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 CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclustersThe availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165} CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Rotation and lithium in single giant starsIn the present work, we study the link between rotation and lithiumabundance in giant stars of luminosity class III, on the basis of alarge sample of 309 single stars of spectral type F, G and K. We havefound a trend for a link between the discontinuity in rotation at thespectral type G0III and the behavior of lithium abundances around thesame spectral type. The present work also shows that giant starspresenting the highest lithium contents, typically stars earlier thanG0III, are those with the highest rotation rates, pointing for adependence of lithium content on rotation, as observed for otherluminosity classes. Giant stars later than G0III present, as a rule, thelowest rotation rates and lithium contents. A large spread of about fivemagnitudes in lithium abundance is observed for the slow rotators.Finally, single giant stars with masses 1.5 < M/Msun<=2.5 show a clearest trend for a correlation between rotational velocityand lithium abundance. Based on observations collected at theObservatoire de Haute -- Provence (France) and at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla (Chile). Table 2 is only available electronicallywith the On-Line publication athttp://link.springer.de/link/service/00230/ The Nature of the lithium rich giants. Mixing episodes on the RGB and early-AGBWe present a critical analysis of the nature of the so-called Li-richRGB stars. For a majority of the stars, we have used Hipparcosparallaxes to determine masses and evolutionary states by comparingtheir position on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with theoreticalevolutionary tracks. Among the twenty Li-rich giants whose location onthe HR diagram we were able to determine precisely, five appear to beLi-rich because they have not completed the standard first dredge-updilution, and three have abundances compatible with the maximum allowedby standard dilution. Thus, these should be re-classified as Li-normal.For the remaining stars, the high Li abundance must be a result of freshsynthesis of this fragile element. We identify two distinct episodes ofLi production which occur in advanced evolutionary phases depending uponthe mass of the star. Low-mass RGB stars, which later undergo the heliumflash, produce Li at the phase referred to as the bump in the luminosityfunction. At this evolutionary phase, the outwardly-moving hydrogenshell burns through the mean molecular weight discontinuity created bythe first dredge-up. Any extra-mixing process can now easily connect the3He-rich envelope material to the outer regions of thehydrogen-burning shell, enabling Li production by the Cameron &Fowler (1971) process. While very high Li abundances are then reached,this Li-rich phase is extremely short lived because once the mixingextends deep enough to lower the carbon isotopic ratio below thestandard dilution value, the freshly synthesized Li is quicklydestroyed. In intermediate-mass stars, the mean molecular weightgradient due to the first dredge-up is not erased until after the starhas begun to burn helium in its core. The Li-rich phase in these starsoccurs when the convective envelope deepens at the base of the AGB,permitting extra-mixing to play an effective role. Li production ceaseswhen a strong mean molecular weight gradient is built up between thedeepening convective envelope and the shell of nuclear burning thatsurrounds the inert CO core. This episode is also very short lived.Low-mass stars may undergo additional mixing at this phase. The compileddata provide constraints on the time scales for extra mixing and someinsight on processes suggested in the literature. However, our resultsdo not suggest any specific trigger mechanism. Since the Li-rich phasesare extremely short, enrichment of the Li content of the ISM as a resultof these episodes is negligible. LTE and non-LTE atmospheric lithium abundances for the K giant HD 9746Not Available Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. X. A Self-Consistent Radiometric All-Sky Network of Absolutely Calibrated Stellar SpectraWe start from our six absolutely calibrated continuous stellar spectrafrom 1.2 to 35 μm for K0, K1.5, K3, K5, and M0 giants. These wereconstructed as far as possible from actual observed spectral fragmentstaken from the ground, the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and the IRAS LowResolution Spectrometer, and all have a common calibration pedigree.From these we spawn 422 calibrated spectral templates'' for stars withspectral types in the ranges G9.5-K3.5 III and K4.5-M0.5 III. Wenormalize each template by photometry for the individual stars usingpublished and/or newly secured near- and mid-infrared photometryobtained through fully characterized, absolutely calibrated,combinations of filter passband, detector radiance response, and meanterrestrial atmospheric transmission. These templates continue ourongoing effort to provide an all-sky network of absolutely calibrated,spectrally continuous, stellar standards for general infrared usage, allwith a common, traceable calibration heritage. The wavelength coverageis ideal for calibration of many existing and proposed ground-based,airborne, and satellite sensors, particularly low- tomoderate-resolution spectrometers. We analyze the statistics of probableuncertainties, in the normalization of these templates to actualphotometry, that quantify the confidence with which we can assert thatthese templates truly represent the individual stars. Each calibratedtemplate provides an angular diameter for that star. These radiometricangular diameters compare very favorably with those directly observedacross the range from 1.6 to 21 mas. