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# HD 46687 (UU Aurigae)

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 Reliability Checks on the Indo-US Stellar Spectral Library Using Artificial Neural Networks and Principal Component AnalysisThe Indo-US coudé feed stellar spectral library (CFLIB) madeavailable to the astronomical community recently by Valdes et al. (2004,ApJS, 152, 251) contains spectra of 1273 stars in the spectral region3460 to 9464Å at a high resolution of 1Å (FWHM) and a widerange of spectral types. Cross-checking the reliability of this databaseis an important and desirable exercise since a number of stars in thisdatabase have no known spectral types and a considerable fraction ofstars has not so complete coverage in the full wavelength region of3460-9464Å resulting in gaps ranging from a few Å to severaltens of Å. We use an automated classification scheme based onArtificial Neural Networks (ANN) to classify all 1273 stars in thedatabase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried outto reduce the dimensionality of the data set before the spectra areclassified by the ANN. Most importantly, we have successfullydemonstrated employment of a variation of the PCA technique to restorethe missing data in a sample of 300 stars out of the CFLIB. SiO in C-rich circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars: effects of non-LTE chemistry and grain adsorptionAims.New SiO multi-transition millimetre line observations of a sampleof carbon stars, including J = 8→7 observations with the APEXtelescope, are used to probe the role of non-equilibrium chemistry andthe influence of grains in circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars. Methods: .A detailed radiative transfer modelling, including theeffect of dust emission in the excitation analysis, of the observed SiOline emission is performed. A combination of low- and high-energy linesare important in constraining the abundance distribution. Results:.It is found that the fractional abundance of SiO in these C-richenvironments can be several orders of magnitude higher than predicted byequilibrium stellar atmosphere chemistry. In fact, the SiO abundancedistribution of carbon stars closely mimic that of M-type (O-rich) AGBstars. A possible explanation for this behaviour is a shock-inducedchemistry, but also the influence of dust grains, both as a source fordepletion as well as production of SiO, needs to be furtherinvestigated. As observed for M-type AGB stars, a clear trend that theSiO fractional abundance decreases as the mass-loss rate of the starincreases is found for the carbon stars. This indicates that SiO isaccreted onto dust grains in the circumstellar envelopes. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 The mass loss of C-rich giantsThe mass loss rates, expansion velocities and dust-to-gas density ratiosfrom millimetric observations of 119 carbon-rich giants are compared, asfunctions of stellar parameters, to the predictions of recenthydrodynamical models. Distances and luminosities previously estimatedfrom HIPPARCOS data, masses from pulsations and C/O abundance ratiosfrom spectroscopy, and effective temperatures from a new homogeneousscale, are used. Predicted and observed mass loss rates agree fairlywell, as functions of effective temperature. The signature of the massrange M≤4 Mȯ of most carbon-rich AGB stars is seenas a flat portion in the diagram of mass loss rate vs. effectivetemperature. It is flanked by two regions of mass loss rates increasingwith decreasing effective temperature at nearly constant stellar mass.Four stars with detached shells, i.e. episodic strong mass loss, andfive cool infrared carbon-rich stars with optically-thick dust shells,have mass loss rates much larger than predicted values. The latter(including CW Leo) could be stars of smaller masses (M≃ 1.5-2.5Mȯ) while M≃ 4 Mȯ is indicated formost of the coolest objects. Among the carbon stars with detachedshells, R Scl returned to a predicted level (16 times lower) accordingto recent measurements of the central source. The observed expansionvelocities are in agreement with the predicted velocities at infinity ina diagram of velocities vs. effective temperature, provided the carbonto oxygen abundance ratio is 1≤ɛ C/ɛO≤2, i.e. the range deduced from spectra and modelatmospheres of those cool variables. Five stars with detached shellsdisplay expansion velocities about twice that predicted at theireffective temperature. Miras and non-Miras do populate the same locus inboth diagrams at the present accuracy. The predicted dust-to-gas densityratios are however about 2.2 times smaller than the values estimatedfrom observations. Recent drift models can contribute to minimize thediscrepancy since they include more dust. Simple approximate formulaeare proposed.This research has made use of the Simbad database operated at CDS.Partially based on data from the ESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite.Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/429/235 JHKLM Photometry for Carbon StarsWe discuss our JHKLM photometry for nine carbon Mira stars, eighteencarbon semiregular variables, and two oxygen Mira stars. For fourteencarbon stars, we present and analyze their infrared light and colorcurves. For all of the observed objects, we have estimated the opticaldepths of the circumstellar dust envelopes, the angular diameters of thestars, and their temperatures. The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Beobachtungsegebnisse Bundesdeutsche Arbeitsgemainschaft fur Veranderliche Sterne e.V.Not Available Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE DataFor a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima. Reprocessing the Hipparcos data of evolved stars. III. Revised Hipparcos period-luminosity relationship for galactic long-period variable starsWe analyze the K band luminosities of a sample of galactic long-periodvariables using parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos mission. Theparallaxes are in most cases re-computed from the Hipparcos IntermediateAstrometric Data using improved astrometric fits and chromaticitycorrections. The K band magnitudes are taken from the literature andfrom measurements by COBE, and are corrected for interstellar andcircumstellar extinction. The sample contains stars of several spectraltypes: M, S and C, and of several variability classes: Mira, semiregularSRa, and SRb. We find that the distribution of stars in theperiod-luminosity plane is independent of circumstellar chemistry, butthat the different variability types have different P-L distributions.Both the Mira variables and the SRb variables have reasonablywell-defined period-luminosity relationships, but with very differentslopes. The SRa variables are distributed between the two classes,suggesting that they are a mixture of Miras and SRb, rather than aseparate class of stars. New period-luminosity relationships are derivedbased on our revised Hipparcos parallaxes. The Miras show a similarperiod-luminosity relationship to that found for Large Magellanic CloudMiras by Feast et al. (\cite{Feast-1989:a}). The maximum absolute Kmagnitude of the sample is about -8.2 for both Miras and semi-regularstars, only slightly fainter than the expected AGB limit. We show thatthe stars with the longest periods (P>400 d) have high mass lossrates and are almost all Mira variables.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA \cite{Hipparcos}).Table \ref{Tab:data1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/993 Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systemsFor Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997 Empirical calibration of the near-infrared Ca II triplet - III. Fitting functionsUsing a near-infrared stellar library of 706 stars with a wide coverageof atmospheric parameters, we study the behaviour of the CaII tripletstrength in terms of effective temperature, surface gravity andmetallicity. Empirical fitting functions for recently definedline-strength indices, namely CaT*, CaT and PaT, are provided. Thesefunctions can be easily implemented into stellar population models toprovide accurate predictions for integrated CaII strengths. We alsopresent a thorough study of the various error sources and their relationto the residuals of the derived fitting functions. Finally, the derivedfunctional forms and the behaviour of the predicted CaII are comparedwith those of previous works in the field. s-Process Nucleosynthesis in Carbon StarsWe present the first detailed and homogeneous analysis of the s-elementcontent in Galactic carbon stars of N type. Abundances of Sr, Y, Zr(low-mass s-elements, or ls), Ba, La, Nd, Sm, and Ce (high-masss-elements, or hs) are derived using the spectral synthesis techniquefrom high-resolution spectra. The N stars analyzed are of nearly solarmetallicity and show moderate s-element enhancements, similar to thosefound in S stars, but smaller than those found in the only previoussimilar study (Utsumi 1985), and also smaller than those found insupergiant post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. This is inagreement with the present understanding of the envelope s-elementenrichment in giant stars, which is increasing along the spectralsequence M-->MS-->S-->SC-->C during the AGB phase. Wecompare the observational data with recent s-process nucleosynthesismodels for different metallicities and stellar masses. Good agreement isobtained between low-mass AGB star models (M<~3 Msolar)and s-element observations. In low-mass AGB stars, the13C(α, n)16O