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|The Circumstellar Environment of T Tauri S at High Spatial and Spectral Resolution|
We have obtained the first high spatial (0.05") and spectral (R~35,000)resolution 2 μm spectrum of the T Tau S tight binary system usingadaptive optics on the Keck II telescope. We have also obtained thefirst 3.8 and 4.7 μm images that resolve the three components of theT Tau multiple system, as well as new 1.6 and 2.2 μm images. Togetherwith its very red near-infrared colors, the spectrum of T Tau Sb showsthat this T Tauri star is extincted by a roughly constant extinction ofAV~15 mag, which is probably the 0.7"×0.5" circumbinarystructure recently observed in absorption in the ultraviolet. T Tau Sa,which is also observed through this screen and is actively accreting,further possesses a small edge-on disk that is evidenced by warm (390K), narrow overtone CO rovibrational absorption features in ourspectrum. We find that T Tau Sa is most likely an intermediate-mass starsurrounded by a semitransparent 2-3 AU radius disk whose asymmetries andshort Keplerian rotation explain the large photometric variability ofthe source on relatively short timescales. We also show that molecularhydrogen emission exclusively arises from the gas that surrounds T Tau Sand that its spatial and kinematic structure, while providing suggestiveevidence of a jetlike structure, is highly complex.
|Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion|
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).
|The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra|
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.
|LkHα 101 and the Young Cluster in NGC 1579|
The central region of the dark cloud L1482 is illuminated by LkHα101, a heavily reddened (AV~10 mag) high-luminosity(>=8×103 Lsolar) star having an unusualemission-line spectrum plus a featureless continuum. About 35 muchfainter (mostly between R=16 and >21) Hα emitters have been foundin the cloud. Their color-magnitude distribution suggests a median ageof about 0.5 Myr, with considerable dispersion. There are also at leastfive bright B-type stars in the cloud, presumably of about the same age;none show the peculiarities expected of HAeBe stars. Dereddened, theirapparent V magnitudes lead to a distance of about 700 pc. Radioobservations suggest that the optical object LkHα 101 is in fact ahot star surrounded by a small H II region, both inside an opticallythick dust shell. The level of ionization inferred from the shape of theradio continuum corresponds to a Lyman continuum luminosity appropriatefor an early B-type zero-age main-sequence star. The V-I color isconsistent with a heavily reddened star of that type. However, theoptical spectrum does not conform to this expectation: the absorptionlines of an OB star are not detected. Also, the [O III] lines of an H IIregion are absent, possibly because those upper levels are collisionallydeexcited at high densities. There are several distinct contributors tothe optical spectrum of LkHα 101. The Hα emission line isvery strong, with wings extending to about +/-1700 km s-1,which could be produced by a thin overlying layer of hot electronscatterers. There is no sign of P Cygni type mass ejection. Lines of SiII are narrower, while the many Fe II lines are still narrower and aredouble with a splitting of about 20 km s-1. Lines of [Fe II],[O I], and [S II] are similarly sharp but are single, at the samevelocity as the Fe II average. Work by Tuthill et al. allowed theinference, from K-band interferometry, that the central source isactually a small horseshoe-shaped arc about 0.05" (35 AU) across. Atipped annulus of that size in rotation about a 15 Msolarstar would produce double spectrum lines having about the splittingobserved for Fe II. The totality of observational evidence encouragesthe belief that LkHα 101 is a massive star caught in an earlyevolutionary state.
|Subgiants as probes of galactic chemical evolution|
Chemical abundances for 23 candidate subgiant stars have been derivedwith the aim at exploring their usefulness for studies of galacticchemical evolution. High-resolution spectra from ESO CAT-CES andNOT-SOFIN covered 16 different spectral regions in the visible part ofthe spectrum. Some 200 different atomic and molecular spectral lineshave been used for abundance analysis of 30 elemental species. Thewings of strong, pressure-broadened metal lines were used fordetermination of stellar surface gravities, which have been comparedwith gravities derived from HIPPARCOS parallaxes and isochronic masses.Stellar space velocities have been derived from HIPPARCOS and Simbaddata, and ages and masses were derived with recent isochrones. Only 12of the stars turned out to be subgiants, i.e. on the ``horizontal'' partof the evolutionary track between the dwarf- and the giant stages. Theabundances derived for the subgiants correspond closely to those ofdwarf stars. With the possible exceptions of lithium and carbon we findthat subgiant stars show no ``chemical'' traces of post-main-sequenceevolution and that they are therefore very useful targets for studies ofgalactic chemical evolution.Based on observations made at ESO, La Silla.Based on observations made at NOT, La Palma.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|Observations of Star-Forming Regions with the Midcourse Space Experiment|
We have imaged seven nearby star-forming regions, the Rosette Nebula,the Orion Nebula, W3, the Pleiades, G300.2-16.8, S263, and G159.6-18.5,with the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope on the Midcourse SpaceExperiment (MSX) satellite at 18" resolution at 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and21.3 μm. The large angular scale of the regions imaged (~7.2-50deg2) makes these data unique in terms of the combination ofsize and resolution. In addition to the star-forming regions, twocirrus-free fields (MSXBG 160 and MSXBG 161) and a field near the southGalactic pole (MSXBG 239) were also imaged. Point sources have beenextracted from each region, resulting in the identification over 500 newsources (i.e., no identified counterparts at other wavelengths), as wellas over 1300 with prior identifications. The extended emission from thestar-forming regions is described, and prominent structures areidentified, particularly in W3 and Orion. The Rosette Nebula isdiscussed in detail. The bulk of the mid-infrared emission is consistentwith that of photon-dominated regions, including the elephant trunkcomplex. The central clump, however, and a line of site toward thenorthern edge of the cavity show significantly redder colors than therest of the Rosette complex.
|Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem Hipparcos Binaries. II. Observations Obtained in 1998-1999 from McDonald Observatory|
The Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 9734 known doublestars, 3406 new double stars, and 11,687 unresolved but possible doublestars. The high angular resolution afforded by speckle interferometrymakes it an efficient means to confirm these systems from the ground,which were first discovered from space. Because of its coverage of adifferent region of angular separation-magnitude difference(ρ-Δm) space, speckle interferometry also holds promise toascertain the duplicity of the unresolved Hipparcos ``problem'' stars.Presented are observations of 116 new Hipparcos double stars and 469Hipparcos ``problem stars,'' as well as 238 measures of other doublestars and 246 other high-quality nondetections. Included in these areobservations of double stars listed in the Tycho-2 Catalogue andpossible grid stars for the Space Interferometry Mission.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Spectroscopy of globular cluster candidates in the Sculptor group galaxies NGC 253 and 55|
We have obtained spectra for 103 published globular cluster candidatesin the Sculptor group galaxies NGC 253 and 55. On the basis of radialvelocities and digitized plate images, 14 globular clusters areidentified in NGC 253 and one probable globular cluster is identified inNGC 55. The majority of the objects in the sample appear to bebackground galaxies. We have obtained and analysed COSMOS plate scans ofNGC 253 and 55 and use these along with the spectroscopically identifiedclusters to define new samples of globular cluster candidates in the twogalaxies which should have reduced contamination.
|K-Band Calibration of the Red Clump Luminosity|
The average near-infrared (K-band) luminosity of 238 Hipparcos red clumpgiants is derived and then used to measure the distance to the Galacticcenter. These Hipparcos red clump giants have been previously employedas I-band standard candles. The advantage of the K-band is a decreasedsensitivity to reddening and perhaps a reduced systematic dependence onmetallicity. In order to investigate the latter, and also to refer ourcalibration to a known metallicity zero point, we restrict our sample ofred clump calibrators to those with abundances derived fromhigh-resolution spectroscopic data. The mean metallicity of the sampleis [Fe/H]=-0.18 dex (σ=0.17 dex). The data are consistent with nocorrelation between MK and [Fe/H] and only weakly constrainthe slope of this relation. The luminosity function of the sample peaksat MK=-1.61+/-0.03 mag. Next, we assemble published opticaland near-infrared photometry for ~20 red clump giants in a Baade'swindow field with a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-0.17+/-0.09 dex, whichis nearly identical to that of the Hipparcos red clump. Assuming thatthe average (V-I)0 and (V-K)0 colors of these twored clumps are the same, the extinctions in the Baade's window field arefound to be AV=1.56, AI=0.87, andAK=0.15, in agreement with previous estimates. We derive thedistance to the Galactic center: (m-M)0=14.58+/-0.11 mag, orR=8.24+/-0.42 kpc. The uncertainty in this distance measurement isdominated by the small number of Baade's window red clump giantsexamined here.
