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HD 204961 (Proxima Gruis)



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Far-Infrared Properties of M Dwarfs
We report the mid- and far-infrared properties of nearby M dwarfs.Spitzer MIPS measurements were obtained for a sample of 62 stars at 24μm, with subsamples of 41 and 20 stars observed at 70 and 160 μm,respectively. We compare the results with current models of M starphotospheres and look for indications of circumstellar dust in the formof significant deviations of K-[24 μm] colors and 70 μm/24 μmflux ratios from the average M star values. At 24 μm, all 62 of thetargets were detected; 70 μm detections were achieved for 20 targetsin the subsample observed, and no detections were seen in the 160 μmsubsample. No clear far-infrared excesses were detected in our sample.The average far-infrared excess relative to the photospheric emission ofthe M stars is at least 4 times smaller than the similar average for asample of solar-type stars. However, this limit allows the averagefractional infrared luminosity in the M-star sample to be similar tothat for more massive stars. We have also set low limits(10-4 to 10-9 M⊕ depending onlocation) for the maximum mass of dust possible around our stars.

The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. VI. A Neptune-mass planet around the nearby M dwarf Gl 581
We report the discovery of a Neptune-mass planet around Gl 581 (M3V, M =0.31 Mȯ), based on precise Doppler measurements with the HARPSspectrograph at La Silla Observatory. The radial velocities reveal acircular orbit of period P = 5.366 days and semi-amplitude K1= 13.2 m s-1. The resulting minimum mass of the planet(M2 sin i) is only 0.052 MJup = 0.97MNep = 16.6 MEarth making Gl 581b one of thelightest extra-solar planet known to date. The Gl 581 planetary systemis only the third centered on an M dwarf, joining the Gl 876three-planet system and the lone planet around Gl 436. Its discoveryreinforces the emerging tendency of such planets to be of low mass, andfound at short orbital periods. The statistical properties of theplanets orbiting M dwarfs do not seem to match a simple mass scaling oftheir counterparts around solar-type stars.

Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

NEXXUS: A comprehensive ROSAT survey of coronal X-ray emission among nearby solar-like stars
We present a final summary of all ROSAT X-ray observations of nearbystars. All available ROSAT observations with the ROSAT PSPC, HRI and WFChave been matched with the CNS4 catalog of nearby stars and the resultsgathered in the Nearby X-ray and XUV-emitting Stars data base, availablevia www from the Home Page of the Hamburger Sternwarte at the URLhttp://www.hs.uni-hamburg.de/DE/For/Gal/Xgroup/nexxus. Newvolume-limited samples of F/G-stars (dlim = 14 pc), K-stars(dlim = 12 pc), and M-stars (dlim = 6 pc) areconstructed within which detection rates of more than 90% are obtained;only one star (GJ 1002) remains undetected in a pointed follow-upobservation. F/G-stars, K-stars and M-stars have indistinguishablesurface X-ray flux distributions, and the lower envelope of the observeddistribution at FX ≈ 104 erg/cm2/sis the X-ray flux level observed in solar coronal holes. Large amplitudevariations in X-ray flux are uncommon for solar-like stars, but maybemore common for stars near the bottom of the main sequence; a largeamplitude flare is reported for the M star LHS 288. Long term X-raylight curves are presented for α Cen A/B and Gl 86, showingvariations on time scales of weeks and demonstrating that α Cen Bis a flare star.Tables 1-3 are also available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/417/651

Target Selection for SETI. II. Tycho-2 Dwarfs, Old Open Clusters, and the Nearest 100 Stars
We present the full target list and prioritization algorithm developedfor use by the microwave search for technological signals at the SETIInstitute. We have included the Catalog of Nearby Habitable StellarSystems (HabCat, described in Paper I), all of the nearest 100 stars and14 old open clusters. This is further augmented by a subset of theTycho-2 catalog based on reduced proper motions, and this larger catalogshould routinely provide at least three target stars within the largeprimary field of view of the Allen Telescope Array. The algorithm forprioritizing objects in the full target list includes scoring based onthe subset category of each target (i.e., HabCat, cluster, Tycho-2, ornearest 100), its distance (if known), and its proximity to the Sun onthe color-magnitude diagram.

Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised Catalog
We complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Extrasolar planets around HD 196050, HD 216437 and HD 160691
We report precise Doppler measurements of the stars HD 216437, HD 196050and HD 160691 obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope using theUCLES spectrometer together with an iodine cell as part of theAnglo-Australian Planet Search. Our measurements reveal periodicKeplerian velocity variations that we interpret as evidence for planetsin orbit around these solar type stars. HD 216437 has a period of 1294+/- 250 d, a semi-amplitude of 38 +/- 3 m s-1 and aneccentricity of 0.33 +/- 0.09. The minimum (M sin i) mass of thecompanion is 2.1 +/- 0.3 MJUP and the semi-major axis is 2.4+/- 0.5 au. HD 196050 has a period of 1300 +/- 230 d, a semi-amplitudeof 49 +/- 8 m s-1 and an eccentricity of 0.19 +/- 0.09. Theminimum mass of the companion is 2.8 +/- 0.5 MJUP and thesemi-major axis is 2.4 +/- 0.5 au. We also report further observationsof the metal-rich planet bearing star HD 160691. Our new solutionconfirms the previously reported planet and shows a trend indicating asecond, longer-period companion. These discoveries add to the growingnumbers of mildly eccentric, long-period extrasolar planets aroundmetal-rich Sun-like stars.

The radii and spectra of the nearest stars
We discuss direct measurements of the radii of 36 stars located closerthan 25 parsecs to the Sun. We present the data on 307 radii and 326spectral types and luminosity classes for the nearest stars locatedinside the sphere with a radius of 10 parsecs.

UBV(RI)C photometry of Hipparcos red stars
We present homogeneous and standardized UBV(RI)C photometryfor nearly 550 M stars selected from the Hipparcos satellite data baseusing the following selection criteria: lack of obvious variability (noHipparcos variability flag); δ<+10°(V-I)>1.7 and Vmagnitude fainter than about 7.6. Comparisons are made between thecurrent photometry, other ground-based data sets and Hipparcosphotometry. We use linear discriminant analysis to determine aluminosity segregation criterion for late-type stars, and principalcomponent analysis to study the statistical structure of the colourindices and to calibrate absolute magnitude in terms of (V-I) for thedwarf stars. Various methods are used to determine the mean absolutemagnitude of the giant stars. We find 10 dwarf stars, apparentlypreviously unrecognized (prior to Hipparcos) as being within 25pc,including five within 20pc.

Revised Coordinates and Proper Motions of the Stars in the Luyten Half-Second Catalog
We present refined coordinates and proper-motion data for the highproper-motion (HPM) stars in the Luyten Half-Second (LHS) catalog. Thepositional uncertainty in the original Luyten catalog is typicallygreater than 10" and is often greater than 30". We have used the digitalscans of the POSS I and POSS II plates to derive more accurate positionsand proper motions of the objects. Out of the 4470 candidates in the LHScatalog, 4323 objects were manually reidentified in the POSS I and POSSII scans. A small fraction of the stars were not found because of thelack of finder charts and digitized POSS II scans. The uncertainties inthe revised positions are typically ~2" but can be as high as ~8" in afew cases, which is a large improvement over the original data.Cross-correlation with the Tycho-2 and Hipparcos catalogs yielded 819candidates (with mR<~12). For these brighter sources, theposition and proper-motion data were replaced with the more accurateTycho-2/Hipparcos data. In total, we have revised proper-motionmeasurements and coordinates for 4040 stars and revised coordinates for4330 stars. The electronic version of the paper5 contains the updated information on all 4470stars in the LHS catalog.

Echelle spectroscopy of Caii HK activity in Southern Hemisphere planet search targets
We present the results of ultraviolet echelle spectroscopy of a sampleof 59 F, G, K and M stars from the Anglo-Australian Planet Search targetlist. Caii activity indices, which are essential in the interpretationof planet detection claims, have been determined for these stars andplaced on the Mount Wilson R 'HK system.

Stellar encounters with the solar system
We continue our search, based on Hipparcos data, for stars which haveencountered or will encounter the solar system(García-Sánchez et al. \cite{Garcia}). Hipparcos parallaxand proper motion data are combined with ground-based radial velocitymeasurements to obtain the trajectories of stars relative to the solarsystem. We have integrated all trajectories using three different modelsof the galactic potential: a local potential model, a global potentialmodel, and a perturbative potential model. The agreement between themodels is generally very good. The time period over which our search forclose passages is valid is about +/-10 Myr. Based on the Hipparcos data,we find a frequency of stellar encounters within one parsec of the Sunof 2.3 +/- 0.2 per Myr. However, we also find that the Hipparcos data isobservationally incomplete. By comparing the Hipparcos observations withthe stellar luminosity function for star systems within 50 pc of theSun, we estimate that only about one-fifth of the stars or star systemswere detected by Hipparcos. Correcting for this incompleteness, weobtain a value of 11.7 +/- 1.3 stellar encounters per Myr within one pcof the Sun. We examine the ability of two future missions, FAME andGAIA, to extend the search for past and future stellar encounters withthe Sun.