reaction is the main source ofneutrons for the s-process a moderate spread, however, must exist in theabundance of 13C that is burnt in different stars. Bycombining information deriving from the detection of Tc, the infraredcolors, and the theoretical relations between stellar mass, metallicity,and the final C/O ratio, we conclude that most (or maybe all) of the Nstars studied in this work are intrinsic, thermally pulsing AGB stars;their abundances are the consequence of the operation of third dredge-upand are not to be ascribed to mass transfer in binary systems. Opacity Data for HCN and HNC from a New Ab Initio Line ListA new extensive ab initio rotation-vibration HCN/HNC line list ispresented. The line list contains rotation-vibration energy levels, linefrequencies, and line strengths for transitions between states withenergy less than 18,000 cm-1 and with J<=60. This linelist greatly improves the quality and range of HCN/HNC data available.It is presently the most extensive and most accurate ab initio HCN/HNCline list in existence. It is hoped that this data set will be used inmodels of C star atmospheres and elsewhere. Carbon-rich giants in the HR diagram and their luminosity functionThe luminosity function (LF) of nearly 300 Galactic carbon giants isderived. Adding BaII giants and various related objects, about 370objects are located in the RGB and AGB portions of the theoretical HRdiagram. As intermediate steps, (1) bolometric corrections arecalibrated against selected intrinsic color indices; (2) the diagram ofphotometric coefficients 1/2 vs. astrometric trueparallaxes varpi are interpreted in terms of ranges of photosphericradii for every photometric group; (3) coefficients CR andCL for bias-free evaluation of mean photospheric radii andmean luminosities are computed. The LF of Galactic carbon giantsexhibits two maxima corresponding to the HC-stars of the thick disk andto the CV-stars of the old thin disk respectively. It is discussed andcompared to those of carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Galacticbulge. The HC-part is similar to the LF of the Galactic bulge,reinforcing the idea that the Bulge and the thick disk are part of thesame dynamical component. The CV-part looks similar to the LF of theLarge Magellanic Cloud (LMC), but the former is wider due to thesubstantial errors on HIPPARCOS parallaxes. The obtained meanluminosities increase with increasing radii and decreasing effectivetemperatures, along the HC-CV sequence of photometric groups, except forHC0, the earliest one. This trend illustrates the RGB- and AGB-tracks oflow- and intermediate-mass stars for a range in metallicities. From acomparison with theoretical tracks in the HR diagram, the initial massesMi range from about 0.8 to 4.0 Msun for carbongiants, with possibly larger masses for a few extreme objects. A largerange of metallicities is likely, from metal-poor HC-stars classified asCH stars on the grounds of their spectra (a spheroidal component), tonear-solar compositions of many CV-stars. Technetium-rich carbon giantsare brighter than the lower limit Mbol =~ -3.6+/- 0.4 andcentered at =~-4.7+0.6-0.9 at about =~(2935+/-200) K or CV3-CV4 in our classification. Much like the resultsof Van Eck et al. (\cite{vaneck98}) for S stars, this confirms theTDU-model of those TP-AGB stars. This is not the case of the HC-stars inthe thick disk, with >~ 3400 K and>~ -3.4. The faint HC1 and HC2-stars( =~ -1.1+0.7-1.0) arefound slightly brighter than the BaII giants ( =~-0.3+/-1.3) on average. Most RCB variables and HdC stars range fromMbol =~ -1 to -4 against -0.2 to -2.4 for those of the threepopulation II Cepheids in the sample. The former stars show the largestluminosities ( <~ -4 at the highest effectivetemperatures (6500-7500 K), close to the Mbol =~ -5 value forthe hot LMC RCB-stars (W Men and HV 5637). A full discussion of theresults is postponed to a companion paper on pulsation modes andpulsation masses of carbon-rich long period variables (LPVs; Paper IV,present issue). This research has made use of the Simbad databaseoperated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Partially based on data from theESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite. Table 2 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/967 CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. The semiregular variable UU Aurigae ( analysis in adversity?BAAVSS data for UU Aurigae from 1971 to 1998 are analysed to deriveperiodicities and to determine the behaviour of the periodic variationsin phase and amplitude. Despite the difficulties associated withobserving this object, distinct pulsational periods of 439.4 and 233.1days are identified, and a long-standing phase and amplitude stabilityis demonstrated. Aufsuchkarten fur intrinsic Variable