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 Reliability Checks on the Indo-US Stellar Spectral Library Using Artificial Neural Networks and Principal Component AnalysisThe Indo-US coudé feed stellar spectral library (CFLIB) madeavailable to the astronomical community recently by Valdes et al. (2004,ApJS, 152, 251) contains spectra of 1273 stars in the spectral region3460 to 9464Å at a high resolution of 1Å (FWHM) and a widerange of spectral types. Cross-checking the reliability of this databaseis an important and desirable exercise since a number of stars in thisdatabase have no known spectral types and a considerable fraction ofstars has not so complete coverage in the full wavelength region of3460-9464Å resulting in gaps ranging from a few Å to severaltens of Å. We use an automated classification scheme based onArtificial Neural Networks (ANN) to classify all 1273 stars in thedatabase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried outto reduce the dimensionality of the data set before the spectra areclassified by the ANN. Most importantly, we have successfullydemonstrated employment of a variation of the PCA technique to restorethe missing data in a sample of 300 stars out of the CFLIB. Modelling eclipsing binaries with pulsating components: Phase dependence of observed pulsation amplitudesWe investigate the phase dependence of the light variations due topulsations, as modulated with light variations due to the eclipses. Thestudy is based, both on a simplified model and on the rigorous lightcurve (LC) synthesis software of Wilson and Devinney. We model AB Cas asa prototype, using both of these approaches. The phase dependence of thedifferential light variations for total systems is also discussed . Forty Years of Spectroscopic Stellar Astrophysics in JapanThe development of Japanese spectroscopic stellar astrophysics in therecent 40 years is reviewed from an observational point of view. In thisarticle, the research activities are provisionally divided into fourfields: hot stars, hot emission-line (Be) stars, cool stars, and otherstars. Historical developments of the observational facilities atOkayama Astrophysical Observatory (spectrographs and detectors) are alsosummarized in connection with the progress in scientific researchactivities. The chemical composition of δ Scuti*We present chemical abundances in the photosphere of δ Scuti(δ Sct) - a prototype of the class of pulsating variables -determined from the analysis of a spectrum obtained by using the 2-mtelescope at the Peak Terskol Observatory and a high-resolutionspectrometer with R= 52000, a signal-to-noise ratio 250 and fromInternational Ultraviolet Explorer spectra. The abundance pattern ofδ Sct consists of 49 chemical elements. The abundances of 19elements have not been investigated previously. The abundances of Pr andNd obtained from the lines of the second and third spectra are equal.The abundances of heavy elements indicate the overabundances withrespect to the solar system values up to 1 dex. The abundance pattern ofδ Sct is similar to the abundance patterns of Am-Fm or δ Deltype stars.A splitting of the cores of all clean lines is observed for the spectraof δ Sct and HD 57749. This can signify evidence of non-radialpulsations in these stars. A near-infrared stellar spectral library: I. H-band spectra.This paper presents the H band near-infrared (NIR) spectral library of135 solar type stars covering spectral types O5-M3 and luminosityclasses I-V as per MK classification. The observations were carried outwith 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, Indiausing a NICMOS3 HgCdTe 256 x 256 NIR array based spectrometer. Thespectra have a moderate resolution of 1000 (about 16 A) at the H bandand have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effectivetemperatures. This library and the remaining ones in J and K bands oncereleased will serve as an important database for stellar populationsynthesis and other applications in conjunction with the newly formedlarge optical coude feed stellar spectral library of Valdes et al.(2004). The complete H-Band library is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/~voi/NIR_Header.html The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Empirically Constrained Color-Temperature Relations. II. uvbyA new grid of theoretical color indices for the Strömgren uvbyphotometric system has been derived from MARCS model atmospheres and SSGsynthetic spectra for cool dwarf and giant stars having-3.0<=[Fe/H]<=+0.5 and 3000<=Teff<=8000 K. Atwarmer temperatures (i.e., 8000-2.0. To overcome thisproblem, the theoretical indices at intermediate and high metallicitieshave been corrected using a set of color calibrations based on fieldstars having well-determined distances from Hipparcos, accurateTeff estimates from the infrared