in the LMC than in the MW, in the field as well asin clusters. We discuss the relations between V sin i, metallicity,star-formation conditions, and stellar evolution by comparing the LMCwith the MW. We conclude that Be stars began their main sequence lifewith an initial rotational velocity higher than the one for B stars. Itis probable that only part of the B stars, those with a sufficientinitial rotational velocity, can become Be stars. This result mayexplain the differences in the proportion of Be stars in clusters withsimilar ages. Dynamo-generated magnetic fields at the surface of a massive starSpruit has shown that an astrophysical dynamo can operate in thenon-convective material of a differentially rotating star as a result ofa particular instability in the magnetic field (the Tayler instability).By assuming that the dynamo operates in a state of marginal instability,Spruit has obtained formulae which predict the equilibrium strengths ofazimuthal and radial field components in terms of local physicalquantities. Here, we apply Spruit's formulae to our previously publishedmodels of rotating massive stars in order to estimate Tayler dynamofield strengths. There are no free parameters in Spruit's formulae. Inour models of 10- and 50-Msolar stars on the zero-age mainsequence, we find internal azimuthal fields of up to 1 MG, and internalradial components of a few kG. Evolved models contain weaker fields. Inorder to obtain estimates of the field strength at the stellar surface,we examine the conditions under which the Tayler dynamo fields aresubject to magnetic buoyancy. We find that conditions for Taylerinstability overlap with those for buoyancy at intermediate to highmagnetic latitudes. This suggests that fields emerge at the surface of amassive star between magnetic latitudes of about 45° and the poles.We attempt to estimate the strength of the field which emerges at thesurface of a massive star. Although these estimates are very rough, wefind that the surface field strengths overlap with values which havebeen reported recently for line-of-sight fields in several O and Bstars. On the evolutionary status of Be stars. I. Field Be stars near the SunA sample of 97 galactic field Be stars were studied by taking intoaccount the effects induced by the fast rotation on their fundamentalparameters. All program stars were observed in the BCDspectrophotometric system in order to minimize the perturbationsproduced by the circumstellar environment on the spectral photosphericsignatures. This is one of the first attempts at determining stellarmasses and ages by simultaneously using model atmospheres andevolutionary tracks, both calculated for rotating objects. The stellarages (τ) normalized to the respective inferred time that eachrotating star can spend in the main sequence phase (τ_MS) reveal amass-dependent trend. This trend shows that: a) there are Be starsspread over the whole interval 0  τ/τ_MS  1 of themain sequence evolutionary phase; b) the distribution of points in the(τ/τMS,M/Mȯ) diagram indicates thatin massive stars (M  12~Mȯ) the Be phenomenon ispresent at smaller τ/τ_MS age ratios than for less massive stars(M  12~Mȯ). This distribution can be due to: i)higher mass-loss rates in massive objets, which can act to reduce thesurface fast rotation; ii) circulation time scales to transport angularmomentum from the core to the surface, which are longer the lower thestellar mass. A Be star with a low nitrogen abundance in the SMC cluster NGC 330High-resolution UVES/VLT spectra of B 12, an extreme pole-on Be star inthe SMC cluster NGC 330, have been analysed using non-LTE modelatmospheres to obtain its chemical composition relative to the SMCstandard star AV 304. We find a general underabundance of metals whichcan be understood in terms of an extra contribution to the stellarcontinuum due to emission from a disk which we estimate to be at the~25% level. When this is corrected for, the nitrogen abundance for B 12shows no evidence of enhancement by rotational mixing as has been foundin other non-Be B-type stars in NGC 330, and is inconsistent withevolutionary models which include the effects of rotational mixing. Asecond Be star, NGC 330-B 17, is also shown to have no detectablenitrogen lines. Possible explanations for the lack of rotational mixingin these rapidly rotating stars are discussed, one promising solutionbeing the possibility that magnetic fields might inhibit rotationalmixing. Rotation, pulsations and outbursts in the Be star υ Cygni (HD 202904)υ Cyg is a Be star that shows