|B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?|
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.
|Classification of Spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory PHT-S Database|
We have classified over 1500 infrared spectra obtained with the PHT-Sspectrometer aboard the Infrared Space Observatory according to thesystem developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra byKraemer et al. The majority of these spectra contribute to subclassesthat are either underrepresented in the SWS spectral database or containsources that are too faint, such as M dwarfs, to have been observed byeither the SWS or the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Low ResolutionSpectrometer. There is strong overall agreement about the chemistry ofobjects observed with both instruments. Discrepancies can usually betraced to the different wavelength ranges and sensitivities of theinstruments. Finally, a large subset of the observations (~=250 spectra)exhibit a featureless, red continuum that is consistent with emissionfrom zodiacal dust and suggest directions for further analysis of thisserendipitous measurement of the zodiacal background.Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), aEuropean Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESAMember States (especially the Principle Investigator countries: France,Germany, Netherlands, and United Kingdom) and with the participation ofthe Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle|
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.
|Cirrus Color Variations Due to Enhanced Radiation Fields|
We have investigated the variations in 12/100, 25/100, 60/100, and 12/25mu m colors for seven main-sequence B stars and three F and Gsupergiants associated with infrared cirrus. All sources displayed anincrease in 60/100 color above the background cirrus color. In two ofthe sources, epsilon Apodis and HR 890, the 12/100 and 25/100 colorsdecline toward the embedded star in a similar fashion to the IR colorsof S264 and the Rosette Nebula. Current grain models composed ofequilibrium-heated submicron grains, transiently heated small grains,and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cannot account for the colorvariations observed around epsilon Aps and HR 890. The supergiantsexhibited 12/100 and 25/100 increases, suggesting that the colordeficits observed for the B stars are due to an enhancement in the softUV component of the radiation field only. A candidate explanation forthe color variations is a conglomerate small grain component, composedof very small grains and/or large molecules, that is fragmented in theenhanced radiation field around epsilon Aps and HR 890.
|Rotational Velocity Determinations for 164 Be and B Stars|
Rotational velocities, v sin i, have been obtained for 96 Be and 68normal B stars by measurements of the FWHM of the He I lambda-4471 line(for spectral types B0-B4.5) and Mg II lambda-4481 (for types B5-B9.5).The consistency of various published sources is examined. (SECTION:Stars)
|Optical, infrared and millimetre-wave properties of Vega-like systems.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996MNRAS.279..915S&db_key=AST
|The Pulkovo Spectrophotometric Catalog of Bright Stars in the Range from 320 TO 1080 NM|
A spectrophotometric catalog is presented, combining results of numerousobservations made by Pulkovo astronomers at different observing sites.The catalog consists of three parts: the first contains the data for 602stars in the spectral range of 320--735 nm with a resolution of 5 nm,the second one contains 285 stars in the spectral range of 500--1080 nmwith a resolution of 10 nm and the third one contains 278 stars combinedfrom the preceding catalogs in the spectral range of 320--1080 nm with aresolution of 10 nm. The data are presented in absolute energy unitsW/m(2) m, with a step of 2.5 nm and with an accuracy not lower than1.5--2.0%.
|Observations of Ubiquitous Small-Scale Structure in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium|
We present results of a study of the Na I D interstellar absorptiontoward 17 binary and/or common proper-motion systems (including twotriples). The stars range in spectral type from O6 to A5, lie atdistances between 85 and 1200 pc, and have stellar separations between480 and 29,000 AU. We compare the Na I absorption present in each of thetwo (or three) lines of sight and find that the line strength and/orprofile varies for all 17 of the systems examined. We infer thatsmall-scale structure in clouds containing Na I is ubiquitous anddiscuss the implications of that conclusion.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).|
The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|The determination of T_eff_ of B, A and F main sequence stars from the continuum between 3200 A and 3600 A.|
A method of determination of the effective temperature of B, A and Fmain sequence stars is proposed, using the slope of the continuumbetween 3200A and 3600A. The effective temperature calibration is basedon a sample of stars with energy distributions known from UV to the red.We have determined the Balmer jump and the effective temperatures for235 main sequence stars. The temperatures found have been compared withthose derived by Underhill et al. (1979), Kontizas & Theodossiou(1980), Theodossiou (1985), Morossi & Malagnini (1985). Thecomparison showed good agreement for most of the stars in common. On theother hand, the temperatures derived from the reddening-free colourfactor QUV, from the colour index (m1965-V) and from (B-V), given inGulati et al. (1989), are systematically lower than our temperatures,however the differences are within one-sigma error.