flux method, andspectroscopic [Fe/H] values. In contrast with Paper I, star clustersplayed only a minor role in this analysis in that they provided asupplementary constraint on the color corrections for cool dwarf starswith Teff<=5500 K. They were mainly used to test thecolor-Teff relations and, encouragingly, isochrones thatemploy the transformations derived in this study are able to reproducethe observed CMDs (involving u-v, v-b, and b-y colors) for a number ofopen and globular clusters (including M67, the Hyades, and 47 Tuc)rather well. Moreover, our interpretations of such data are verysimilar, if not identical, with those given in Paper I from aconsideration of BV(RI)C observations for the sameclusters-which provides a compelling argument in support of thecolor-Teff relations that are reported in both studies. Inthe present investigation, we have also analyzed the observedStrömgren photometry for the classic Population II subdwarfs,compared our final'' (b-y)-Teff relationship with thosederived empirically in a number of recent studies and examined in somedetail the dependence of the m1 index on [Fe/H].Based, in part, on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope,operated jointly on the island of La Palma by Denmark, Finland, Iceland,Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de losMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Based, in part, on observations obtained with the Danish 1.54 mtelescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Rotational Velocities of B, A, and Early-F Narrow-lined StarsProjected rotational velocities for 58 B, A, and early-F stars have beendetermined from high-resolution spectroscopic observations made at KittPeak National Observatory with the coudé feed telescope. All thestars are slowly rotating with vsini<60 km s-1. Because oftheir low rotational velocities, 15 of the stars have been observed asprospective, early-type, radial velocity standards. Empirical calibration of the near-infrared CaII triplet - IV. The stellar population synthesis modelsWe present a new evolutionary stellar population synthesis model, whichpredicts spectral energy distributions for single-age single-metallicitystellar populations (SSPs) at resolution 1.5 Å (FWHM) in thespectral region of the near-infrared CaII triplet feature. The mainingredient of the model is a new extensive empirical stellar spectrallibrary that has been recently presented by Cenarro et al., which iscomposed of more than 600 stars with an unprecedented coverage of thestellar atmospheric parameters.Two main products of interest for stellar population analysis arepresented. The first is a spectral library for SSPs with metallicities-1.7 < [Fe/H] < +0.2, a large range of ages (0.1-18 Gyr) andinitial mass function (IMF) types. They are well suited to modellinggalaxy data, since the SSP spectra, with flux-calibrated responsecurves, can be smoothed to the resolution of the observational data,taking into account the internal velocity dispersion of the galaxy,allowing the user to analyse the observed spectrum in its own system. Wealso produce integrated absorption-line indices (namely CaT*, CaT andPaT) for the same SSPs in the form of equivalent widths.We find the following behaviour for the CaII triplet feature in old-agedSSPs: (i) the strength of the CaT* index does not change much with timefor all metallicities for ages larger than ~3 Gyr; (ii) this index showsa strong dependence on metallicity for values below [M/H]~-0.5 and (iii)for larger metallicities this feature does not show a significantdependence either on age or on the metallicity, being more sensitive tochanges in the slope of power-like IMF shapes.The SSP spectra have been calibrated with measurements for globularclusters by Armandroff & Zinn, which are well reproduced, probingthe validity of using the integrated CaII triplet feature fordetermining the metallicities of these systems. Fitting the models totwo early-type galaxies of different luminosities (NGC 4478 and 4365),we find that the CaII triplet measurements cannot be fitted unless avery dwarf-dominated IMF is imposed, or if the Ca abundance is evenlower than the Fe abundance. More details can be found in work byCenarro et al. Lithium and rotation in F and G dwarfs and subgiantsLithium abundances have been determined in 127 F and G Pop I stars basedon new measurements of the equivalent width of the lambda 6707 ÅLi I line from their high resolution CCD spectra. Distances and absolutemagnitudes of these stars have been obtained from the HipparcosCatalogue and their masses and ages derived, enabling us to investigatethe behaviour of lithium as a function of these parameters. Based ontheir location on the HR diagram superposed on theoretical evolutionarytracks, the sample of the stars has been chosen to ensure that they