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|An empirical temperature calibration for the Δ a photometric system . I. The B-type stars|
We establish an empirical effective temperature calibration of mainsequence, luminosity class V to III B-type stars for the Δ aphotometric system which was originally developed to detect magneticchemically peculiar objects of the upper main sequence (early B-type toearly F-type) at 5200 Å. However, this system provides the index(g_1-y) which shows an excellent correlation with (B-V) as well as (b-y)and can be used as an indicator of the effective temperature. This issupplemented by a very accurate color-magnitude diagram, y or V versus(g_1-y), which can be used, for example, to determine the reddening,distance and age of an open cluster. This makes the Δ aphotometric system an excellent tool to investigate theHertzsprung-Russell-Diagram (HRD) in more detail. Using thereddening-free parameters and already established calibrations withinthe Strömgren uvbyβ, Geneva 7-color and Johnson UBV systems, apolynomial fit of third degree for the averaged effective temperaturesto the individual (g_1-y)0 values was derived. For thispurpose, data from the literature as well as new observations were takenresulting in 225 suitable bright normal B-type objects. The statisticalmean of the error for this sample is 238 K which is sufficient toinvestigate the HRD of distant galactic open clusters as well asextragalactic aggregates in the future.
|High-Resolution Observations of Interstellar Ca I Absorption-Implications for Depletions and Electron Densities in Diffuse Clouds|
We present high-resolution (FWHM~0.3-1.5 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar Ca Iabsorption toward 30 Galactic stars. Comparisons of the column densitiesof Ca I, Ca II, K I, and other species-for individual componentsidentified in the line profiles and also when integrated over entirelines of sight-yield information on relative electron densities anddepletions (dependent on assumptions regarding the ionizationequilibrium). There is no obvious relationship between the ratio N(CaI)/N(Ca II) [equal to ne/(Γ/αr) forphotoionization equilibrium] and the fraction of hydrogen in molecularform f(H2) (often taken to be indicative of the local densitynH). For a smaller sample of sight lines for which thethermal pressure (nHT) and local density can be estimated viaanalysis of the C I fine-structure excitation, the average electrondensity inferred from C, Na, and K (assuming photoionizationequilibrium) seems to be independent of nH andnHT. While the electron density (ne) obtained fromthe ratio N(Ca I)/N(Ca II) is often significantly higher than the valuesderived from other elements, the patterns of relative nederived from different elements show both similarities and differencesfor different lines of sight-suggesting that additional processesbesides photoionization and radiative recombination commonly andsignificantly affect the ionization balance of heavy elements in diffuseinterstellar clouds. Such additional processes may also contribute tothe (apparently) larger than expected fractional ionizations(ne/nH) found for some lines of sight withindependent determinations of nH. In general, inclusion of``grain-assisted'' recombination does reduce the inferred ne,but it does not reconcile the ne estimated from differentelements; it may, however, suggest some dependence of ne onnH. The depletion of calcium may have a much weakerdependence on density than was suggested by earlier comparisons with CHand CN. Two appendices present similar high-resolution spectra of Fe Ifor a few stars and give a compilation of column density data for Ca I,Ca II, Fe I, and S I.
|A study of the behaviour of the NaI/KI column density ratio in the interstellar medium using the Na ultraviolet doublet|
Here we make a new study of the behaviour of the NaI/KI column densityratio in the interstellar medium, using a sample of new observations of28 stars obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in 1996 and1997, and previously published observations (obtained by some of theauthors) of 21 stars. The sightlines cover a range of distances anddirections, including into the Galactic halo. We make use of newobservations of the NaI ultraviolet (UV) doublet for some 18 stars. Thisdoublet is much weaker than the NaI D doublet and so is less susceptibleto saturation effects, and it is well known that it can be used toobtain more accurate NaI column densities with a smaller error range. Wefind an average N(NaI)/N(KI) ratio from the NaI UV data of about 90,which is rather higher than that found previously by Hobbs and Lequeux.The Na UV-KI ratio shows a small increase in value with increasingcolumn density, while we also find a sample of low N(NaI)/N(KI) ratioclouds generally seen towards distant objects on high-latitudesightlines that reach into the halo, so that the ratio decreases moresharply at lower column densities. As the values of the ratio for thesehalo clouds (10-20) bracket the cosmic Na/K abundance ratio, we suggestthat these ratios result from a harder radiation field in the lowerhalo, such that the ionized fractions of NaI and KI become similar.Clearly caution needs to be applied in using any kind of `standardvalue' for the NaI/KI column density ratio.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|The Normal Energy Distributions in Stellar Spectra: Giants and Supergiants|
We have derived the normal spectral energy distributions for thoseearly-type subgiants, giants, and supergiants that were not investigatedin our earlier studies, which were in most cases also not included inthe studies of Sviderskiene. Color indices computed using our normalenergy distributions are in good agreement with normal colors derivedfrom observations in the Vilnius photometric system. The reliability ofour distribution curves is also demonstrated by comparisons of observedand computed (W-B)-(B-V) two-color diagrams in the WBVR system. Normalcolor indices for the photometric WBVR system are derived.