variations at all timescales. Wemonitored its spectrum for several years from 1998 to 2004 and, inparticular, during a spectroscopic multisite campaign in 2000. In thispaper we present and analyse the data. We observed several outburstsincluding an intense one in 2000. Moreover, we found several periods ofshort-term variations, including two frequencies at 2.95 and 2.6 cd-1, which are well reproduced by models of non radialpulsations with a retrograde mode with ℓ=3 and m=3 and a zonal modewith ℓ=3 or 4 and m=0, respectively. The stellar rotation isprobably also identified at f1.5 c d-1, which iscoherent with the rotation frequency deduced from our determination ofstellar parameters. The peak-to-peak amplitude of variations also seemsto vary in time, maybe due to a beating effect between closefrequencies, but the resolution in time of our data does not allow us toseparate such close frequencies. Finally, a longer timescale variationmay be present, with a period around 11 years, which could be associatedwith a binary companion. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 Spectroscopy and Photometry of Be Stars During the Past DecadeNot Available On the Hipparcos parallaxes of O starsWe compare the absolute visual magnitude of the majority of bright Ostars in the sky as predicted from their spectral type with the absolutemagnitude calculated from their apparent magnitude and the Hipparcosparallax. We find that many stars appear to be much fainter thanexpected, up to five magnitudes. We find no evidence for a correlationbetween magnitude differences and the stellar rotational velocity assuggested for OB stars by Lamers et al. (1997, A&A, 325, L25), whosesmall sample of stars is partly included in ours. Instead, by means of asimulation we show how these differences arise naturally from the largedistances at which O stars are located, and the level of precision ofthe parallax measurements achieved by Hipparcos. Straightforwardlyderiving a distance from the Hipparcos parallax yields reliable resultsfor one or two O stars only. We discuss several types of bias reportedin the literature in connection with parallax samples (Lutz-Kelker,Malmquist) and investigate how they affect the O star sample. Inaddition, we test three absolute magnitude calibrations from theliterature (Schmidt-Kaler et al. 1982, Landolt-Börnstein; Howarth& Prinja 1989, ApJS, 69, 527; Vacca et al. 1996, ApJ, 460, 914) andfind that they are consistent with the Hipparcos measurements. AlthoughO stars conform nicely to the simulation, we notice that some B stars inthe sample of \citeauthor{La97} have a magnitude difference larger thanexpected. Distribution of magnetically confined circumstellar matter in oblique rotatorsWe consider the mechanical equilibrium and stability of matter trappedin the magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating star. Assuming a dipolarmagnetic field and arbitrary inclination of the magnetic axis withrespect to the axis of rotation we find stable equilibrium positions a)in a (warped) disk roughly aligned with the magnetic equatorial planeand b) at two locations above and below the disk, whose distance fromthe star increases with decreasing inclination angle between dipole androtation axis. The distribution of matter is not strongly affected byallowing for a spatial offset of the magnetic dipole. These resultsprovide a possible explanation for some observations of corotatinglocalized mass concentrations in hot magnetic stars. Classical Be StarsRecent results for classical Be stars are reviewed and links to generalastrophysics are presented. Classical Be stars are B-type stars close tothe main sequence that exhibit line emission over the photosphericspectrum. The excess is attributed to a circumstellar gaseous componentthat is commonly accepted to be in the form of an equatorial disk. Since1988, when the last such review was published, major progress has beenmade. The geometry and kinematics of the circumstellar environment canbe best explained by a rotationally supported relatively thin disk withvery little outflow, consistent with interferometric observations. Thepresence of short-term periodic variability is restricted to the earliertype Be stars. This variation for at least some of these objects hasbeen shown to be due to nonradial pulsation. For at least one star,evidence for a magnetic field has been observed. The mechanismsresponsible for the production and dynamics of the circumstellar gas arestill not constrained. Observations of nonradial pulsation beatingphenomena