|The distribution of interstellar dust in the solar neighborhood|
We surveyed the IRAS data base at the positions of the 1808 O6-B9.5stars in The Bright Star Catalog for extended objects with excessemission at 60 microns, indicating the presence of interstellar dust atthe location of the star. Within 400 pc the filling factor of theinterstellar medium, for dust clouds with a density greater than 0.5/cucm is 14.6 + or - 2.4%. Above a density of 1.0/cu cm, the densitydistribution function appears to follow a power law index - 1.25. Whenthe dust clouds are mapped onto the galactic plane, the sun appears tobe located in a low-density region of the interstellar medium of widthabout 60 pc extending at least 500 pc in the direction of longitudes 80deg - 260 deg, a feature we call the 'local trough'.
|Membership of low-mass stars in the open cluster Alpha Persei|
The results of a combined astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopicsearch for low-mass members in the intermediate-age open cluster AlphaPersei are presented. Over 130 low-mass new members have been identifiedto M(v) about 12.5, almost doubling the previous number of knownmembers. The new membership information suggests a slight upwardrevision of Alpha Per's age to about 8 x 10 exp 7 yr. Alpha Per isnoticeably spatially elongated in a direction parallel to the Galacticplane, most likely due to tidal deformation. Analysis of thedistribution of relative H-alpha emission strengths among Alpha Permembers confirms the view that the mean H-alpha strength decreases inincreasingly older systems. Allowing for survey incompleteness, onecannot reject the idea that the luminosity function is consistent withthe field luminosity function to M(v) about 9 or 10.
|Maximum separations among cataloged binaries|
The paper classifies many of the widest common-motion binaries listed inthe Aitken catalog and list 72 physical pairs with known photoelectricphotometry, 31 physical pairs without good photometry, and 27 opticalpairs. As a function of primary types, the physical systems have upperlimits to their separations that are exceeded by some of the opticalpairs. The fact that optical pairs occur with larger separations impliesthat the limits are real ones and not just catalog limitations. Thoselimits (in AU) are expressed by 2500 M1 exp 1.54 for B5-KO main-sequenceprimaries. The same limits hold for the Trapezium and hierarchicalsystems studied previously.
|An empirical H-gamma luminosity calibration for class V-III stars|
The W(H-gamma)-M(v) relation for spectral types O to early A of theluminosity classes III-V is calibrated, on the basis of highsignal/noise Reticon spectra for 87 members of eight open clusters andassociations as well as 37 reliable parallax stars, to a mean probabledispersion of + or - 0.28 mag. Although no spectral type corrections arerequired, stellar evolution probably affects the construction of the newcalibration, so care should be exercised in determinations of distancemoduli from slightly evolved cluster sequences. Systematic departuresfrom the calibration may be present for stars with V sin i not less than220-250 km/sec. A comparison of the new calibration with otherearly-type ones shows that it is 1.2 mag brighter than Petrie's (1965)H-gamma calibration at spectral type O6, and 0.7 mag brighter at A3.
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.
|Be stars in binaries|
The known companions to 80 Be stars and 355 B stars listed in the BrightStar Catalogue in the range B1-B7 III-V and north of delta = -30 deg areconsidered. The known near-absence of Be binaries with periods less than1/10 yr is confirmed. For longer periods up to the limit of 10,000 AU ofthis survey, the Be and B stars do not differ in binary frequencies.This result implies that during pre-main-sequence contraction, the tidalbraking in binaries wider than 0.5 AU was inadequate to prevent theformation of stars with nearly the break-up rotational velocities. Thefraction of Be and B stars that have companions is higher in clustersand associations (38 percent) than among field stars (25 percent),confirming that escapees from clusters tend to be single stars. There issome evidence that the companions of Be stars that occur in the sameluminosity range tend also to be Be stars; that result was expectedbecause in visual binaries there is a known tendency for rapidlyrotating primaries to have rapidly rotating secondaries.