|Two-colour photometry for 9473 components of close Hipparcos double and multiple stars|
Using observations obtained with the Tycho instrument of the ESAHipparcos satellite, a two-colour photometry is produced for componentsof more than 7 000 Hipparcos double and multiple stars with angularseparations 0.1 to 2.5 arcsec. We publish 9473 components of 5173systems with separations above 0.3 arcsec. The majority of them did nothave Tycho photometry in the Hipparcos catalogue. The magnitudes arederived in the Tycho B_T and V_T passbands, similar to the Johnsonpassbands. Photometrically resolved components of the binaries withstatistically significant trigonometric parallaxes can be put on an HRdiagram, the majority of them for the first time. Based on observationsmade with the ESA Hipparcos satellite.
|Photometry from the HIPPARCOS Catalogue: Constant MCP Stars, Comparison and Check Stars|
Photometry from the Hipparcos catalogue is used to verify the constancyof four magnetic CP stars, as well as the comparison and the check starsused for variability studies of normal and chemically peculiar B and Astars with the Four College Automated Photoelectric Telescope;variability in these stars can produce spurious results. A few of thecomparison stars are found to be variable and should be replaced forfuture differential photometric studies.
|On the possible variability of metallic-line and Mercury-Manganese stars|
Differential Stromgren uvby photometric observations from the 0.75-mFour College Automated Photoelectric Telescope were obtained for threemetallic-line and three Mercury-Manganese stars. None were found to bevariable. These sharp-lined stars may not be the best tests for classvariability as their polar axes are pointed towards the earth. Eachpresents essentially the same visible hemisphere as it rotates. Tables2-7 are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|The local distribution of NA I interstellar gas|
We present high-resolution absorption measurements (lambda/Delta lambdaapproximately 75,000) of the interstellar Na I D lines at 5890 A toward80 southern hemisphere early-type stars located in the localinterstellar medium (LISM). Combining these results with other sodiummeasurements taken from the literature, we produce galactic maps of thedistribution of neutral sodium column density for a total of 293 starsgenerally lying within approximately 250 pc of the Sun. These mapsreveal the approximate shape of the mid-plane contours of the rarefiedregion of interstellar space termed the Local Bubble. Its shape is seenas highly asymmetric, with a radius ranging from 30 to 300 pc, and withan average radius of 60 pc. Similar plots of the Galactic mid-planedistribution of sources emitting extreme ultraviolet radiation show thatthey also trace out similar contours of the Local Bubble derived from NaI absorption measurements. We conclude that the Local Bubble absorptioninterface can be represented by a hydrogen column density,NuETA = 2 x 1019 cm-2, which explainsboth the local distribution of Na I absorption and the observed galacticdistribution of extreme ultraviolet sources. The derived mid-planecontours of the Bubble generally reproduce the large-scale featurescarved out in the interstellar medium by several nearby galactic shellstructures.
|High-resolution CA II observations of the local interstellar medium|
High-resolution absorption measurements of the interstellar Ca II K lineobserved toward 46 early-type stars in the local ISM (LISM) arepresented. Ca II was detected in 36 of the 46 stars with 82 individualcloud components identified. Ca II was detected to most of the starscloser than 50 pc, except in the region of the Galactic quadrant l =180-270 degrees which also contains the empty line of sight to B CMa at220 pc. The mean local standard of rest velocity of the 82 Ca IIcomponents implies that the LISM clouds are associated with the motionof the solar neighborhood and not the sun. If the present data arecombined with other nearby Ca II component velocities taken from theliterature, then a cloud centered approximately at l = 90 deg, b = -40deg moving coherently with the local interstellar wind vector issupported at a significance level of 99 percent. The Ca II data havebeen combined with Na I data for the same stars to produce a N(NaI)/N(Ca II) ratio for each identified absorption feature. This ratioplotted against the local standard of rest velocities of the cloudsshows that the Routly-Spitzer effect exists down to +/- 10 km/s, whichsupports grain desorption/destruction models that are efficient atreturning calcium to the gas phase at these low velocities.