havemore or less completed their Li depletion on the main sequence. A largespread in the Li abundances is found at any given effective temperatureespecially in the already spun down late F and early G stars. Thisspread persists even if the Li-dip'' stars that have evolved from themain sequence temperature interval 6500-6800 K are excluded. Stars inthe mass range up to 2 M/Msun when divided into threemetallicity groups show a linear correlation between Li abundance andmass, albeit with a large dispersion around it which is not fullyaccounted for by age either. The large depletions and the observedspread in Li are in contrast to the predictions of the standard stellarmodel calculations and suggest that they are aided by non-standardprocesses depending upon variables besides mass, age and metallicity.The present study was undertaken to examine, in particular, the effectsof rotation on the depletion of Li. No one-to-one correlation is foundbetween the Li abundance and the present projected rotational velocity.Instead the observed abundances seem to be dictated by the rotationalhistory of the star. However, it is noted that even this interpretationis subject to the inherent limitation in the measurement of the observedLi EQW for large rotational velocities.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/409/251 Constraints on stellar convection from multi-colour photometry of delta Scuti starsIn delta Scuti star models, the calculated amplitude ratios and phasedifferences for multi-colour photometry exhibit a strong dependence onconvection. These observables are tools for the determination of thespherical harmonic degree, l, of the excited modes. The dependence onconvection enters through the complex parameter f, which describesbolometric flux perturbation. We present a method of simultaneousdetermination of f and harmonic degree l from multi-colour data andapply it to three delta Scuti stars. The method indeed works.Determination of l appears unique and the inferred values of f aresufficiently accurate to yield a useful constraint on models of stellarconvection. Furthermore, the method helps to refine stellar parameters,especially if the identified mode is radial. Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type starsThis paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Automated spectroscopic abundances of A and F-type stars using echelle spectrographs. II. Abundances of 140 A-F stars from ELODIEUsing the method presented in Erspamer & North (\cite{erspamer},hereafter Paper I), detailed abundances of 140 stars are presented. Theuncertainties characteristic of this method are presented and discussed.In particular, we show that for a S/N ratio higher than 200, the methodis applicable to stars with a rotational velocity as high as 200 kms-1. There is no correlation between abundances and Vsin i,except a spurious one for Sr, Sc and Na which we explain by the smallnumber of lines of these elements combined with a locally biasedcontinuum. Metallic giants (Hauck \cite{hauck}) show larger abundancesthan normal giants for at least 8 elements: Al, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Niand Ba. The anticorrelation for Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Fe and Ni with Vsin isuggested by Varenne & Monier (\cite{varenne99}) is not confirmed.The predictions of the Montréal models (e.g. Richard et al.\cite{richard01}) are not fulfilled in general. However, a correlationbetween left [(Fe)/(H)right ] and log g is found for stars of 1.8 to 2.0M_sun. Various possible causes are discussed, but the physical realityof this correlation seems inescapable.Based on observations collected at the 1.93 m telescope at theObservatoire de Haute-Provence (St-Michel l'Observatoire, France) andCORALIE.Based on observations collected at the Swiss 1.2 m Leonard Eulertelescopes at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile).Tables 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u.strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/1121 Empirical calibration of the near-infrared Ca II triplet - III. Fitting functionsUsing a near-infrared stellar library of 706 stars with a wide coverageof atmospheric parameters, we study the behaviour of the CaII tripletstrength in terms of effective temperature, surface gravity andmetallicity. Empirical fitting functions for recently definedline-strength indices, namely CaT*, CaT and PaT, are provided. Thesefunctions can be easily implemented into stellar population models toprovide accurate predictions for integrated CaII strengths. We alsopresent a thorough study of the various error sources and their relationto the residuals of the derived fitting functions. Finally, the derivedfunctional forms and the behaviour of the predicted CaII are comparedwith those of previous works in the field. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 Lick Spectral Indices for Super-Metal-rich StarsWe present Lick spectral indices for a complete sample of 139 candidatesuper-metal-rich stars of different luminosity classes (MK type from Ito V). For 91 of these stars we were able to identify, in anaccompanying paper, the fundamental atmosphere parameters. This confirmsthat at least 2/3 of the sample consists of stars with [Fe/H] in excessof +0.1 dex. Optical indices for both observations and fiducialsynthetic spectra have been calibrated to the Lick system according toWorthey et al. and include the Fe I indices of Fe5015, Fe5270, andFe5335 and the Mg I and MgH indices of Mg2 and Mg b at 5180Å. The internal accuracy of the observations is found to beσ(Fe5015)=+/-0.32 Å, σ(Fe5270)=+/-0.19 Å,σ(Fe5335)=+/-0.22 Å, σ(Mg2)=+/-0.004 mag,and σ(Mg b)=+/-0.19 Å. This is about a factor of 2 betterthan the corresponding theoretical indices from the synthetic spectra,the latter being a consequence of the intrinsic limitations in the inputphysics, as discussed by Chavez et al. By comparing models andobservations, we find no evidence for nonstandard Mg versus Fe relativeabundance, so [Mg/Fe]=0, on the average, for our sample. Both theWorthey et al. and Buzzoni et al. fitting functions are found tosuitably match the data and can therefore confidently be extended forpopulation synthesis application also to supersolar metallicity regimes.A somewhat different behavior of the two fitting sets appears, however,beyond the temperature constraints of our stellar sample. Its impact onthe theoretical output is discussed, as far as the integratedMg2 index is derived from synthesis models of stellaraggregates. A two-index plot, such as Mg2 versus Fe5270, isfound to provide a simple and powerful tool for probing distinctiveproperties of single stars and stellar aggregates as a whole. The majoradvantage, over a classical CM diagram, is that it is both reddeningfree and distance independent. Based on observations collected at theInstituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica(INAOE) G. Haro'' Observatory, Cananea (Mexico). The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. I. Precise Spectral Types for 372 StarsThis is the first in a series of two papers that address the problem ofthe physical nature of luminosity classification in the late A-, F-, andearly G-type stars. In this paper, we present precise spectralclassifications of 372 stars on the MK system. For those stars in theset with Strömgren uvbyβ photometry, we derive reddenings andpresent a calibration of MK temperature types in terms of the intrinsicStrömgren (b-y)0 index. We also examine the relationshipbetween the luminosity class and the Strömgren c1 index,which measures the Balmer jump. The second paper will address thederivation of the physical parameters of these stars, and therelationships between these physical parameters and the luminosityclass. Stars classified in this paper include one new λ Bootisstar and 10 of the F- and G-type dwarfs with recently discoveredplanets. 20 CVn: A monoperiodic radially pulsating delta Scuti starWe present a new spectroscopic study of the delta Scuti star 20 CVn inorder to solve the controversy on the type of pulsation mode of thisobject. The spectra were obtained at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence,with the Echelle spectrograph ELODIE. Using the correlationconfiguration of the instrument, sinusoidal moment variations areclearly detected, with a frequency in perfect agreement with thephotometric one. Using the moment method, we conclude that only theradial mode is able to explain the observed moment variations and leadsto a good fit to the observed line profiles. The new data thus allow usto confirm the photometric results, i.e. 20 CVn exhibits a monoperiodicradial pulsation. Based on observations obtained at the Observatoire deHaute Provence. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 Observations and Atmospheric Parameters of Super-Metal-rich CandidatesThe spectroscopic properties of a sample of 92 Population I bright stars(V<8) with literature values of [Fe/H]>=+0.1 are reviewed in orderto study the metallicity scale at supersolar regimes. For 73 of thesecandidate super-metal-rich (SMR) stars we identified the photosphericfiducial parameters (Teff, logg, [M/H]) from among publishedparameter sets via a comparison of new observations in the wavelengthrange 5034-5398 Å with synthetic spectra derived from the 1997database of Chavez et al. As a main issue in our analysis, we find thata genuine'' SMR stellar component in the Galactic disk exists withmore than one-fourth of the stars in our sample fulfilling the criterion[Fe/H]>=0.2 dex, and three of them as rich as [Fe/H]>+0.4 dex.Based on observations collected at the INAOE