Stars in Brno.Not Available Stars with the Largest Hipparcos Photometric AmplitudesA list of the 2027 stars that have the largest photometric amplitudes inHipparcos Photometry shows that most variable stars are all Miras. Thepercentage of variable types change as a function of amplitude. Thiscompilation should also be of value to photometrists looking forrelatively unstudied, but large amplitude stars. General Catalog of Galactic Carbon Stars by C. B. Stephenson. Third EditionThe catalog is an updated and revised version of Stephenson's Catalogueof Galactic Cool Carbon Stars (2nd edition). It includes 6891 entries.For each star the following information is given: equatorial (2000.0)and galactic coordinates, blue, visual and infrared magnitudes, spectralclassification, references, designations in the most significantcatalogs and coordinate precision classes. The main catalog issupplemented by remarks containing information for which there was noplace in entries of the main part, as well as some occasional notesabout the peculiarities of specific stars. The 85Kr s-Process Branching and the Mass of Carbon StarsWe present new spectroscopic observations for a sample of C(N)-type redgiants. These objects belong to the class of asymptotic giant branchstars, experiencing thermal instabilities in the He-burning shell(thermal pulses). Mixing episodes called third dredge-up enrich thephotosphere with newly synthesized 12C in the He-rich zone,and this is the source of the high observed ratio between carbon andoxygen (C/O>=1 by number). Our spectroscopic abundance estimatesconfirm that, in agreement with the general understanding of the lateevolutionary stages of low- and intermediate-mass stars, carbonenrichment is accompanied by the appearance of s-process elements in thephotosphere. We discuss the details of the observations and of thederived abundances, focusing in particular on rubidium, a neutrondensity sensitive element, and on the s-elements Sr, Y, and Zr belongingto the first s-peak. The critical reaction branching at 85Kr,which determines the relative enrichment of the studied species, isdiscussed. Subsequently, we compare our data with recent models fors-processing in thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars, atmetallicities relevant for our sample. A remarkable agreement betweenmodel predictions and observations is found. Thanks to the differentneutron density prevailing in low- and intermediate-mass stars,comparison with the models allows us to conclude that most C(N) starsare of low mass (M<~3 Msolar). We also analyze the12C/13C ratios measured, showing that most of themcannot be explained by canonical stellar models. We discuss how thisfact would require the operation of an ad hoc additional mixing,currently called cool bottom process, operating only in low-mass starsduring the first ascent of the red giant branch and, perhaps, alsoduring the asymptotic giant branch. High-Resolution Images of CO J=2-1 Emission from the Carbon Star V CygniThis paper presents observations of the CO J=2-1 emission from thecircumstellar envelope of the mass-losing carbon star V Cyg. Theobservations were made with the Caltech Millimeter Array. A previouslypublished single-dish map was used to construct short-spacingvisibilities not sampled by the interferometer data, thereby recoveringmissing flux in extended low brightness emission. The images have anangular resolution of ~1.2" with a velocity resolution of 1 MHz (1.3 kms-1). The channel maps are consistent with an expandingenvelope that is roughly spherical, but they also show evidence forasymmetric structure, as well as small-scale clumping. We compare theseobservations, as well as other published spectra, with statisticalequilibrium models for CO in a circumstellar envelope. Models that fitthe spherically averaged data must invoke a mass-loss rate, M, that hasdecreased with time by a factor of ~2-3 over the past several hundredyears. The model kinetic temperature structure in radius,TK(r), decreases as r-0.8 out tor~6×1015 cm and levels off to a constant value atTK=23 K beyond. The secular change in M may be related tochanges in the stellar luminosity or temperature, as predicted by recentnumerical hydrodynamic models for mass loss. The inferred kinetictemperature structure suggests that heating by the photoelectric effecton dust grains is important in the outer envelope. Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrationsIn this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr). The effective temperatures of carbon-rich starsWe evaluate effective temperatures of 390 carbon-rich stars. Theinterstellar extinction on their lines of sights was determined andcircumstellar contributions derived. The intrinsic (dereddened) spectralenergy distributions (SEDs) are classified into 14 photometric groups(HCi, CVj and SCV with i=0,5 and j=1,7). The newscale of effective temperatures proposed here is calibrated on the 54angular diameters (measured on 52 stars) available at present from lunaroccultations and interferometry. The brightness distribution on stellardiscs and its influence on diameter evaluations are discussed. Theeffective temperatures directly deduced from those diameters correlatewith the classification into photometric groups, despite the large errorbars on diameters. The main parameter of our photometric classificationis thus effective temperature. Our photometric < k right >1/2 coefficients are shown to be angular diameters on arelative scale for a given photometric group, (more precisely for agiven effective temperature). The angular diameters are consistent withthe photometric data previously shown to be consistent with the trueparallaxes from HIPPARCOS observations (Knapik, et al. \cite{knapik98},Sect. 6). Provisional effective temperatures, as constrained by asuccessful comparison of dereddened SEDs from observations to modelatmosphere predictions, are in good agreement with the values directlycalculated from the observed angular diameters and with those deducedfrom five selected intrinsic color indices. These three approaches wereused to calibrate a reference angular diameter Phi 0 and theassociated coefficient CT_eff. The effective temperatureproposed for each star is the arithmetic mean of two estimates, one(bolometric'') from a reference integrated flux F0, theother (spectral'') from calibrated color indices which arerepresentative of SED shapes. Effective temperatures for about 390carbon stars are provided on this new homogeneous scale, together withvalues for some stars classified with oxygen-type SEDs with a total of438 SEDs (410 stars) studied. Apparent bolometric magnitudes are given.Objects with strong infrared excesses and optically thick circumstellardust shells are discussed separately. The new effective temperaturescale is shown to be compatible and (statistically) consistent with thesample of direct values from the observed angular diameters. Theeffective temperatures are confirmed to be higher than the mean colortemperatures (from 140 to 440 K). They are in good agreement with thepublished estimates from the infrared flux method forTeff>= 3170 K, while an increasing discrepancy is observedtoward lower temperatures. As an illustration of the efficiency of thephotometric classification and effective temperature scale, the C/Oratios and the Merrill-Sanford (M-S) band intensities are investigated.It is shown that the maximum value, mean value and dispersion of C/Oincrease along the photometric CV-sequence, i.e. with decreasingeffective temperature. The M-S bands of SiC2 are shown tohave a transition from none'' to strong'' at Teff =~(2800+/- 150right ) K. Simultaneously, with decreasing effectivetemperature, the mean C/O ratio increases from 1.04 to 1.36, thetransition in SiC2 strength occurring while 1.07<= C/O<= 1.18. This research has made use of the Simbad database operatedat CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 10 is only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)}or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/369/178 Models of circumstellar molecular radio line emission. Mass loss rates for a sample of bright carbon starsUsing a detailed radiative transfer analysis, combined with an energybalance equation for the gas, we have performed extensive modelling ofcircumstellar CO radio line emission from a large sample of opticallybright carbon stars, originally observed by Olofsson et al. (ApJS, 87,267). Some new observational results are presented here. We determinesome of the basic parameters that characterize circumstellar envelopes(CSEs), e.g., the stellar mass loss rate, the gas expansion velocity,and the kinetic temperature structure of the gas. Assuming a sphericallysymmetric CSE with a smooth gas density distribution, created by acontinuous mass loss, which expands with a constant velocity we are ableto model reasonably well 61 of our 69 sample stars. The derived massloss rates depend crucially on the assumptions in the circumstellarmodel, of which some can be constrained if enough observational dataexist. Therefore, a reliable mass loss rate determination for anindividual star requires, in addition to a detailed radiative transferanalysis, good observational constraints in the form of multi-lineobservations and radial brightness distributions. In our analysis we usethe results of a model for the photodissociation of circumstellar CO byMamon et al. (1988). This leads to model fits to observed radialbrightness profiles that are, in general, very good, but there are alsoa few cases with clear deviations, which suggest