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|The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra|
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|The CaII-M_v Correlation (Wilson-Bappu Effect) Calibrated by HIPPARCOS Parallaxes|
We have used Hipparcos parallaxes to derive absolute visual magnitudesof G, K, and M stars with Ca II emission line widths previously measuredby O. C. Wilson. A linear relationship similar to the one derivedoriginally by Wilson & Bappu and improved by Lutz & Kelker wasfound from M_v=+7 to -2. For stars brighter than M_v=-2 a substantialnumber of stars show Ca II emission lines that are broader than expectedfrom the linear fit. Most of those stars are bright giants andsupergiants of type G. In appendices we show some sample Ca II profilesand identify emission lines of Fe II as well as the Hepsilon line insome stars.
|Far-Ultraviolet Continuum of G-Type Stars: A Signature of the Temperature Minimum Region|
The main results of a program of systematic comparison between observedand computed UV spectral energy distributions of field G-type stars areillustrated. We constructed the UV observed energy distributions for 53G stars, starting from the IUE Uniform Low Dispersion Archive (ULDA) andcomputed the corresponding theoretical fluxes by using the atmosphericparameters from the Catalogue of [Fe/H] Determinations (1996 edition)and a Kurucz grid of model fluxes. From the comparison betweenobservations and classical models, a UV excess shortward of 2000 Åis evident for all the program stars. The UV continuum in the region1600-2000 Å can be described by synthetic fluxes computed fromsemiempirical models based on the temperature minimum concept. Valuesfor the T_min/T_eff ratio on the order of 0.80 are suitable for theinterpretation of the observed fluxes. The residual discrepanciesshortward of 1600 Å are suggested to be effects of thechromosphere, on the basis of a comparison with the Maltby et al.semiempirical model of the Sun.
|A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition|
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Accurate Positions Of Suspected Variable Stars Near The South Galactic Pole|
|Hybrid stars and the reality of "dividing lines" among G to K bright giants and supergiants.|
We present results of pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of 15 hybridstars/candidates, which have been analyzed in a homogenous way. 7 ofthese stars were observed in X-rays for the first time. 12 out of 15hybrid stars have been detected as X-ray sources, some of them close tothe detection limit. We conclude that essentially all hybrid stars asdefined by the simultaneous presence of transition region line emissionand cool stellar winds are X-ray sources if exposed sufficiently deep.The X-ray luminosities of hybrid stars cover a range between 2x10^27^and ~10^30^erg/s. Their X-ray surface fluxes can be as low as =~20erg/cm^2^/s and thus considerably lower than those of normal luminosityclass (LC) III giants. X-ray spectra of hybrid stars tend to be harderthan that of normal LC III giants, moreover, the X-ray brightest starshave the hardest spectra. We find that for K II giants the normalizedX-ray flux versus C IV flux obeys a power law with an exponent a=2.9,steeper than among normal giants (1.5). Hybrid K II stars are X-rayunderluminous by a factor of 5 to 20 compared to LC III giants at thesame level of normalized CIV flux f_CIV_/f_bol_; hybrid G supergiantsare even more X-ray deficient. We reanalyze the CaII wind dividing lineand find it vertical at B-V=1.45 for LC III giants. It is nearlyhorizontal between B-V=1.45 and 1.0 (at M_bol_=~-2...-3), and not welldefined for supergiants with B-V<1.0. We therefore suggest thatpossibly all LC II and Ib G and K giants are hybrid stars and that the"dividing line" concept in its simplest form is not valid for G/K giantsbrighter than M_bol_=~-2. Hybrid stars are supposed to be evolvedintermediate mass stars and their coronal activity may in principle bedetermined by the individual history of each star.