G. Haro'' Observatory,Cananea (Mexico). Abundances of C, N, O, and other elements in the atmospheres of the δ Scuti variables 14 Aur, δ Sct, and HD 127986Using high-resolution spectra, we have determined the abundances ofcarbon (logε(C)), nitrogen (logε(N)), oxygen (logε(O)),silicon (logε(Si)), sulphur (logε(S)), and some other elementsfor three δ Scuti stars. Logε(C) for all three stars andlogε(N) for δ Sct and HD 127986 are close to the solarvalues, while there appears to be a slight (0.15 dex) nitrogendeficiency for 14 Aur. The logε(O) values correspond to a 0.30-dexdeficiency for 14 Aur and δ Sct and a 0.20-dex deficiency for HD127986. The values of logε(Si) for the three stars are close tosolar, and the logε(S) values indicate a slight deficiency (0.10dex) for 14 Aur and HD 127986 and a 0.20-dex excess for δ Sct.Comparison of the elemental abundances for seven δ Scuti starswith those for Am stars shows that the mean deficiencies of C, N, and Oare smaller for pulsating δ Scuti stars than for Am stars withsimilar effective temperatures. The sulphur abundances are virtually thesame for both types of stars. Near-Infrared Classification Spectroscopy: J-Band Spectra of Fundamental MK StandardsWe present a catalog of J-band spectra for 88 fundamental MK standardstars observed at a resolving power of R~3000. This contribution servesas a companion atlas to the K-band spectra recently published by Wallace& Hinkle and the H-band atlas by Meyer and coworkers. We report datafrom 7400 to 9550 cm-1 (1.05-1.34 μm) for stars ofspectral types O7-M6 and luminosity classes I-V as defined in the MKsystem. In reducing these data, special care has been taken to removetime-variable telluric features of water vapor. We identify atomic andmolecular indexes that are both temperature and luminosity sensitivethat aid in the classification of stellar spectra in the J band. Inaddition to being useful in the classification of late-type stars, the Jband contains several features of interest in the study of early-typestellar photospheres. These data are available electronically foranonymous FTP in addition to being served on the World Wide Web. A revised catalogue of delta Sct starsAn extensive and up-dated list of delta Sct stars is presented here.More than 500 papers, published during the last few years, have beenrevised and 341 new variables have been added to our last list, sixyears ago. This catalogue is intended to be a comprehensive review onthe observational characteristics of all the delta Sct stars known untilnow, including stars contained in earlier catalogues together with othernew discovered variables, covering information published until January2000. In summary, 636 variables, 1149 references and 182 individualnotes are presented in this new list. Tables 1 and 2 will be accessibleonly in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html On the cobalt abundances of early-type starsPhotographic region high-dispersion high signal-to-noise spectra of Aand F main sequence band stars which exhibit modest rotation show Co Ilines. In the hottest of these stars, we also found weak Co II lineswhose abundances are consistent with those from Co I lines. As a classthe Am stars have cobalt abundances which are greater than solar whilethe normal stars have solar values. Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included). The effective temperature scale of giant stars (F0-K5). I. The effective temperature determination by means of the IRFMWe have applied the InfraRed Flux Method (IRFM) to a sample ofapproximately 500 giant stars in order to derive their effectivetemperatures with an internal mean accuracy of about 1.5% and a maximumuncertainty in the zero point of the order of 0.9%. For the applicationof the IRFM, we have used a homogeneous grid of theoretical modelatmosphere flux distributions developed by \cite[Kurucz (1993)]{K93}.The atmospheric parameters of the stars roughly cover the ranges: 3500 K<= T_eff <= 8000 K; -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.5; 0.5 <= log(g) <= 3.5. The monochromatic infrared fluxes at the continuum arebased on recent photometry with errors that satisfy the accuracyrequirements of the work. We have derived the bolometric correction ofgiant stars by using a new calibration which takes the effect ofmetallicity into account. Direct spectroscopic determinations ofmetallicity have been adopted where available, although estimates basedon photometric calibrations have been considered for some stars lackingspectroscopic ones. The adopted infrared absolute flux calibration,based on direct optical measurements of stellar angular diameters, putsthe effective temperatures determined in this work in the same scale asthose obtained by direct methods. We have derived up to fourtemperatures, TJ, TH, TK and T_{L'},for each star using the