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

A systematic analysis of X-ray variability of dM stars
We have systematically analyzed X-ray variability of dM stars. Our database is the sample of all dM stars listed in the CNS3 (Gliese &Jahreiss 1991) catalog which have been observed with the ROSAT PSPC. Ourdata sample includes 86 pointed observations of 55 distinct stars ormultiple systems. A large fraction of stars shows significantvariations, regardless of their quiescent flux. Variability is detectedon all observable time scales. The amplitudes of these variations areindependent of both stellar X-ray and visual luminosity. Compared tosolar X-ray variability properties our results suggest that theamplitude distribution of X-ray variability in dM stars is consistentwith the analogous distribution for solar flares. We discuss the effectof variability on the spread observed in the X-ray luminosity functionof M stars. The comparison of our data with those obtained with EinsteinIPC shows that variations on time scales shorter than a few month aremore common than long term variations comparable to, e.g., the 11 yearssolar cycle.

Stellar Encounters with the Oort Cloud Based on HIPPARCOS Data
We have combined Hipparcos proper-motion and parallax data for nearbystars with ground-based radial velocity measurements to find stars thatmay have passed (or will pass) close enough to the Sun to perturb theOort cloud. Close stellar encounters could deflect large numbers ofcomets into the inner solar system, which would increase the impacthazard at Earth. We find that the rate of close approaches by starsystems (single or multiple stars) within a distance D (in parsecs) fromthe Sun is given by N= 3.5D^2.12 Myr^-1, less than the number predictedby a simple stellar dynamics model. However, this value is clearly alower limit because of observational incompleteness in the Hipparcosdata set. One star, Gliese 710, is estimated to have a closest approachof less than 0.4 pc 1.4 Myr in the future, and several stars come within1 pc during a +/-10 Myr interval. We have performed dynamicalsimulations that show that none of the passing stars perturb the Oortcloud sufficiently to create a substantial increase in the long-periodcomet flux at Earth's orbit.

Supplementary southern standards for UBV(RI)c photometry
We present UBV(RI)c photometry for 80 southern red and blue stars foruse as additional standards. The data are tied to the Johnson UBV andCousins (RI)c systems and extend the range of the available stars forcolor equation determination, especially in (U-B) for blue stars and(V-R) and (V-I) for red stars. Comparisons with published data are madeand particularly good agreement is found with Bessell for the red(Gliese) stars.

ISOPHOT S Observations of 3 M Dwarfs
The M dwarfs GL 832 (spectral type M2), GL 887 (M1), and GL 1 (M2) havebeen observed with the ISOPHOT spectrophotometers in the range2.5-12µm at high signal-to-noise ratios. Since optical and groundbased near-infrared data are also available, more than 95 % of the totalflux is now covered for these objects. It is seen that between 2.5µm and about 9 µm the fluxes fall off faster than aRayleigh-Jeans tail of a black body distribution and that for longerwavelengths the decline is smaller. This indicates that the ISO data areprobing the region around the temperature minimum and that our starshave some kind of chromosphere although Hα emission is notobserved. Comparison with a model indicates that the features areconsiderably weaker than predicted.

ISOPHOT S observations of M dwarfs: implications for the vertical temperature stratification.
Not Available

