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|Planetary Formation Scenarios Revisited: Core-Accretion versus Disk Instability|
The core-accretion and disk instability models have so far been used toexplain planetary formation. These models have different conditions,such as planet mass, disk mass, and metallicity for formation of gasgiants. The core-accretion model has a metallicity condition([Fe/H]>-1.17 in the case of G-type stars), and the mass of planetsformed is less than 6 times that of the Jupiter mass MJ. Onthe other hand, the disk instability model does not have the metallicitycondition, but requires the disk to be 15 times more massive than theminimum mass solar nebulae model. The mass of planets formed is morethan 2 MJ. These results are compared to the 161 detectedplanets for each spectral type of the central stars. The results showthat 90% of the detected planets are consistent with the core-accretionmodel regardless of the spectral type. The remaining 10% are not in theregion explained by the core-accretion model, but are explained by thedisk instability model. We derived the metallicity dependence of theformation probability of gas giants for the core-accretion model.Comparing the result with the observed fraction having gas giants, theyare found to be consistent. On the other hand, the observation cannot beexplained by the disk instability model, because the condition for gasgiant formation is independent of the metallicity. Consequently, most ofplanets detected so far are thought to have been formed by thecore-accretion process, and the rest by the disk instability process.
|Formation of Earth-like Planets During and After Giant Planet Migration|
Close-in giant planets are thought to have formed in the cold outerregions of planetary systems and migrated inward, passing through theorbital parameter space occupied by the terrestrial planets in our ownsolar system. We present dynamical simulations of the effects of amigrating giant planet on a disk of protoplanetary material and thesubsequent evolution of the planetary system. We numerically investigatethe dynamics of postmigration planetary systems over 200 million yearsusing models with a single migrating giant planet, one migrating and onenonmigrating giant planet, and excluding the effects of a gas disk.Material that is shepherded in front of the migrating giant planet bymoving mean motion resonances accretes into ``hot Earths,'' but survivalof these bodies is strongly dependent on dynamical damping. Furthermore,a significant amount of material scattered outward by the giant planetsurvives in highly excited orbits; the orbits of these scattered bodiesare then damped by gas drag and dynamical friction over the remainingaccretion time. In all simulations Earth-mass planets accrete onapproximately 100 Myr timescales, often with orbits in the habitablezone. These planets range in mass and water content, with bothquantities increasing with the presence of a gas disk and decreasingwith the presence of an outer giant planet. We use scaling arguments andprevious results to derive a simple recipe that constrains which giantplanet systems are able to form and harbor Earth-like planets in thehabitable zone, demonstrating that roughly one-third of the knownplanetary systems are potentially habitable.
|Structure and Evolution of Nearby Stars with Planets. II. Physical Properties of ~1000 Cool Stars from the SPOCS Catalog|
We derive detailed theoretical models for 1074 nearby stars from theSPOCS (Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars) Catalog. The Californiaand Carnegie Planet Search has obtained high-quality (R~=70,000-90,000,S/N~=300-500) echelle spectra of over 1000 nearby stars taken with theHamilton spectrograph at Lick Observatory, the HIRES spectrograph atKeck, and UCLES at the Anglo Australian Observatory. A uniform analysisof the high-resolution spectra has yielded precise stellar parameters(Teff, logg, vsini, [M/H], and individual elementalabundances for Fe, Ni, Si, Na, and Ti), enabling systematic erroranalyses and accurate theoretical stellar modeling. We have created alarge database of theoretical stellar evolution tracks using the YaleStellar Evolution Code (YREC) to match the observed parameters of theSPOCS stars. Our very dense grids of evolutionary tracks eliminate theneed for interpolation between stellar evolutionary tracks and allowprecise determinations of physical stellar parameters (mass, age,radius, size and mass of the convective zone, surface gravity, etc.).Combining our stellar models with the observed stellar atmosphericparameters and uncertainties, we compute the likelihood for each set ofstellar model parameters separated by uniform time steps along thestellar evolutionary tracks. The computed likelihoods are used for aBayesian analysis to derive posterior probability distribution functionsfor the physical stellar parameters of interest. We provide a catalog ofphysical parameters for 1074 stars that are based on a uniform set ofhigh-quality spectral observations, a uniform spectral reductionprocedure, and a uniform set of stellar evolutionary models. We explorethis catalog for various possible correlations between stellar andplanetary properties, which may help constrain the formation anddynamical histories of other planetary systems.
|Habitability of Known Exoplanetary Systems Based on Measured Stellar Properties|
Habitable planets are likely to be broadly Earth-like in composition,mass, and size. Masses are likely to be within a factor of a few of theEarth's mass. Currently, we do not have sufficiently sensitivetechniques to detect Earth-mass planets, except in rare circumstances.It is thus necessary to model the known exoplanetary systems. Inparticular, we need to establish whether Earth-mass planets could bepresent in the classical habitable zone (HZ) or whether the giantplanets that we know to be present would have gravitationally ejectedEarth-mass planets or prevented their formation. We have answered thisquestion by applying computer models to the 152 exoplanetary systemsknown by 2006 April 18 that are sufficiently well characterized for ouranalysis. For systems in which there is a giant planet, inside the HZ,which must have arrived there by migration, there are two cases: (1)where the migration of the giant planet across the HZ has not ruled outthe existence of Earth-mass planets in the HZ; and (2) where themigration has ruled out existence. For each case, we have determined theproportion of the systems that could contain habitable Earth-massplanets today, and the proportion for which this has been the case forat least the past 1000 Myr (excluding any early heavy bombardment). Forcase 1 we get 60% and 50%, respectively, and for case 2 we get 7% and7%, respectively.
|Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems|
We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known asof 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated usingthe multiepoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching thetrigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distancesestimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refutecompanions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog, in the Catalogsof Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiß, in Hipparcosresults, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey. Ourfindings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanetsystems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. Weconfirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six starsin five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions toexoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in theWashington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions.At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five(including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside intriple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, andγ Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planetsat roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellarcompanions at projected separations of ~20 AU, similar to the Sun-Uranusdistance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarfcompanions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicatesthat solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicityenvironments-singles, binaries, and triples-and that planets survive thepost-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.
|Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets|
We present a catalog of nearby exoplanets. It contains the 172 knownlow-mass companions with orbits established through radial velocity andtransit measurements around stars within 200 pc. We include fivepreviously unpublished exoplanets orbiting the stars HD 11964, HD 66428,HD 99109, HD 107148, and HD 164922. We update orbits for 83 additionalexoplanets, including many whose orbits have not been revised sincetheir announcement, and include radial velocity time series from theLick, Keck, and Anglo-Australian Observatory planet searches. Both thesenew and previously published velocities are more precise here due toimprovements in our data reduction pipeline, which we applied toarchival spectra. We present a brief summary of the global properties ofthe known exoplanets, including their distributions of orbital semimajoraxis, minimum mass, and orbital eccentricity.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. The Keck Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.
|Chemical Composition of the Planet-harboring Star TrES-1|
We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star ofthe transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution KeckHIRES and Hobby-Eberly Telescope HRS spectra, we have determinedabundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc,Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting averageabundance of <[X/H]>=-0.02+/-0.06 is in good agreement withinitial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare theelemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars withplanets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. Weinvestigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elementsin TrES-1 and other stars with planets and find no statisticallysignificant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperatureTc. We use published abundances and kinematic information forthe sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and severalstatistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms oftheir likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk ofthe Milky Way. TrES-1 is found to be very likely a member of thethin-disk population. By comparing α-element abundances of planethosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find thatmetal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0.0) stars with planets appear to besystematically underabundant in [α/Fe] by ~0.1 dex with respect tocomparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, butsystematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by differentgroups cannot be ruled out.
|Frequency of Hot Jupiters and Very Hot Jupiters from the OGLE-III Transit Surveys toward the Galactic Bulge and Carina|
We derive the frequencies of hot Jupiters (HJs) with 3-5 day periods andvery hot Jupiters (VHJs) with 1-3 day periods by comparing the planetsactually detected in the OGLE-III survey with those predicted by ourmodels. The models are constructed following Gould and Morgan (2003) bypopulating the line of sight with stars drawn from the HipparcosCatalogue. Using these, we demonstrate that the number of stars withsensitivity to HJs and VHJs is only 5-16% of those in the OGLE-IIIfields satisfying the spectroscopic-follow-up limit of V_max < 17.5mag. Hence, the frequencies we derive are much higher than a naiveestimate would indicate. We find that at 90% confidence the fraction ofstars with planets in the two period ranges is (1/320)(1^+1.37_-0.59)for HJs and (1/710)(1^+1.10_-0.54) for VHJs. The HJ rate isstatistically indistinguishable from that found in radial velocity (RV)studies. However, we note that magnitude-limited RV samples are heavilybiased toward metal-rich (hence, planet-bearing) stars, while transitsurveys are not, and therefore we expect that more sensitive transitsurveys should find a deficit of HJs as compared to RV surveys. Thedetection of three transiting VHJs, all with periods less than 2 days,is marginally consistent with the complete absence of such detections inRV surveys. The planets detected are consistent with being uniformlydistributed between 1.00 and 1.25 Jovian radii, but there are too few inthe sample to map this distribution in detail.
|The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. IV. Three close-in planets around HD 2638, HD 27894 and HD 63454|
We report the discovery of three new planets, detected through Dopplermeasurements with the instrument harps installed on the ESO 3.6 mtelescope, La Silla, Chile. These planets are orbiting the main-sequencestars HD 2638, HD 27894, and HD 63454. The orbital characteristics thatbest fit the observed data are depicted in this paper, as well as thestellar and planetary parameters. The planets' minimum mass is 0.48,0.62, and 0.38 MJup for respectively HD 2638, HD 27894, andHD 63454; the orbital periods are 3.4442, 17.991, and 2.817822 days,corresponding to semi-major axis of 0.044, 0.122, and 0.036 AU,respectively. The observational data are carefully analysed foractivity-induced effects and we conclude on the reliability of theobserved radial-velocity variations as of exoplanetary origin. Thesethree planets support the correlation between the star metallicity andthe presence of planets (especially at short orbital distances),pointing towards the peculiar scenario of formation and migration of hotJupiters.
|Spectroscopic metallicities for planet-host stars: Extending the samples|
We present stellar parameters and metallicities for 29 planet-hoststars, as well as for a large volume-limited sample of 53 stars notknown to be orbited by any planetary-mass companion. These stars add tothe results presented in our previous series of papers, providing twolarge and uniform samples of 119 planet-hosts and 94“single” stars with accurate stellar parameters and [Fe/H]estimates. The analysis of the results further confirms that stars withplanets are metal-rich when compared with average field dwarfs.Important biases that may compromise future studies are also discussed.Finally, we compare the metallicity distributions for singleplanet-hosts and planet-hosts in multiple stellar systems. The resultsshow that a small difference cannot be excluded, in the sense that thelatter sample is slighly overmetallic. However, more data are needed toconfirm this correlation.
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