departures from asimple r-2 density law. The derived mass loss rates spanalmost four orders of magnitude, from ~ 5 10-9Msun yr-1 up to ~ 2 10-5Msun yr-1, with the median mass loss rate being ~3 10-7 Msun yr-1. We estimate that themass loss rates are typically accurate to ~ 50% within the adoptedcircumstellar model. The physical conditions prevailing in the CSEs varyconsiderably over such a large range of mass loss rates. Among otherthings, it appears that the dust-to-gas mass ratio and/or the dustproperties change with the mass loss rate. We find that the mass lossrate and the gas expansion velocity are well correlated, and that bothof them clearly depend on the pulsational period and (with largerscatter) the stellar luminosity. Moreover, the mass loss rate correlatesweakly with the stellar effective temperature, in the sense that thecooler stars tend to have higher mass loss rates, but there seems to beno correlation with the stellar C/O-ratio. We conclude that the massloss rate increases with increased regular pulsation and/or luminosity,and that the expansion velocity increases as an effect of increasingmass loss rate (for low mass loss rates) and luminosity. Five, of theremaining eight, sample stars have detached CSEs in the form ofgeometrically thin CO shells. The present mass loss rates and shellmasses of these sources are estimated. Finally, in three cases weencounter problems using our model. For two of these sources there areindications of significant departures from overall spherical symmetry ofthe CSEs. Carbon stars on the AGB are probably important in returningprocessed gas to the ISM. We estimate that carbon stars of the typeconsidered here annually return ~ 0.05 Msun of gas to theGalaxy, but more extreme carbon stars may contribute an order ofmagnitude more. However, as for the total carbon budget of the Galaxy,carbon stars appear to be of only minor importance. Presented in thispaper is observational data collected using the Swedish-ESOsubmillimetre telescope, La Silla, Chile, the 20\,m telescope at OnsalaSpace Observatory, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, Sweden, and the NRAO12\,m telescope located at Kitt Peak, USA.} Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Modeling of C stars with core/mantle grains: Amorphous carbon + SiCA set of 45 dust envelopes of carbon stars has been modeled. Among them,34 were selected according to their dust envelope class (as suggested bySloan et al. \cite{Sloan98}) and 11 are extreme carbon stars. The modelswere performed using a code that describes the radiative transfer indust envelopes considering core/mantle grains composed by an alpha -SiCcore and an amorphous carbon (A.C.) mantle. In addition, we have alsocomputed models with a code that considers two kinds of grains - alpha-SiC and A.C. - simultaneously. Core-mantle grains seem to fit dustenvelopes of evolved carbon stars, while two homogeneous grains are moreable to reproduce thinner dust envelopes. Our results suggest that thereexists an evolution of dust grains in the carbon star sequence. In thebeginning of the sequence, grains are mainly composed of SiC andamorphous carbon; with dust envelope evolution, carbon grains are coatedin SiC. This phenomena could perhaps explain the small quantity of SiCgrains observed in the interstellar medium. However, in this work weconsider only alpha -SiC grains, and the inclusion of beta -SiC grainscan perhaps change some of these results. The Atmosphere of Mira Variables: A View with the Hubble Space TelescopeUltraviolet spectra obtained with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of twoMira-type variable stars, R Leo and R Hya, are presented, along withanalysis providing information on their outer atmospheres. Thesehigh-dispersion spectra were taken with the Goddard High ResolutionSpectrograph (HRS) in two spectral regions: 2320-2368 Å to recordthe C II] (UV0.01) multiplet and 2785-2835 Å to obtain the Mg II hand k lines. The R Hya spectrum was obtained at visual light phase 0.26and shows a Mg II spectrum that is very clean, showing clear evidencefor the overlying circumstellar absorption from Fe I (UV3) and Mn I(UV1) over the k line. The fluoresced Fe I (UV44) feature at 2824Å is plainly visible in this spectrum, whereas past InternationalUltraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Mira variables at highdispersion were unable to record this feature. Remarkably, the newlyidentified fluoresced Fe I (UV45) feature near 2807 Å is seen inthis spectrum. Until now, this line has been seen only in cool carbonstars with HST/HRS. This line is pumped by the thin C II] (UV0.01)emission line at 2325.5 Å. Two of the strongest C II] (UV0.01)lines near 2325 Å are plainly seen in this spectrum. This regionof the spectrum, however, is dominated