|IACUB - a New Echelle Spectrograph for Use at the Observatorio del Roque-De|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&A...273..331M&db_key=AST
|Observation of fine structure in the cold phase of the local interstellar medium using K I absorption|
The K I 7699-A resonance absorption line was used to observe a group of18 early-type stars within a 200-pc radius of the sun with asignal-to-noise ratio of 50-250. The interstellar absorptions provide away to 'tag' a cloud via its radial velocity to within +/-1.5 km/s.Based on the hypothesis of pressure confinement, the temperatures of theclouds are estimated at 100 K or less. The mass fraction of the localinterstellar medium (LISM) is found to be high in these clouds, at least80 percent of the total, whereas the filling factor is low, well below10 percent of the total LISM volume. One cloud with high densities andlower temperatures was detected which is thought to be on the edge ofatomic-molecular equilibrium.
|An optical search for Beta Pictoris-like disks around nearby stars|
A coronagraphic survey of more than one hundred stars has been carriedout in a search at optical wavelengths for circumstellar materialsimilar to that found in the Beta Pictoris disk. The survey stars wereprimarily dwarfs in the spectral range A to K and most were closer than100 pc. No evidence of circumstellar material was found around any ofthe stars, suggesting that Beta Pictoris is an abnormal object,surrounded by an unusually large amount of optically scatteringmaterial.
|Further high-resolution NA I observations of the local interstellar medium|
High-resolution absorption measurements of the interstellar Na I D linesat 5890 A observed toward 27 early-type stars in the local interstellarmedium (LISM) are presented. These results are combined with otherhigh-resolution sodium measurements to map the space distribution ofneutral sodium column density for some 118 stars out to less than 200pc. These measurements indicate an upper limit to the neutral sodiumcolumn density of log N(Na I) less than 10.0/sq cm can be inferred outto a distance of 50 pc in most directions in the LISM. Also, therarefield region of the Local Bubble may extend beyond 60 pc in at least35 percent of the directions sampled thus far. Evidence is shown for aubiquitous, comoving vector for neutral NaI gas clouds in the LISM whichis in a different direction to LISM vectors previously reported for moreionized local gas clouds. A comparison of the measured sodium columnswith those of interstellar Ca II for a sample of 12 stars within 95 pcresults in a ratio of Na I/Ca II less than 0.5 for most stars. Thisvalue implies that there could be warm, neutral gas with T of about12,500 K beyond 50 pc in the LISM.
|Search for Beta Pictoris-like star|
The results are reported of a systematic search for Beta Pic-like stars,undertaken at ESO, CFHT and OHP. The candidate stars, either IRAS excessstars or shell stars, are investigated by means of high resolutionspectroscopy in the Ca II and Na I lines, which in the case of Beta Pic,are very peculiar. The observations are presented and it is shown thatamong the selected stars, few do show spectral similarities with BetaPic. Some interesting cases, HR10, HR2174, HR9043 and HR6519 arediscussed.
|Stellar integrated fluxes in the wavelength range 380 NM - 900 NM derived from Johnson 13-colour photometry|
Petford et al. (1988) have reported measured integrated fluxes for 216stars with a wide spread of spectral type and luminosity, and mentionedthat a cubic-spline integration over the relevant Johnson 13-colormagnitudes, converted to fluxes using Johnson's calibration, is inexcellent agreement with those measurements. In this paper a list of thefluxes derived in this way, corrected for a small dependence on B-V, isgiven for all the 1215 stars in Johnson's 1975 catalog with completeentries.
|Molecular Clouds Associated with H i Shells|
|Photoelectric monitoring of bright Be stars|
The paper describes and summarizes BV photometric observations of 34bright, active Be stars made at various times between 1981 and 1987 witha 0.4-m telescope at the University of Toronto. These observationsdemonstrate the photometric variability of Be stars on time scales ofhours to years.