|Colour excesses of F-G supergiants and Cepheids from Geneva photometry.|
A reddening scale for F-G supergiants and Cepheids is presented.Supergiants with low reddenings or in clusters form the basis of thecalibration. In this sense, it is entirely empirical. The data have beenobtained in the Geneva photometric system. Comparisons with otherreddening scales show no disagreement. The only problem is with Fernie'sscale for Cepheids (1990), where a systematic trend exists. Its originis not clear. It is suggested to extend the number of supergiants withindependently obtained colour excesses in order to test the existence ofa possible luminosity dependence of the calibration. A period-colourrelation for Cepheids is deduced, on the basis of the present reddeningcorrections. It gives strong support for V473 Lyr being a secondovertone pulsator.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|A photometric and spectroscopic search for luminous high latitude stars|
Formulas, derived by Arellano Ferro and Mendoza in Paper I (1993), tocalculate Mv, log g, and (Fe/H) were applied to a group of 73A, F, and G stars of high galactic latitude previously classified assupergiant stars. The only star that showed, from data on hand, to beluminous, slightly iron deficient, and out of the galactic plane was BLTelescopii. The remainder of the sample either present controversialresults or are definitively giant or dwarf stars misclassified assupergiants. Thus, if luminous, young stars indeed exist out of thegalactic plane, they are extremely rare.
|Calibrations of Mv, (Fe/H), and log G for yellow supergiant stars from O I 7774 and uvby-beta data|
New calibrations of the absolute magnitude Mv from O I 7774data are derived from narrow-band photometry and low dispersionspectroscopy for AO-G2 low and high luminosity stars. The nonlineardependence of Mv from the equivalent width W(OI) and therelevance of the stellar temperature in the calibration are confirmed inagreement with previous calibrations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopy. Also functional formulas to estimate (Fe/H) and log g fromuvby-beta data for FO-G3 supergiants are offered. These calibrationspredict iron abundances and gravities for yellow supergiants withuncertainties not much higher than good spectroscopic determinations.
|Photometry of F-K type bright giants and supergiants. I - Intermediate band and H-Beta observations|
Over 1500 observations of 560 bright giants and supergiants of types F-Kare presented and compared to the observations by Gray and Olsen (1991).The present results include intermediate-band which is slightlydifferent from the Stromgren data by Gray and Olsen due to a differentwidth for the v filter. A systematic difference in m(1) - M(1) withdecreasing temperature is noted in the two H-Beta data sets, and thecorrelations are defined.
|A catalogue of Fe/H determinations - 1991 edition|
A revised version of the catalog of Fe/H determinations published by G.Cayrel et al. (1985) is presented. The catalog contains 3252 Fe/Hdeterminations for 1676 stars. The literature is complete up to December1990. The catalog includes only Fe/H determinations obtained from highresolution spectroscopic observations based on detailed spectroscopicanalyses, most of them carried out with model atmospheres. The catalogcontains a good number of Fe/H determinations for stars from open andglobular clusters and for some supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds.
|A photometric study of the G0-4 Ia(+) hypergiant HD 96918 (V382 Carinae)|
Using a photometric method we derive T(eff), log g, and E(B-V) for thestar HD 96918 and also for 35 supergiants of similar spectral class. ForHD 96918 we found T(eff) = 5200 +/- 200 K and log g (cm/sq s) = 0.0 +/-0.5. The comparison of the results indicates that HD 96918 is really ahypergiant with a spectral class around G0-G4. We also estimate thedistance of HD 96918 using the kinematic and reddening methods, and bycomparing its T(eff) and log g with evolutionary calculation. Weconsistently find a distance of 2.7 +/- 1.0 kpc which implies logL/solar luminosity = 5.5 +/- 0.4. A most probable mass for the star is20 +/- 10 solar mass.
|CA II H and K measurements made at Mount Wilson Observatory, 1966-1983|
Summaries are presented of the photoelectric measurements of stellar CaII H and K line intensity made at Mount Wilson Observatory during theyears 1966-1983. These results are derived from 65,263 individualobservations of 1296 stars. For each star, for each observing season,the maximum, minimum, mean, and variation of the instrumental H and Kindex 'S' are given, as well as a measurement of the accuracy ofobservation. A total of 3110 seasonal summaries are reported. Factorswhich affect the ability to detect stellar activity variations andaccurately measure their amplitudes, such as the accuracy of the H and Kmeasurements and scattered light contamination, are discussed. Relationsare given which facilitate intercomparison of 'S' values with residualintensities derived from ordinary spectrophotometry, and for convertingmeasurements to absolute fluxes.