monochromatic fluxes at different infraredwavelengths in the photometric bands J, H, K and L'. They show goodconsistency over 4000 K, and there is no appreciable trend withwavelength, metallicity and/or temperature. We provide a detaileddescription of the steps followed for the application of the IRFM, aswell as the sources of error and their effect on final temperatures. Wealso provide a comparison of the results with previous work. High resolution spectroscopy over lambda lambda 8500-8750 Å for GAIA. I. Mapping the MKK classification systemWe present an Echelle+CCD high resolution spectroscopic atlas (0.25Ä/pix dispersion, 0.43 Ä FWHM resolution and 20 000 resolvingpower) mapping the MKK classification system over the interval lambdalambda 8500-8750 Ä. The wavelength interval is remarkably free fromtelluric lines and it is centered on the near-IR triplet of Ca II, thehead of hydrogen Paschen series and several strong metallic lines. Thespectra of 131 stars of types between O4 and M8 and luminosity classes Ithrough V are included in the atlas. Special care was put in maintainingthe highest instrumental homogeneity over the whole set of data. Thecapability to derive accurate MKK spectral types from high resolutionobservations over the interval lambda lambda 8500-8750 Ä isdiscussed. The observations have been performed as part of an evaluationstudy of possible spectroscopic performances for the astrometric missionGAIA planned by ESA. Tables~3 and 4 are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ Abstract.html}\fnmsep\thanks{ Thespectra of the stars listed in Table~2 are also available in electronicform at the CDS or via the personal HomePagehttp://ulisse.pd.astro.it/Astro/Atlases/}\fnmsep\thanks{ Figures 3--28are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.com Lithium abundance and massObservations of cool giants have shown that there exists a large rangein their lithium abundances even for apparently similar stars. Thedepletions are large in a majority of them, far in excess of thepredictions of the standard stellar evolution models. In order toexplore whether the large spread in Li abundances observed in giants canbe interpreted in terms of mass, moderately high resolution CCD spectraof the Li I line at 6707.8 Ä have been obtained in 65 subgiants,giants and supergiants and the lithium abundances derived. Theirabsolute magnitudes have been estimated from the Hipparcos data.Absolute magnitudes have also been determined for another 802 starswhose lithium abundances are already known from the availableliterature. All these stars have been plotted on the HR diagram andcompared with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of Bressan et al.(1993) with initial masses ranging from 1 M_sun to 9 M_sun for achemical composition typical of the solar neighbourhood: X=0.70, Y=0.28,Z=0.02. The stars of low mass of this sample, (<2M_sun), span a widerange in evolution (unmixed warm subgiants and mixed giants) andtherefore, show a correspondingly wide range of Li abundances, perhapsreminiscent of the large range in abundances observed on the mainsequence. The spread is further augmented by the effects of increasingdilution and mixing as the stars evolve to the right and up the redgiant branch. Higher mass stars show a different behaviour. Many of thegiants of masses between 2.5 and 4.0 M_sun observed in the present studyhave Li abundances close to what is predicted by the standard stellarmodels. On the other hand, there are several high mass giants (>2.5M_sun) cooler than Teff = 5000 K with Li abundances as low asthose of low mass stars of similar effective temperature. There must beparameters other than mass and evolutionary status, as implied by thestandard evolution model of a star, that control its Li abundance. Near-Infrared Classification Spectroscopy: H-Band Spectra of Fundamental MK StandardsWe present a catalog of H-band spectra for 85 stars of approximatelysolar abundance observed at a resolving power of 3000 with the KPNOMayall 4 m Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The atlas covers spectraltypes O7-M5 and luminosity classes I-V as defined in the MK system. Weidentify both atomic and molecular indices and line ratios that aretemperature and luminosity sensitive, allowing spectral classificationto be carried out in the H-band. The line ratios permit spectralclassification in the presence of continuum excess emission, which iscommonly found in pre-main-sequence or evolved stars. We demonstratethat with spectra of R = 1000 obtained at signal-to-noise ratio >50,it is possible to derive spectral types within +/-2 subclasses forlate-type stars. These data are available electronically through theAstronomical Data Center in addition to being served on the World WideWeb.
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