Observation and modelling of main sequence stellar chromospheres. VI. Halpha_ and CaII line observations of M1 dwarfs and comparison with models.
We compare hydrogen and calcium line calculations for dM1 (Teff=3500K)stellar chromospheres with high resolution observations of a selectedsample of stars with the same spectral type ((R-I)_K_=0.875+/-0.05). Webring evidence that grids of uniform model atmospheres in theplane-parallel and hydrostatic equilibrium approximations can reproducethe average spectral signatures throughout the entire activity range.Observations confirm that when magnetic activity level rises, theHα line is first weak, then increases in absorption strength,rapidly fills in and eventually goes into emission. We obtain acorrelation between the Hα line width and equivalent width that isin good agreement with our model calculations. Simultaneous Hα andCaII line observations allow to remove the degeneracy in Hαequivalent width for low activity (weak absorption) and intermediateactivity stars (filled in profiles). We show that the latter grouprepresents a significant proportion of the stellar population. Withinthe active stars group, we find an exclusion zone in the[0.25Å;-1Å] Hα equivalent width domain, that can besimply explained by the rapid change from the absorption to the emissionregimes when the chromospheric pressure increases. In our sample of 154stars, covering a large luminosity range, we found no ``zero-Hα''stars but instead a minimum (possibly ``basal'') Hα equivalentwidth of ~0.20Å which, with reference to our models, suggests atransition region column mass of log(M)~-5.5. This implies that for anoverwhelming majority of M1 type dwarfs the amount of non-thermal energyinput in the chromosphere is much higher than in the Sun, and byreference to acoustic heating calculations, that they are alsomagnetically much more active (per unit area). Our observations provideevidence for gradual and important changes in the integrated physicalproperties of the chromosphere throughout the activity range. Forexample, the equivalent widths of the H and K line cores are tightlycorrelated with their ratio, the later decreasing from low activity(~1.50 at -0.2Å) to high activity stars (~1.06 at -15Å). TheK lines are also typically 30% broader than the H lines and their widthsincrease with increasing activity level. This suggests that theiroptical depths in their region of formation also increase withincreasing activity level. Our calcium line calculations reproduce theobserved trends. We confirm a near UV and blue excess in active dMestars that increases with activity level; in average 0.12 magnitudes inU-B (and up to 0.26mag.) and 0.03 magnitudes in B-V. This excess isabout three times larger than expected from our calculations for a givenatmospheric pressure, and together with discrepancies between models andobservations for spectral lines, all converge to imply that highpressure plages with a filling factor of about 30% are present on thesestars. Low metallicity halo dwarfs in our sample also exhibit a U-Bexcess, but in the case of single dMe stars an effect of metallicity isexcluded. In our sample, single dMe stars are more luminous than theirless active absorption line counterparts. We present anactivity-luminosity relationship for the CaII lines; namely, the CaIIline fluxes rise as the power of 5.4 of the stellar radius. Hence, weexpect the stellar magnetic flux to rise approximately as the power of7.4 of the radius; an important constraint for the dynamo mechanism.Such a correlation is also found with Hα and L_X_, the X-rayluminosity. With our present understanding, these correlations are, atleast partly, activity-metallicity relationships. We emphasize theimportance of metallicity on stellar activity as a whole, i.e., metaldeficient stars are also activity deficient.

Astrometric positions of stars with high proper motions in the Southern Hemisphere
Several stars with large proper motions, cited by W.J. Luyten, wereincluded in the preliminary programme for the HIPPARCOS mission. Whenperforming preparatory measurements of plates, difficulties wereencountered in identifying certain of these stars when relying only onpublished coordinates. We have taken advantage of this work whichrelates to the southern sky in order to determine the astrometricposition of the greatest possible number of these objects, even forthose which were not included in the programme. Catalogue is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

A search for companions to nearby southern M dwarfs with near-infrared speckle interferometry.
We searched the 9 M-dwarf primaries nearer than 5pc and south ofdeclination δ=-30^o^ for companions with separations 1-10AU andfound none. Taken together with the 25 northern primaries studied byHenry and McCarthy (1990ApJ...350..334H) the fraction of binaries andtriples within the now complete sample of all M dwarfs within 5pc is9/34=26+/-9%, and the average number of companions per system is0.32+/-0.10. This is lower by 2σ than the observed multiplicityfraction of 43+/-5%, and companions per system of 0.49+/-0.05 in thesample of nearby solar-type main sequence stars. It is also much lowerthan the extrapolated binary fraction among young stars in Taurus. Wediscuss the implications of this finding.

The FeH Wing-Ford Band in Spectra of M Stars
We study the FeH Wing-Ford band at 9850--10200 A by fitting syntheticspectra to the observations of M stars, employing recent modelatmospheres. On the basis of the spectral synthesis, we analyze thedependence of the band upon atmospheric parameters. FeH lines are a verysensitive surface gravity indicator, being stronger in dwarfs. They arealso sensitive to metallicity. The blending with CN lines, which arestronger in giants, does not affect the response of the Wing-Ford bandto surface gravity at low resolution (or high velocity dispersions),because CN lines, which are spread all along the spectrum, are smearedout at convolutions of FWHM >~ 3 A. We conclude that the Wing-Fordband is a suitable dwarf/giant indicator for the study of compositestellar populations.