|Maximum separations among cataloged binaries|
The paper classifies many of the widest common-motion binaries listed inthe Aitken catalog and list 72 physical pairs with known photoelectricphotometry, 31 physical pairs without good photometry, and 27 opticalpairs. As a function of primary types, the physical systems have upperlimits to their separations that are exceeded by some of the opticalpairs. The fact that optical pairs occur with larger separations impliesthat the limits are real ones and not just catalog limitations. Thoselimits (in AU) are expressed by 2500 M1 exp 1.54 for B5-KO main-sequenceprimaries. The same limits hold for the Trapezium and hierarchicalsystems studied previously.
|Twelve additional 'Vega-like' stars|
Twelve additional 'Vega-like' stars which show large excess fluxes at 60microns are found in the Bright Star Catalog from a systematic search ofthe IRAS point-source catalog. These stars range in spectral types fromB9 to F6, while they are predominantly early A-type stars. When combinedwith the 12 previously known stars, there are seven spectroscopicbinaries and one suspected astrometric binary among 24 Vega-like stars.The frequency of multiple systems among these stars is compatible withthat among nearby stars. Six Vega-like stars show significantdifferences (darkening) between absolute magnitudes calculated fromtheir parallaxes and those estimated from spectral types, as found forthe star Beta Pic. These apparent darkenings may suggest the presence ofcircumstellar disks viewed edge-on.
|Observations of interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A|
Observations of the interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A for800 O and B stars in Neckel's (1967) catalog are being carried out, and482 spectra obtained up to September 1983 have been reduced. It isconfirmed that the strength of the interstellar diffuse absorption bandat 4430 A does not simply relate to the abundance of interstellar grainson the line of sight. The relation between the color excess E(B-V) andthe equivalent width of the band to the direction of l = 130-140 deg andb = -5 to +5 deg shows that some parameter(s) other than E(B-V) is (are)needed to understand the cause of this band.
|Transformation equations and other aids for VRI photometry|
Transformations among VRI systems are commonly beset by Paschen-jumpeffects, for which fully satisfactory allowance has not previously beenmade. This paper describes two new techniques which are based on thework of Gutierrez-Moreno, and which allow fully for the effects of thePaschen jump. Values of E(V-R)/E(B-V) and E(R-I)/E(B-V) are also givenfor the Cousins system for a wide range of temperatures. These and thenew techniques contribute to a set of new transformation relations whichapply for most VRI systems; the status of the remaining systems isreviewed, and future work needed for them is described. Two majorsources of Cousins VRI data underlie the new relations; the consistencyof these sources is reviewed and found to be generally satisfactory,although more work on this question is needed. Finally, three tables oftransformed standard-star and other data are given for the Cousins andJohnson systems, and a description of ways to reproduce the latter ispresented.
|Catalogue of the energy distribution data in spectra of stars in the uniform spectrophotometric system.|
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.
|The A0 stars|
A photometric grid, standardized on MK spectral standards, has been usedto compare spectral types and luminosity classes obtainedphotometrically with those in two extensive spectral surveys coveringthe entire sky. Major discrepancies include the spectroscopicclassification of B9.5, which may indicate an otherwise unrecognizedspectral peculiarity, a different A0/A1 spectral type boundary in thetwo samples involved, the well-known misclassification of weak heliumstars, and an appreciable percentage of stars which are called dwarfsspectroscopically but are of higher photometric luminosity. The spacemotion vectors of these stars for which radial velocities are available,and excluding the minimum of 25 percent that are spectroscopic binarieswithout orbital elements, show structure in their distribution in the(U, V)-plane, with members of the Local Association and the Hyades andSirius superclusters forming obvious concentrations. The members of theLocal Association in the samples are mainly old (more than 200 millionyears) mode A stars, although a few much younger stars are included. Themembers of the Hyades and Sirius superclusters contain many bluestragglers, including several peculiar stars of the Hg, Mn, and Sivarieties.
|Infrared colors of the chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence|
A program of J, H, K, L-prime, M photometry of CP stars and normalcomparison stars has been carried out at the Mauna Kea Observatory. Theinfrared colors of the CP and normal stars are found to be similar toeach other, and to the predictions of normal model atmospheres, towithin at worst 20 percent. These results do not support the conclusionof Groote et al. (1980, 1981) that infrared excesses at 5 microns arefound in CP stars with magnetic fields.
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