|Estimation of Stellar Metal Abundance. II. A Recalibration of the Ca II K Technique, and the Autocorrelation Function Method|
We have recalibrated a method for the estimation of stellar metalabundance, parameterized as [Fe/H], based on medium-resolution (1-2Å) optical spectra (the majority of which cover the wavelengthrange 3700-4500 Å). The equivalent width of the Ca II K line (3933Å) as a function of [Fe/H] and broadband B-V color, as predictedfrom spectrum synthesis and model atmosphere calculations, is comparedwith observations of 551 stars with high-resolution abundances availablefrom the literature (a sevenfold increase in the number of calibrationstars that were previously available). A second method, based on theFourier autocorrelation function technique first described by Ratnatunga& Freeman, is used to provide an independent estimate of [Fe/H], ascalibrated by comparison with 405 standard-star abundances.Metallicities based on a combination of the two techniques for dwarfsand giants in the color range 0.30<=(B-V)_0<=1.2 exhibit anexternal 1 sigma scatter of approximately 0.10-0.20 dex over theabundance range -4.0<=[Fe/H]<=0.5. Particular attention has beengiven to the determination of abundance estimates at the metal-rich endof the calibration, where our previous attempt suffered from aconsiderable zero-point offset. Radial velocities, accurate toapproximately 10 km s^-1, are reported for all 551 calibration stars.
|Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K stars|
A catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition|
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Spectroscopic Orbits for Three Binaries with Low-Mass Companions and the Distribution of Secondary Masses near the Substellar Limit|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...466..415M&db_key=AST
|The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).|
The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51.
|The Edinburgh-Durham Southern Galaxy Catalogue - VII. The Edinburgh-Milano cluster redshift survey|
In this paper, we present the redshifts of the galaxies and galaxyclusters which form the Edinburgh-Milano (EM) cluster redshift survey. Atotal of 777 galaxy redshifts have been measured in 94 clustersextracted from the digitized Edinburgh-Durham Cluster Catalogue. We alsopresent the radial velocity dispersions for 37 clusters. Observationaland data reduction techniques are discussed in detail, together with thestrategy adopted to determine the mean redshift of a cluster and toidentify and discard plausible phantom clusters. Some 10 per cent of ourclusters show heavy contamination, indicating that projection is aserious problem for optically selected, rich clusters. The medianvelocity dispersion estimated for a subsample of richness R>=1clusters is 742+/-63 km s^-1. From a simple comparison with Omega=1 colddark matter models of structure formation, these results favour abiasing parameter b=1.6-2.0 and are inconsistent with a bias outside ofthe range b=1.3-2.5.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|The photometric variability of K giants|
We have photometrically monitored 49 of the more than 200 K giants inthe Yale Catalog of Bright Stars (YCBS) which are named or suspectedvariable stars. Only two (HR 3275 and HR 5219) are clearly variable; afew more program stars and K- and M-giant comparison stars aremarginally variable. Most of these appear to be RS Canum Venaticorum orSR variables.
|Evolved GK stars near the sun. I - The old disk population|
A sample of nearly two thousand GK giants with intermediate band, (R,I),DDO and Geneva photometry has been assembled. Astrometric data is alsoavailable for most of the stars. The some 800 members of the old diskpopulation in the sample yield accurate luminosities (from two sources),reddening values and chemical abundances from calibrations of thephotometric parameters. Less than one percent of the objects arepeculiar in the sense that the flux distribution is abnormal. Thepeculiarity is signaled by strong CH (and Ba II) and weak CH. The CH+stars are all spectroscopic binaries, probably with white dwarfcompanions, whereas the CH- stars are not. A broad absorption band,centered near 3500 A, is found in the CH+ stars whereas the CH- objectshave a broad emission feature in the same region. The intensity of theseabsorptions and emissions are independent of the intensity of abnormalspectral features. Ten percent of the old disk sample have a heavyelement abundance from one and a half to three times the solar value.The distribution of the heavy element abundances is nearly a normal onewith a peak near solar abundance and ranges three times to one sixthsolar. The distribution of the (U, V) velocities is independent of theheavy element abundance and does not appear to be random. Ten percent ofthe old disk stars show a CN anomaly, equally divided between CN strongand CN weak. Several stars of individual astrometric or astrophysicalimportance are isolated.
|Velocity dispersions and mean abundances for Roman's G5-K1 spectroscopic groups|
The velocity dispersions and U-V distributions of Roman's (1950, 1952)four spectroscopic groups (weak CN, weak line, strong line, and 4150)are compared with those of groups based only on Fe/H ratio. It is shownthat the velocity-dispersion gradient for the Roman spectroscopic groupsis greater than for the comparison group for all three velocitycomponents and for the mean orbital eccentricity, with a clearly definedminimum for the strong-line stars and a sharp upturn for the 4150 stars.The results suggest that the Roman's assignment to distinctspectroscopic groups results in more homogeneous groups than the binningon the basis of metallicity.