|An investigation of the stellar association containing the 1.95 day Cepheid SU Cassiopeiae|
The results of photometric and spectroscopic observations of SU Cas andthe surrounding dust complex are reported. UBV photometry was made ofearly type stars in the dust complex on eight nights in 1978-79 and afurther 10 stars were surveyed within 7 arcmin of SU Cas. Spectroscopicmeasurements were also made of the objects in order to obtain radialvelocities and equivalent widths. The data suggest the region has amoving cluster (BA association) 30 pc in angular extent, with the 1.95arcday Cepheid SU Cas as a member. The association is 255-261 pc distantand has a 6 pc spread between members. The association stars are around120 Myr old, typical of 4 solar mass stars. Finally, the core membersinclude visual and spectroscopic binary system and a short-periodCepheid.
|Confirmation among visual multiples of an increase of AP stars with age|
Open clusters with ages below certain threshold values contain no Apstars and those with greater ages contain numbers of Ap stars thatapparently increase with age. But in view of the few young clustersstudied, the data could also be interpreted in terms of randomdifferences in the frequencies of Ap stars between individual clusters,rather than an age effect. Data on 77 field visual multiple systems(that originated from many different clusters and associations) in whichthe primaries are O5-A1 stars and the secondaries occur in the absolutemagnitude range of the Ap stars were, therefore, obtained. Againspectral classification shows no Ap stars in systems with ages notgreater than 1,000,000 yr and a steady increase in Ap stars thereafter.The numerical agreement with the cluster data is good, confirming thatthe cluster data are exhibiting a real age effect.
|Radial velocities for early type stars in six galactic regions|
Coudespectroscopy has been carried out for 353 stars of spectral typesB0-A0 and V magnitudes between 6.5 and 10.8 m, selected in six regions(three northern and three southern) close to the galactic plane at thegalactic longitudes 135, 175, 315 and 350 deg. The radial velocitieswere obtained by cross-correlating each spectrogram with a referencespectrogram giving an internal error of 1.4 km/s.
|Four-color and H-beta photometry for O-A0 type stars in three regions near the galactic equator|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1982A&AS...49..561W&db_key=AST
|Erratum - Discordances Between SAO and HD Numbers for Bright Stars|
|Spectral types in the alf Per cluster.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1978PASP...90..692A&db_key=AST
|Photographic measures of double stars. II|
Measures are presented for 302 double stars photographed on 657 plateswith the 36-in. Lick refractor in the period between 1945 and 1962. Thedata provided include the observing epochs, the rectangular coordinatesof the secondary components with reference to the respective primaries,the mean errors of a single measurement, the computed mean errors, thedouble-star separations, and the position angles both for the observingepoch and reduced to the equator of 2000. An additional 561 unmeasuredplates of acceptable quality obtained between 1948 and 1960 are listed.
|Catalogue of early-type stars measured in a narrow-band photometric system|
A compilation of the photoelectric measurements in the Barbier-Morguleffsystem is presented. The catalogue includes data for 773 stars ofspectral type 08 to F6. 706 stars have been measured at least twice.
|Rotational velocities and spectral types for a sample of binary systems.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1975A&AS...19...91L&db_key=AST
|The manganese stars|
Ultraviolet spectrograms of 194 middle and late B-type stars wereobtained in a search for Mn stars. The 24 Mn stars found in this searchlay within the limited temperature range from 0.33 to 0.48. Theirobserved rate of incidence and rotational velocity distributionsubstantiate the hypothesis that the Mn stars constitute a considerablefraction of the slowly rotating stars in this temperature range. If theatmospheres of these stars are sufficiently stable for diffusionprocesses to be effective, then it also becomes possible to account forthe temperature range in which the Mn overabundance occurs.
|Statistical Studies in Stellar Rotation. II. a Method of Analyzing Rotational Coupling in Double Stars and an Introduction to its Applications|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972ApJ...177..161B&db_key=AST