connected to outbursts point toward a relevance of pulsation,but this mechanism cannot be generalized. Either the evidence that Bestars do not form a homogeneous group with respect to disk formation isgrowing or the short-term periodic variability is less important thanpreviously thought. The statistics of Be stars investigated in openclusters of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds has reopened thequestion of the evolutionary status of Be stars. The central B star is afast rotator, although theoretical developments have revived thequestion of how high rotational rates are, so the commonly quoted meanvalue of about 70%-80% of the critical velocity may just be a lowerlimit. Be stars are in a unique position to make contributions toseveral important branches of stellar physics, e.g., asymmetricmass-loss processes, stellar angular momentum distribution evolution,astroseismology, and magnetic field evolution. A Catalog of Young Stellar Groups and Clusters within 1 Kiloparsec of the SunWe present a catalog of near-infrared surveys of young (<~ a few106 yr) stellar groups and clusters within 1 kpc from theSun, based on an extensive search of the literature from the past tenyears. We find 143 surveys from 69 published articles, covering 73different regions. The number distribution of stars in a region has amedian of 28 and a mean of 100. About 80% of the stars are in clusterswith at least 100 members. By a rough classification of the groups andclusters based on the number of their associated stars, we show thatmost of the stars form in large clusters. The spatial distribution ofcataloged regions in the Galactic plane shows a relative lack ofobserved stellar groups and clusters in the range270° Non-radially pulsating Be starsBased on more than 3000 high-resolution echelle spectra of 27 early-typeBe stars, taken over six years, it is shown that the short-term periodicline profile variability of these objects is due to non-radialpulsation. The appearance of the line profile variability depends mostlyon the projected rotational velocity v sin i and thus, since all Bestars rotate rapidly, on the inclination i. The observed variability ofthe investigated stars is described, and for some of them line profilevariability periods are given for the first time. For two of theinvestigated stars the line profile variability was successfully modeledas non-radial pulsation with l=m=+2 already in previous works. Since Bestars with similarly low v sin i share the same variability properties,these are in general explainable under the same model assumptions. Theline profile variability of stars with higher v sin i is different fromthe one observed in low v sin i stars, but can be reproduced by thesame model, if only the model inclination is modified to more equatorialvalues. Only for a few stars with periodic line profile variability thel=m=2 non-radial pulsation mode is not able to provide a satisfyingexplanation. These objects might pulsate in different modes (e.g.tesseral ones, l != |m|). Almost all stars in the sample show traces ofoutburst-like variability, pointing to an ephemeral nature of themass-loss phenomenon responsible for the formation of the circumstellardisk of early-type Be stars, rather than a steady star-to-disk masstransfer. In addition to the variability due to non-radial pulsationpresent in most stars, several objects were found to show other periodsresiding in the immediate circumstellar environment. The presence ofthese secondary periods is enhanced in the outburst phases. Short-livedaperiodic phenomena were clearly seen in two stars. But, given theunfavourable sampling of our database to follow rapid variability oftransient nature, they might be more common. Only in two out of 27 starsshort-term spectroscopic variability was not detected at all.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory atLa Silla, Chile, 55.D-0502, 56.D-0381, 58.D-0697, 62.H-0319, 63.H-0080,64.H-0548, and 267.D-5702, the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, CalarAlto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg,jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy, and onobservations with the Wendelstein 80-cm and the Ondřejov 2-mtelescopes, both equipped with the HEROS spectrograph provided by theLandessternwarte Heidelberg. A quest for PMS candidate stars at low metallicity: Variable HAe/Be and Be stars in the Small Magellanic CloudWe report the discovery of 5 new Herbig Ae/Be candidate stars in theSmall Magellanic Cloud in addition to the 2 reported in Beaulieu et al.