|The calibration of Stromgren photometry for A, F and early G supergiants. II - The F and early G supergiants|
The technique for calibration of the uvby-beta photometric system isdeveloped empirically for the supergiants and tested for errors.Parameters are derived for gravity and temperature which indicate theintrinsic color, and color excesses are calculated for classicalCepheids. The values compare favorably with previous estimates, althoughthe calibration is found to be sensitive to metal abundance.
|Photoelectric photometry of G-M stars in the Vilnius system|
|Mass-losing M supergiants in the solar neighborhood|
A list of the 21 mass-losing red supergiants (20 M type, one G type; Lgreater than 100,000 solar luminosities) within 2.5 kpc of the sun iscompiled. These supergiants are highly evolved descendants ofmain-sequence stars with initial masses larger than 20 solar masses. Thesurface density is between about 1 and 2/sq kpc. As found previously,these stars are much less concentrated toward the Galactic center thanW-R stars, which are also highly evolved massive stars. Although withconsiderable uncertainty, it is estimated that the mass return by the Msupergiants is somewhere between 0.00001 and 0.00003 solar mass/sq kpcyr. In the hemisphere facing the Galactic center there is much less massloss from M supergiants than from W-R stars, but, in the anticenterdirection, the M supergiants return more mass than do the W-R stars. Theduration of the M supergiant phase appears to be between 200,000 and400,000 yr. During this phase, a star of initially at least 20 solarmasses returns perhaps 3-10 solar masses into the interstellar medium.
|Spectrophotometry of several yellow supergiants|
Spectrophotometric observations of 20 F, G, and K spectral classsupergiants and bright giants have been obtained with the HarvardCollege Observatory scanner on the No. 10.9 m telescope at Kitt PeakNational Observatory. The scans cover the wavelength range 3510-5520 Awith a resolution of 30 A. The observed flux distributions have beencorrected for instrumental effects, atmospheric extinction, andinterstellar reddening. The resulting intrinsic flux distributions havebeen compared to theoretical flux distributions based on the model ofKurucz (1979) in order to estimate effective temperatures and surfacegravities for eight of these stars.
|A list of MK standard stars|
|Supergiants and the Galactic metallicity gradient. II - Spectroscopic abundances for 64 distant F- to M-type supergiants|
The metallicity gradient in the Galactic disk from in situ stars withvisual magnitude ranging from 6 to 10 is analyzed. Atmosphericparameters and detailed chemical abundances for 64 Population Isupergiants of spectral types F through M and luminosity classes Iathrough II have been determined. The derived Fe/H ratios ranging from-0.5 to + 0.7 show a mean value of +0.13 with an estimated uncertaintyof + or - 0.2. A subset of 25 supergiants fainter than 7th magnitudelying in the direction of the Galactic center shows a Fe/H mean of +0.18+ or - 0.04, while a similar sample of 15 faint supergiants lying in thedirection of the Galactic anticenter shows a lower Fe/H mean of +0.07 +or - 0.06. For a sample of bright supergiants analyzed by Luck andLambert (1985), the mean abundance pattern for all 64 stars showed thefollowing: deficient C and O along with enhancement of N, indicatingmixing of CNO-cycled material to the stellar surfaces; an apparent Srenhancement attributed to departures from LTE; and an essentially solarpattern of other chemical elements.
|Stellar integrated fluxes in the wavelength range 380 NM - 900 NM derived from Johnson 13-colour photometry|
Petford et al. (1988) have reported measured integrated fluxes for 216stars with a wide spread of spectral type and luminosity, and mentionedthat a cubic-spline integration over the relevant Johnson 13-colormagnitudes, converted to fluxes using Johnson's calibration, is inexcellent agreement with those measurements. In this paper a list of thefluxes derived in this way, corrected for a small dependence on B-V, isgiven for all the 1215 stars in Johnson's 1975 catalog with completeentries.