EUV activity in late-type stars during the ROSAT WFC All-Sky Survey - I. Techniques and initial results
We study 127 active late-type stars, including the well-known flarestars, in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region of the electromagneticspectrum, using the ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) survey observations.Our analysis includes photometry for all the stars in the sample, timinganalysis of the observed photon events, and a statistical analysis forpossible small-scale, low-level variability. 49 stars in our sample weredetected in one or both EUV wavebands. A total of 35 flares were seen,from 23 stars, not all of them well-known flare stars. In addition,about half of the detections exhibited low-level variability. Furtheranalysis reveals that the observed low-level variability was not due torotational or orbital modulation, but rather was related to small-scaleactivity on the stars, possibly in the form of small-amplitude,flare-like events which were too faint to be recognized as individualflares at the sensitivity of the WFC. We call this low-level activity`milliflaring'. We also give estimated upper-limit count rates for thenon-detections.

The Palomar/MSU Nearby Star Spectroscopic Survey.II.The Southern M Dwarfs and Investigation of Magnetic Activity
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....112.2799H&db_key=AST

Correlations of Coronal X-Ray Emission with Activity, Mass, and Age of the Nearby K and M Dwarfs
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...450..401F&db_key=AST

The X-Ray View of the Low-Mass Stars in the Solar Neighborhood
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...450..392S&db_key=AST

A volume-limited ROSAT survey of extreme ultraviolet emission from all nondegenerate stars within 10 parsecs
We report the results of a volume-limited ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC)survey of all nondegenerate stars within 10 pc. Of the 220 known starsystems within 10 pc, we find that 41 are positive detections in atleast one of the two WFC filter bandpasses (S1 and S2), while weconsider another 14 to be marginal detections. We compute X-rayluminosities for the WFC detections using Einstein Imaging ProportionalCounter (IPC) data, and these IPC luminosities are discussed along withthe WFC luminosities throughout the paper for purposes of comparison.Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity functions are computed for singlestars of different spectral types using both S1 and S2 luminosities, andthese luminosity functions are compared with X-ray luminosity functionsderived by previous authors using IPC data. We also analyze the S1 andS2 luminosity functions of the binary stars within 10 pc. We find thatmost stars in binary systems do not emit EUV radiation at levelsdifferent from those of single stars, but there may be a fewEUV-luminous multiple-star systems which emit excess EUV radiation dueto some effect of binarity. In general, the ratio of X-ray luminosity toEUV luminosity increases with increasing coronal emission, suggestingthat coronally active stars have higher coronal temperatures. We findthat our S1, S2, and IPC luminosities are well correlated withrotational velocity, and we compare activity-rotation relationsdetermined using these different luminosities. Late M stars are found tobe significantly less luminous in the EUV than other late-type stars.The most natural explanation for this results is the concept of coronalsaturation -- the idea that late-type stars can emit only a limitedfraction of their total luminosity in X-ray and EUV radiation, whichmeans stars with very low bolometric luminosities must have relativelylow X-ray and EUV luminosities as well. The maximum level of coronalemission from stars with earlier spectral types is studied also. Tounderstand the saturation levels for these stars, we have compiled alarge number of IPC luminosities for stars with a wide variety ofspectral types and luminosity classes. We show quantitatively that ifthe Sun were completely covered with X-ray-emitting coronal loops, itwould be near the saturation limit implied by this compilation,supporting the idea that stars near upper limits in coronal activity arecompletely covered with active regions.

The MSSSO near-infrared photometric system
The JHKL photometric system currently used at the Mount Stromlo andSiding Spring Observatories (MSSSO) is described via an extensive listof standard-star values and filter transmission curves. At JHK thissystem is identical to the Mount Stromlo Observatory (MSO) systemdefined by Jones and Hyland (1982), except for small zero-pointdifferences which we impose here. Transformations are given between theMSSSO system and several near-infrared photometric systems in use inother observatories and the homogenized JHKL system proposed by Besselland Brett (1988).

ROSAT Extreme Ultraviolet / EUV Luminosity Functions of Nearby Late Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1994MNRAS.267..840H&db_key=AST

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:21h33m34.02s
Apparent magnitude:8.693
Distance:4.938 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:10.54
V-T magnitude:8.846

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesProxima Gruis
HD 1989HD 204961
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 8431-60-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0375-39500074
HIPHIP 106440

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