(\cite{Beaulieu01}). We discuss these 7 HAeBe candidate stars in termsof (1) their irregular photometric variability, (2) their near infraredemission, (3) their Hα emission and (4) their spectral type. Onestar has the typical photometric behaviour that is observed only amongPre-Main Sequence UX Orionis type stars. The objects are more luminousthan Galactic HAeBe stars and Large Magellanic Cloud HAeBe candidates ofthe same spectral type.The stars were discovered in a systematic search for variable stars in asubset of the EROS2 database consisting of 115 612 stars in a field of24x 24 arcmin in the Small Magellanic Cloud. In total we discovered 504variable stars. After classifying the different objects according totheir type of variability, we concentrate on 7 blue objects withirregular photometric behaviour. We cross-identified these objects withemission line catalogues from Simbad and JHK photometry from 2MASS. Theanalysis is supplemented with obtained narrow and broad band imaging. Wediscuss their variability in terms of dust obscuration and bound-freeand free-free emission. We estimate the influence of metallicity on thecircumstellar dust emission from pre-main sequence stars. Rotation and magnetic field in the Be star omega Orionisomega Ori is a B2IIIe star for which rotationalmodulation and non-radial pulsations (NRP) have been recentlyinvestigated from two independent observational campaigns in 1998 and1999. Putting the data of these 2 campaigns together, and adding dataobtained in 2001, we search for multiperiodicity in the line profilevariations and evidence for outbursts. From new spectropolarimetric dataobtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL, Pic du Midi, France)in 2001 we also measure the Stokes V parameter in the polarised light.We find evidence for the presence of a weak magnetic field inomega Ori sinusoidally varying with a period of 1.29d. The equivalent widths (EW) of the wind sensitive UV resonance linesalso show a variation with the same period, which we identify as therotational period of the star. We propose an oblique rotator model andderive Bpol =530 +/- 230 G to explain the observations.Moreover, we carry out an abundance analysis and find the star to beN-enriched, a property which is shared with other magnetic stars. Wepropose omega Ori as the first known classical Bestar hosting a magnetic field.Based on observations obtained using the Musicos spectropolarimeter atthe Observatoire du Pic du Midi (France), during the MuSiCoS 98 campaign\citep{neiner}, and by \cite{balona}. Based on INES data from theInternational Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite.Table 7 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/409/275 Merged catalogue of reflection nebulaeSeveral catalogues of reflection nebulae are merged to create a uniformcatalogue of 913 objects. It contains revised coordinates,cross-identifications of nebulae and stars, as well as identificationswith IRAS point sources.The catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/141 Multiperiodicity and NRP in STARS StarsNot Available Autocorrelation Analysis of Hipparcos Photometry of Short-Period Be StarsWe have used Hipparcos epoch photometry and a form of autocorrelationanalysis to investigate the amplitude and timescale of the short-periodvariability of 82 Be stars, including 46 Be stars that were analyzed byHubert & Floquet using Fourier and CLEAN analysis and 36 other Bestars that were suspected of short-period variability. Our method hasgiven useful information for about 84% of these stars; for the rest, thetime distribution of the Hipparcos epoch photometry limits thecapability of our technique. Probing the circumstellar structure of Herbig Ae/Be starsWe present Hα spectropolarimetry observations of a sample of 23Herbig Ae/Be stars. A change in the linear polarization across Hαis detected in a large fraction of the objects, which indicates that theregions around Herbig stars are flattened (disc-like) on small scales. Asecond outcome of our study is that the spectropolarimetric signaturesfor the Ae stars differ from those of the Herbig Be stars, withcharacteristics changing from depolarization across Hα in theHerbig Be stars, to line polarizations in the Ae group. The frequency ofdepolarizations detected in the Herbig Be stars (seven out of 12) isparticularly interesting as, by analogy with classical Be stars, it maybe the best evidence to date that the higher-mass Herbig stars aresurrounded by flattened structures. For the Herbig Ae