|Observational evidence for mass loss from classical Cepheids|
This paper examines the evidence for mass loss from classical Cepheidvariables in the light of recent observational studies of infrared andultraviolet emission from these objects. Mass-loss rates derived forseveral stars range between 10 to the -10th solar masses/yr and 10 tothe -6th solar masses/yr. The lower end of this range probablycorresponds to the majority of classical Cepheids. Nonvariablesupergiants show, on average, a somewhat lower rate of infrared excess,but have mass-loss rates of the same order of magnitude as the Cepheids.On the basis of the observations to date, mass loss alone isinsufficient in explaining the Cepheid mass discrepancy, indicating thatadjustments to the evolutionary or pulsation models present a betterprospect of resolving this discrepancy.
|Intrinsic color indices of supergiants in the UBVRIJHKL system. II|
|A catalog of bright UVBY beta standard stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987PASP...99.1184P&db_key=AST
|An analysis of the photospheric line profiles in F, G, and K supergiants|
The spectral-line broadening for 30 F, G, and K Ib supergiants has beenmeasured. Fourier analysis for macroturbulence and rotation shows (1)macroturbulent velocities larger than but compatible with values foundfor lower luminosity stars and (2) rotation results that cannot be fullyexplained. Three plausible scenarios are suggested, but the one in whichangular momentum of the surface 'shell' is conserved during theevolutionary changes experienced by these stars is favored. The unusualdistribution of rotation velocities may result from a preferentialalignment of rotation axes with the galactic poles.
|Narrow-band photometry of late-type stars. II|
This paper presents extensive narrow-band photometry in the Uppsalasystem supplementing earlier published mesurements so that data now areavailable for all late-type stars brighter than V = 6.05 and a number ofgalactic cluster members. Numerous UBV and BV measurements are alsopublished. The data are used to determine relations for the predictionof UBV intrinsic colors for late-type stars from the narrow-bandmeasurements. The main purpose of the data is to constitute the basisfor the determination of solar-neighborhood space densities of late-typestars, mainly giants of different kinds; these space densities will becombined with narrow-band data for fainter stars in the north Galacticpole region to yield the decrease of space density with distance fromthe galactic plane for many kinds of late-type stars.
|E. W. Fick Observatory stellar radial velocity measurements. I - 1976-1984|
Stellar radial velocity observations made with the large vacuumhigh-dispersion photoelectric radial velocity spectrometer at FickObservatory are reported. This includes nearly 2000 late-type starsobserved during 585 nights. Gradual modifications to this instrumentover its first eight years of operation have reduced the observationalerror for high-quality dip observations to + or - 0.8 km/s.
|The spectral energy distribution of early type stars. I - A catalogue of photometric data of 259 stars from 0.15 to 4.8 microns|
For the derivation of physical parameters (e.g., effective temperatureand radius) of early-type stars from their intrinsic spectral-energydistribution, and for the study of foreground interstellar and/orcircumstellar matter, a sample of 237 O, B, and A stars was chosen fromthe ANS catalog (Wesselius et al., 1982). The ANS ultraviolet and theJohnson UBV data (mostly from Nicolet's catalog, 1978) of these starswere supplemented with visual Walraven WULBV, red VRI, and near-infraredJHKLM measurements. All these data are given in the present catalog.Data for 22 stars of spectral type later than A are also included.
|Cepheids and nonvariable supergiants|
Photometric parameters for Cepheids in a previous paper are adapted foruse with nonvariable supergiants of similar temperature. The closecorrelation between the abundance and luminosity parameters forclassical, short-period Cepheids (SPC) confirms the nearlydispersionless luminosity temperature relation for these variables. Theassumptions that (1) the C-type variables are transiting the Cepheidtemperature for the first time, (2) the classical SPC are mostlytransiting for the second time, and (3) the long-period Cepheids (LPC)are a mixture of stars transiting for the first to third or fourth timesare found to be consistent with the various correlations of temperatureand luminosity parameters. The nonvariable supergiants with photometricparameters similar to those for the Cepheids are found to haveluminosities consistent with their spectroscopic luminosity class. Few,if any, nonvariable supergiants have temperatures and luminositiessimilar to the LPC.