by the Si II] (UV0.01) line near2335 Å, in contrast to that observed in the carbon stars and thenon-Mira oxygen-rich red giant stars. Very weak Mg II lines are seen inthe R Leo spectrum at phase 0.12. At this phase, these lines aretypically absent in IUE spectra. Velocity shifts of emission features inthe UV spectra of Mira variables are consistent with previouslypublished hydrodynamic models of these stars. These velocities indicate,however, that the C II] (UV0.01) emission lines are not formed in thesame atmospheric layers as the Mg II emission. The electron densitydeduced from the C II] (UV0.01) multiplet is ~109cm-3. Finally, the temperature-density structure of thesemiregular variable carbon stars is similar to the oxygen-rich Miravariables-both are hydrodynamic in nature; however, the carbon starsmacroscopic velocity fields are not identical to the Mira stars in theatmosphere layers between the Mg II emission region and thecircumstellar shell. The 12C/13C-ratio in cool carbon starsWe present observations of circumstellar millimetre-wave 13COline emission towards a sample of 20 cool carbon stars. Using a detailedradiative transfer model we estimate the circumstellar12CO/13CO-ratios, which we believe accuratelymeasure the important stellar 12C/13C-ratios. Forthose optically bright carbon stars where it is possible, our derived12C/13C-ratios are compared with the photosphericresults, obtained with different methods. Our estimates agree well withthose of Lambert et al. \citeyearpar{Lambert86}. It is shown that astraightforward determination of the12CO/13CO-ratio from observed line intensityratios is often hampered by optical depth effects, and that a detailedradiative transfer analysis is needed in order to determine reliableisotope ratios. Presented in this paper is observational data collectedusing the Swedish-ESO submillimetre telescope, La Silla, Chile, the 20 mtelescope at Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola,Sweden, and the NRAO 12 m telescope located at Kitt Peak, USA. On the distance and mass-loss rate of carbon stars showing the silicon carbide emission featureThe distances and the mass-loss rates of carbon stars are in generalvery poorly known. The various estimates of the distances, taken fromthe general literature, show considerable discrepancies, while theevaluations of the mass-loss rates can be in error by more than an orderof magnitude. In this work we have evaluated these two important stellarparameters for a previously selected sample of 55 carbon stars showingthe 11.3 mu m band, commonly attributed to silicon carbide (SiC) grains.To perform the calculation we have used the values of geometrical andphysical parameters of these sources obtained from the best fits oftheir observed spectra. Using the distance values derived in this wayand the 11.3 mu m band intensity, we have evaluated the absolute bandstrength and we have found that, in agreement with other authors, thereis a correlation between this quantity and the mass-loss rate. Thiscorrelation can be very useful to determine the mass-loss rate of othercarbon stars not included in our sample, by means of the intensity ofthe SiC band, without using the usual technique based on COobservations. The same procedure can be conveniently applied to the sameas well as to other carbon stars, whose spectra will be available to thecommunity in the next future (i.e. the infrared spectra of sourcesobserved by the Infrared Satellite Observatory, ISO). Distance Determination of Mass-Losing StarsBased on the Principal Component Analysis on IRAS colors and the radiodata, the distances to 183 mass-losing red giant stars were determinedusing the radial velocity and Oort's galactic rotation model for azero-point calibration in the distance modulus. Also, based on therequirement of higher accuracy of the distance determination, themass-losing red giant stars were divided into two groups by means of thefirst-principal component representing an intrinsic photometric propertyof the expanding shell; then, the distances were estimated to be log{d(kpc)}=0.458 p_2+0.09+/-0.13 for group 1 and log {d(kpc)}=0.325p_2+0.45+/-0.15 for group 2, where p_2 is the principal componentcorresponding to the distance, as obtained from the IRAS flux, which wasassumed to be inversely proportional to the square of the distance.Thus,these two groups differ from each other not only by theirphotometric properties, but also by their average distances, by a factorof about 2. Systematic differences exist between the two groups in theirpopulation characteristics and in their evolutionary stages.

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 星座: 御夫座 右阿森松: 06h36m32.90s 赤纬: +38Â°26'43.0" 视星: 5.29 距离: 555.556 天文距离 右阿森松适当运动: 1.2 赤纬适当运动: -21.5 B-T magnitude: 9.453 V-T magnitude: 5.799