stars, nine out of11 show a line polarization effect that can be understood in terms of acompact Hα emission that is itself polarized by a rotatingdisc-like circumstellar medium. The spectropolarimetric differencebetween the Herbig Be and Ae stars may be the first indication thatthere is a transition in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram from magneticaccretion at spectral type A to disc accretion at spectral type B.Alternatively, the interior polarized line emission apparent in the Aestars may be masked in the Herbig Be stars owing to their higher levelsof Hα emission. Short-period line profile and light variations in the Be star λ EridaniWe present three seasons of photometric observations and one season ofintensive high-dispersion spectroscopic observations of the Be starλ Eridani. We show that only one period, P =0.70173d, is presentin the photometry, although there are large light amplitude variationsfrom season to season. We confirm a suspicion that light outburstsrepeat at intervals of about 475d. A total of 348 echelle spectra of thestar were obtained over a 2-week observing run. We show that theperiodic variations are present in the emission wings of the heliumlines, in the emission wings of the Hα line and in the absorptioncores of Hβ and Hγ . Together with the fact that the periodicvariations appear outside the projected rotational velocity limit, thisindicates that they are associated with circumstellar materialimmediately above the photosphere and supports the idea of corotatinggas clouds. We present evidence in support of a true rotational periodof 2P =1.40346d and suggest that the mass loss in Be stars is caused bycentrifugal magnetic acceleration. Koordinierte Zusammenarbeit zwischen den VdS-FG 'BAV' und 'Spektroskopie' ?Not Available Rotational Velocities of B StarsWe measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age. Variability and pulsations in the Be star 66 Ophiuchi66 Oph is a Be star seen under a moderate inclination angle that showsstrong variability from UV to IR wavelengths. A concise review oflong-term variability history is given. High resolution, high S/Nspectroscopic observations obtained in 1997, 1998 and 2001 andspectropolarimetric observations obtained in 2000 are presented. Theseobservations occurred during a long-term decrease of Hα intensity.Fundamental parameters of the star have been revisited fromBarbier-Chalonge-Divan (BCD) calibrations. New V sin i values areobtained using Fourier transforms applied to observed helium lines and arotational frequency f_rot = 1.29 c d-1 is determined. Timeseries analysis and Fourier Doppler Imaging (FDI) of He I lines (4713,4921, 5876 and 6678 Å) lead for the first time to the detection ofmulti-periodicity in 66 Oph. The two main frequencies found are f = 2.22c d-1 and f = 4.05 c d-1 . They are attributed tonon-radial pulsations and can be associated with mode degree l = 2 and l= 3, respectively. Inspection of Stokes V profiles suggests the presenceof a weak Zeeman signature but further observations are needed toconfirm the detection of a magnetic field in 66 Oph. Based onobservations taken at OHP and Pic du Midi Observatory (France), atMBT/LNA (Brazil) and on Brazilian observing time at La Silla (ESO,Chile). Non-radial pulsation, rotation and outburst in the Be star omega Orionis from the MuSiCoS 1998 campaignomega Ori (HD 37490, HR1934) is a Be star known to have presented variations. Inorder to investigate the nature and origin of its short-term andmid-term variability, a study is performed of several spectral lines(Hα , Hdelta , ion {He}i 4471, 4713, 4921, 5876, 6678, ion {C}{ii}4267, 6578, 6583, ion {Mg}{ii} 4481, ion {Si}{iii} 4553 and ion {Si}{ii}6347), based on 249 high signal-to-noise high-resolution spectra takenwith 8 telescopes over 22 consecutive nights during the MuSiCoS (MultiSIte COntinuous Spectroscopy) campaign in November-December 1998. Thestellar parameters are revisited and the projected rotational velocity(vsin i = 179 km s-1) is redetermined using several methods.With the MuSiCoS 98 dataset, a time series analysis of line-profilevariations (LPVs) is performed using the Restricted Local Cleanest (RLC)algorithm and a least squares method. The behaviour of the velocity ofthe centroid of the lines, the equivalent widths and the apparent vsinifor several lines, as well as Violet and Red components of photosphericlines affected by emission (red ion {He}i lines, ion {Si}{ii} 6347, ion{C}{ii} 6578, 6583) are analyzed. The non-radial pulsation (NRP) modelis examined