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K starsA catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Late-type giants with infrared excess. I. Lithium abundancesde la Reza et al. (1997) suggested that all K giants become Li-rich fora short time. During this period the giants are associated with anexpanding thin circumstellar shell supposedly triggered by an abruptinternal mixing mechanism resulting in the surface Li enrichment. Inorder to test this hypothesis twenty nine late-type giants withfar-infrared excess from the list of Zuckerman et al. (1995) wereobserved in the Li-region to study the connection between thecircumstellar shells and Li abundance. Eight giants have been found tohave log epsilon (Li) > 1.0. In the remaining giants the Li abundanceis found to be much lower. HD 219025 is found to be a rapidly rotating(projected rotational velocity of 23 +/-3 km s(-1) ), dusty and Li-rich(log epsilon (Li) = 3.0+/-0.2) K giant. Absolute magnitude derived fromthe Hipparcos parallax reveals that it is a giant and not apre-main-sequence star. The evolutionary status of HD 219025 seems to besimilar to that of HDE 233517 which is also a rapidly rotating, dustyand Li-rich K giant. The Hipparcos parallaxes of all the well studiedLi-rich K giants show that most of them are brighter than the clump"giants. Their position in the H-R diagram indicates that they have gonethrough mixing and the initial abundance of Li is not preserved. Thereseems to be no correlations between Li abundances, rotational velocitiesand carbon isotope ratios. The only satisfactory explanation for theoverabundance of lithium in these giants is the creation of Li by theextra deep mixing and the associated cool bottom processing". Based onobservations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla,Chile, and at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, France. Towards a fundamental calibration of stellar parameters of A, F, G, K dwarfs and giantsI report on the implementation of the empirical surface brightnesstechnique using the near-infrared Johnson broadband { (V-K)} colour assuitable sampling observable aimed at providing accurate effectivetemperatures of 537 dwarfs and giants of A-F-G-K spectral-type selectedfor a flux calibration of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Thesurface brightness-colour correlation is carefully calibrated using aset of high-precision angular diameters measured by moderninterferometry techniques. The stellar sizes predicted by thiscorrelation are then combined with the bolometric flux measurementsavailable for a subset of 327 ISO standard stars in order to determineone-dimensional { (T, V-K)} temperature scales of dwarfs and giants. Theresulting very tight relationships show an intrinsic scatter induced byobservational photometry and bolometric flux measurements well below thetarget accuracy of +/- 1 % required for temperature determinations ofthe ISO standards. Major improvements related to the actual directcalibration are the high-precision broadband { K} magnitudes obtainedfor this purpose and the use of Hipparcos parallaxes for dereddeningphotometric data. The temperature scale of F-G-K dwarfs shows thesmallest random errors closely consistent with those affecting theobservational photometry alone, indicating a negligible contributionfrom the component due to the bolometric flux measurements despite thewide range in metallicity for these stars. A more detailed analysisusing a subset of selected dwarfs with large metallicity gradientsstrongly supports the actual bolometric fluxes as being practicallyunaffected by the metallicity of field stars, in contrast with recentresults claiming somewhat significant effects. The temperature scale ofF-G-K giants is affected by random errors much larger than those ofdwarfs, indicating that most of the relevant component of the scattercomes from the bolometric flux measurements. Since the giants have smallmetallicities, only gravity effects become likely responsible for theincreased level of scatter. The empirical stellar temperatures withsmall model-dependent corrections are compared with the semiempiricaldata by the Infrared Flux Method (IRFM) using the large sample of 327comparison stars. One major achievement is that all empirical andsemiempirical temperature estimates of F-G-K giants and dwarfs are foundto be closely consistent between each other to within +/- 1 %. However,there is also evidence for somewhat significant differential effects.These include an average systematic shift of (2.33 +/- 0.13) % affectingthe A-type stars, the semiempirical estimates being too low by thisamount, and an additional component of scatter as significant as +/- 1 %affecting all the comparison stars. The systematic effect confirms theresults from other investigations and indicates that previousdiscrepancies in applying the IRFM to A-type stars are not yet removedby using new LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres along with the updatedabsolute flux calibration, whereas the additional random component isfound to disappear in a broadband version of the IRFM using an infraredreference flux derived from wide rather than narrow band photometricdata. Table 1 and 2 are only available in the electronic form of thispaper Statistical equilibrium of lithium in the atmospheres of late-type stars: lithium-rich G-K giants.Not Available Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution SpectraIRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed. On a Rapid Lithium Enrichment and Depletion of K Giant StarsA model scenario has recently been introduced by de la Reza andcolleagues to explain the presence of very strong Li lines in thespectra of some low-mass K giant stars. In this scenario all ordinary,Li-poor, K giants become Li rich during a short time (~105 yr) whencompared to the red giant phase of 5 x 107 yr. In this "Li period," alarge number of the stars are associated