|A critical appraisal of published values of (Fe/H) for K II-IV stars|
'Primary' (Fe/H) averages are presented for 373 evolved K stars ofluminosity classes II-IV and (Fe/H) values beween -0.9 and +0.21 dex.The data define a 'consensus' zero point with a precision of + or -0.018 dex and have rms errors per datum which are typically 0.08-0.16dex. The primary data base makes recalibration possible for the large(Fe/H) catalogs of Hansen and Kjaergaard (1971) and Brown et al. (1989).A set of (Fe/H) standard stars and a new DDO calibration are given whichhave rms of 0.07 dex or less for the standard star data. For normal Kgiants, CN-based values of (Fe/H) turn out to be more precise than manyhigh-dispersion results. Some zero-point errors in the latter are alsofound and new examples of continuum-placement problems appear. Thushigh-dispersion results are not invariably superior to photometricmetallicities. A review of high-dispersion and related work onsupermetallicity in K III-IV star is also given.
|High-resolution spectroscopic survey of 671 GK giants. I - Stellar atmosphere parameters and abundances|
A high-resolution spectroscopic survey of 671 G and K field giants isdescribed. Broad-band Johnson colors have been calibrated againstrecent, accurate effective temperature, T(eff), measurements for starsin the range 3900-6000 K. A table of polynomial coefficients for 10color-T(eff) relations is presented. Stellar atmosphere parameters,including T(eff), log g, Fe/H, and microturbulent velocity, are computedfor each star, using the high-resolution spectra and various publishedphotometric catalogs. For each star, elemental abundances for a varietyof species have been computed using a LTE spectrum synthesis program andthe adopted atmosphere parameters.
|The dynamics and structure of rich clusters of galaxies. I - Velocity data|
An extensive spectroscopic study of 10 rich southern X-ray clusters ofgalaxies is presented. Between 40 and 200 redshifts have been obtainedin the field of each of the clusters, which cover a wide range ofmorphological types and richnesses. Applying rigorous statisticalanalyses to the total data base of 1000 precise radial velocitiesprovides the necessary information to undertake a thorough dynamicalinvestigation of these individual clusters and of cluster systems ingeneral.
|Large and kinematically unbiased samples of G- and K-type stars. IV - Evolved stars of the old disk population|
Modified Stromgren and (R,I) photometry, along with DDO and Genevaphotometry, are presented for a complete sample of evolved old-disk Gand K giants in the Bright Star Catalogue. Stars with ages of between1.5 x 10 to the 9th and 10 to the 10th yr are found to have anear-normal distribution of heavy element abundances, centered on anFe/H abundance ratio of -0.1 dex. The old disk clusters NGC 3680 and IC4651 contain red-straggler young-disk giants that are probablycontemporaries of the blue stragglers in the clusters.
|Large and kinematically unbiased samples of G- and K-type stars. II - Observations of evolved stars in the Bright Star sample. III - Evolved young disk stars in the Bright Star sample|
Four color and RI observations were obtained for a large sample ofG-type and K-type stars in the Bright Star Catalogue. Data are firstpresented for 110 evolved stars. Photometry of evolved young diskpopulation stars have then been calibrated for luminosity, reddening,and metallicity on the basis of results for members of the Hyades andSirius superclusters. New DDO results are given for 120 stars.
|The Perkins catalog of revised MK types for the cooler stars|
A catalog is presented listing the spectral types of the G, K, M, and Sstars that have been classified at the Perkins Observatory in therevised MK system. Extensive comparisons have been made to ensureconsistency between the MK spectral types of stars in the Northern andSouthern Hemispheres. Different classification spectrograms have beengradually improved in spite of some inherent limitations. In thecatalog, the full subclasses used are the following: G0, G5, G8, K0, K1,K2, K3, K4, K5, M0, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, and M8. Theirregularities are the price paid for keeping the general scheme of theoriginal Henry Draper classification.
|Radial velocities of bright southern stars. VI - Standard and reference stars 1983-1986|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1987A&AS...68..347A&db_key=AST
|Radial velocities of CaII emission stars - Photographic data|
Photographically determined radial velocities are given for eighteenstars selected from lists of G, K and M stars with strong CaII emissionreversals. The results of observations of radial velocity standards arealso given.
|Radial velocities of standard stars|
Radial-velocity observations obtained over a five-year period with theMcDonald Observatory photoelectric radial-velocity spectrometer arereported for those stars not known to be velocity variable. There are259 stars included in the 1650 observations of the spectral type rangeF0 to M0 and brighter than a V of 6.5 mag. For the best-observed 134stars, the standard error of the mean velocity is typically better than+ or - 0.9 km/s. Sixteen stars are shown to be constant to a sufficientlevel to warrant standard-star status. Six possible spectroscopicbinaries are found.
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