using phase diagrams and the Fourier-Doppler Imaging (FDI)method. The LPVs are consistent with a NRP mode with l = 2 or 3, |m| = 2with frequency 1.03 c d-1. It is shown that an emission lineoutburst occurred in the middle of the campaign. Two scenarios areproposed to explain the behaviour of a dense cloud, temporarily orbitingaround the star with a frequency 0.46 c d-1, in relation tothe outburst. Based on observations taken during the MuSiCoS 98 campaignat OHP (France), La Silla (ESO, Chile, ID 62.H-0270), Mount Stromlo(Australia), Xinglong Station (China), Kitt Peak (USA), MCT/LNA (Brazil)and INT (Isaac Newton Group, La Palma Island). The history of mass dispersal around Herbig Ae/Be starsWe present a systematic study of the material surroundingintermediate-mass stars. Our sample includes 34 Herbig Ae/Be (HAEBE)stars of different ages and luminosities. This is a quite completerepresentation of the whole class of HAEBE stars and consequently, ourconclusions should have a solid statistical meaning. In addition, wehave observed 2 intermediate-mass protostars and included published dataon 15 protostellar objects in order to determine the evolution of thecircumstellar material in the early stages of stellar evolution. All theHAEBE stars have been classified according with the three Types alreadydefined in Fuente et al. (\cite{fuen98}): Type I stars are immersed in adense clump and have associated bipolar outflows, their ages are ~ 0.1Myr; Type II stars are still immersed in the molecular cloud though notin a dense clump, their ages are between ~ a few 0.1 to ~ a few Myr;Type III stars have completely dispersed the surrounding material andare located in a cavity of the molecular cloud, their ages are >1Myr. Our observations are used to reconstruct the evolution of thecircumstellar material around intermediate-mass stars and investigatethe mass dispersal mechanisms at the different stages of the stellarevolution. Our results can be summarized as follows: intermediate-massstars disperse >=90% of the mass of the parent clump during theprotostellar phase. During this phase, the energetic outflows sweep outthe gas and dust forming a biconical cavity while the equatorialmaterial is infalling to feed the circumstellar disk and eventually theprotostar. In this way, the density structure of the parent clumpremains well described by a density law n~ r\beta with -2=1 Myr. Since the outflowdeclines and the stars are still too cold to generate UV photons,stellar winds are expected to be the only dispersal mechanism at work.In 1 Myr an early-type star (B0-B5) and in >=1 to 10 Myr a late-typestar (later than B6) meets the ZAMS. Now the star is hot enough toproduce UV photons and starts excavating the molecular cloud.Significant differences exist between early-type and late-type stars atthis evolutionary stage. Only early-type stars are able to create large(R>0.08 pc) cavities in the molecular cloud, producing a dramaticchange in the morphology of the region. This difference is easilyunderstood if photodissociation plays an important role in the massdispersal around these objects. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Short period line profile and light variations in the Be star ω OrionisWe present the results of a multisite spectroscopic and photometriccampaign on the Be star ω Orionis. From the photometry and radialvelocity variation of several spectral lines, we confirm that the staris a variable with period P=0.97d. Only one period can be extracted fromboth the photometric and radial velocity observations. We find that theprojected rotational velocity from the helium lines(vsini=173kms-1) is considerably smaller than from the metallines (vsini=226kms-1). The line profiles show an excessabsorption feature moving from blue to red for half the period and fromred to blue for the other half of the period. Another excess absorptionfeature moves exactly out of phase. The excess absorption features arepresent in photospheric lines as well as in lines which aresignificantly affected by circumstellar material, such as Hβ. Fromthis we conclude that the periodic variations are most probablyassociated with corotating circumstellar material.

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 星座: 獵戶座 右阿森松: 05h39m11.10s 赤纬: +04Â°07'17.0" 视星: 4.57 距离: 497.512 天文距离 右阿森松适当运动: 0 赤纬适当运动: -1.4 B-T magnitude: 4.375 V-T magnitude: 4.503

 适当名称 (Edit) Bayer ω Ori Flamsteed 47 Ori HD 1989 HD 37490 TYCHO-2 2000 TYC 123-2200-1 USNO-A2.0 USNO-A2 0900-01845014 BSC 1991 HR 1934 HIP HIP 26594 → 要求更多目录从vizier