with an expanding thincircumstellar shell supposedly triggered by an abrupt internal mixingmechanism resulting in a surface new 7Li enrichment. This Letterpresents nearly 40 Li-rich K giants known up to now. The distribution ofthese Li-rich giants, along with 41 other observed K giants that haveshells but are not Li rich, in a color-color IRAS diagram confirms thisscenario, which indicates, also as a new result, that a rapid Lidepletion takes place on a timescale of between ~103 and 105 yr. Thismodel explains the problem of the presence of K giants with far-infraredexcesses presented by Zuckerman and colleagues. Other present and futuretests of this scenario are briefly discussed. A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Lithium Enrichment--Mass-Loss Connection in K Giant StarsBased on observed far-infrared properties of K giant stars, we propose ascenario linking the high Li abundances of some of these stars to theevolution of circumstellar shells. In this model, every K giant withmasses between 1.0 and 2.5 Mȯ become Li rich during the red giantbranch stage, and the internal mechanism responsible for the Lienrichment will initiate a prompt mass-loss event. The evolutionarypaths of the detached shells are compatible with observations for lowexpansion velocities of the order of 2 km s-1 and mass loss of (2--5) x10-8 Mȯ yr-1. This modest mass loss is, however, 2 orders ofmagnitude larger than those of normal, Li-poor K giants. A "Li time" ofthe order of 80,000 yr or somewhat larger is possible. This Li phase is,nevertheless, not related to the 12C/13C ratio which appears to evolve,for these low-mass stars, over a much longer time. This model requires arapid internal process of Li enrichment and depletion. New argumentsappearing in the literature concerning this internal process arediscussed. Reference is also made to the importance of these stars tothe Galactic Li evolution. Rotational velocity for lithium-rich evolved stars.Precise rotational velocities have been determined for 12 lithium-richgiant stars using the CORAVEL spectrometer. Except for HD 9746, thelithium-rich giants show normal rotational velocities with respect totypical lithium-normal giants of the same spectral type. Further, wehave found no sign of binarity for the lithium-rich giants. The Li K giant starsNot Available Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. CNO Abundances and 12/C/13/C Ratios in the Atmospheres of Lithium-Rich GiantsNot Available Some problems of chemical composition of stellar atmospheres.Not Available The photometric variability of K giantsWe have photometrically monitored 49 of the more than 200 K giants inthe Yale Catalog of Bright Stars (YCBS) which are named or suspectedvariable stars. Only two (HR 3275 and HR 5219) are clearly variable; afew more program stars and K- and M-giant comparison stars aremarginally variable. Most of these appear to be RS Canum Venaticorum orSR variables. Lithium and rapid rotation in chromospherically active single giantsThe rotational velocities presently obtained via spectroscopicobservations of a group of moderately rapidly rotating, chomosphericallyactive single giants indicate that Gray's (1989) rotostat hypothesisrequires modification. Their rapid rotation appears to be due to high Liabundances, and results in increased chromospheric activity. A scenariois projected in which the surface convection zone reaches the rapidlyrotating core just as a star begins its first ascent of the giantbranch, and dredges both high angular momentum material and freshlysynthesized Li to the surface. The correction in right ascension of 508 stars determinated with PMO photoelectric transit instrument.Not Available Lithium in red giantsThe Li abundances in Pop-I red giants are reviewed and discussed interms of the depletion mechanism and theoretical problems of theanomalous Li-rich red giants. The Li measurements are compared to thevalues predicted by the standard evolutionary model, and the objects areconsidered in five distinct groups. CNO abundances and C-12/C-13 ratiosare listed for several types of red giants to consider the Li content,Li production, and the Be-7 transport mechanism. The general pattern ofLi abundances agrees with the depletion of Li related to thepre-main-sequence phase. The red giants that show evidence of deepmixing are the S- and C-stars, weak G-band stars, and normal K-giants,in which the original Li has been destroyed. The Be-7 transportmechanism accounts for the high Li content in the S- and C-stars. Someexplanations are given for the Li production in red giants that are lessluminous. Binarity and Abundance Anomalies in StarsNot Available Turbulence and the Lithium Abundance in Giants and Main-Sequence Disk and Halo StarsNot Available A critical appraisal of published values of (Fe/H) for K II-IV stars'Primary' (Fe/H) averages are presented for 373 evolved K stars ofluminosity classes II-IV and (Fe/H) values beween -0.9 and +0.21 dex.The data define a 'consensus' zero point with a precision of + or -0.018 dex and have rms errors per datum which are typically 0.08-0.16dex. The primary data base makes recalibration possible for the large(Fe/H) catalogs of Hansen and Kjaergaard (1971) and Brown et al. (1989).A set of (Fe/H) standard stars and a new DDO calibration are given whichhave rms of 0.07 dex or less for the standard star data. For normal Kgiants, CN-based values of (Fe/H) turn out to be more precise than manyhigh-dispersion results. Some zero-point errors in the latter are alsofound and new examples of continuum-placement problems appear. Thushigh-dispersion results are not invariably superior to photometricmetallicities. A review of high-dispersion and related work onsupermetallicity in K III-IV star is also given. The abundance of nitrogen and the 12C/13C ratio in the atmospheres of two giants 9 Bootis and ro Bootis.Not Available
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