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An Extended FUSE Survey of Diffuse O VI Emission in the Interstellar Medium
We present a survey of diffuse O VI emission in the interstellar medium(ISM) obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE).Spanning 5.5 yr of FUSE observations, from launch through 2004 December,our data set consists of 2925 exposures along 183 sight lines, includingall of those with previously published O VI detections. The data wereprocessed using an implementation of CalFUSE version 3.1 modified tooptimize the signal-to-noise ratio and velocity scale of spectra from anaperture-filling source. Of our 183 sight lines, 73 show O VIλ1032 emission, 29 at >3 σ significance. Six of the 3σ features have velocities |vLSR|>120 kms-1, while the others have |vLSR|<=50 kms-1. Measured intensities range from 1800 to 9100 LU (lineunit; 1 photon cm-2 s-1 sr-1), with amedian of 3300 LU. Combining our results with published O VI absorptiondata, we find that an O VI-bearing interface in the local ISM yields anelectron density ne=0.2-0.3 cm-3 and a path lengthof 0.1 pc, while O VI-emitting regions associated with high-velocityclouds in the Galactic halo have densities an order of magnitude lowerand path lengths 2 orders of magnitude longer. Although the O VIintensities along these sight lines are similar, the emission isproduced by gas with very different properties.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far UltravioletSpectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by Johns HopkinsUniversity under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
For a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima.

Kinematics and Luminosity Function of Dwarf Populations in Three Areas of the Calán-ESO Proper-Motion Catalog
We have completed the analysis of a sample of 112 stars in the solarneighborhood taken from the statistically complete Calán-ESOcatalog. From medium-resolution spectroscopy we classified every star,both by direct comparison with spectroscopic standards and by usingspectral indices. The latter also allowed discrimination betweenmain-sequence (MS) dwarfs and subdwarfs. Several useful spectral typeversus color relations were obtained from CCD photometry of the sample(observed magnitudes were dereddened). Distances and absolute magnitudeswere determined. From measured radial velocities and proper motions, wedetermined the kinematics [Galactocentric velocity components (U,V,W)],which allowed the classification of each star as belonging to the diskor halo population. Luminosity functions (LFs) were then obtained usingthe 1/Vmax method for the different populations. The maximumin the LF for MS dwarfs was found to be near MV=12.5+/-0.5,in accord with previous determinations. On the other hand, we found anincrease in the LF of the subdwarf at its faint end, which is in strongdisagreement with determinations by other authors. A mass density of MSdwarfs of ~0.047+/-0.021 Msolar pc-3 was derived,while the contribution of subdwarfs was found to be negligible.Based on observations obtained with the VLT (ESO), project 67.D-0224A.

ISO-SWS calibration and the accurate modelling of cool-star atmospheres. II. General results
The fine calibration of the ISO-SWS detectors (Infrared SpaceObservatory - Short Wavelength Spectrometer) has proven to be a delicateproblem. We therefore present a detailed spectroscopic study in the2.38-12 mu m wavelength range of a sample of 16 A0-M2 stars used for thecalibration of ISO-SWS. By investigating the discrepancies between theISO-SWS data of these sources, the theoretical predictions of theirspectra, the high-resolution FTS-KP (Kitt Peak) spectrum of alpha Booand the solar FTS-ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy)spectrum, both calibration problems and problems in computing thetheoretical models and the synthetic spectra are revealed. Theunderlying reasons for these problems are sought for and the impact onthe further calibration of ISO-SWS and on the theoretical modelling isdiscussed extensively.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.Appendix is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Infrared spectral classification of normal stars.
Moderate resolution (~400) 2.38-45.2 mu m infrared spectra of starswithout dust features were obtained with the Short WavelengthSpectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Theobservations are part of a larger program with the objective to extendand refine the current infrared classification schemes. In particular,our data provide the basis for a more detailed classification of the1.N-1.NO sources (ordinary and oxygen rich naked stars) as defined byKraemer et al. (\cite{kraemer}) in a comprehensive classification of theISO-SWS spectra. For our analysis, the continuum was determined byfitting Engelke's function (Engelke \cite{engelke}) to the SWS data. Thestellar angular diameters derived from these estimates of the continuumare in good agreement with values obtained by other methods. Analysis ofthe equivalent widths of the CO fundamental and first overtone molecularbands, the SiO fundamental and first overtone, as well as theH2O bending mode band as a function of MK class, reveals thatthere is sufficient information in the SWS spectra to distinguishbetween hot (B, A, F) and cool stars. Furthermore, it is possible todetermine the spectral type for the G, K and M giants, and subtyperanges in a sequence of K and M giants. The equivalent widths of the COand SiO bands are found to be well correlated in K and M stars, suchthat the equivalent widths of the CO fundamental, the SiO first overtoneand the SiO fundamental can be reasonably well extrapolated from thedepth of the CO first overtone. We have identified two stars,HR 365 and V Nor, whosemid-infrared spectrum does not correspond to their respective opticalclassification. HR 365 may have a late M companion,which dominates the observed infrared spectrum while VNor is a late type giant that was included because itsspectrum was classified as featureless under the IRAS LRS scheme.According to Kraemer et al. (\cite{kraemer}), V Norhas a thin dust shell, which distorts the analysis of its mid-infraredabsorption bands. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participationof ISAS and NASA.

The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectra
We present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033

Identification of Fe II Emission Lines in FUSE Stellar Spectra
We identify two complexes of Fe II emission lines in far-ultravioletspectra of the stars α TrA and HD 104237. Using spectra from boththe Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the SpaceTelescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST), we show that these emission lines, which represent themajority of previously unidentifed emission features in cool starspectra between 912 and 1180 Å, are fluorescent decays in Fe IIfollowing excitation by H Lyα. Specifically, followingphotoexcitation from the third term (4s a 4D) of Fe II,subsequent decays are observed to the two lowest terms (4s a6D and 3d7 a 4F) which are observednear 1100 and 1135 Å, respectively. Decays to higher terms, andhence longer wavelengths, also are clearly seen in the STIS spectra.Differences in the fluorescent Fe II spectra of α TrA and HD104237 are tentatively identified as resulting from differences in theintrinsic width of the density-weighted H Lyα radiation fields.The additional Fe II lines observed in α TrA result from abroadened H Lyα profile. Two features near 1060 Å appear tobe fluorescent lines of Cr II, also excited by H Lyα.

Polarimetry of 167 Cool Variable Stars: Data
Multicolor photoelectric polarimetry is presented for 167 stars, most ofwhich are variable stars. The observations constitute a data set thatfor some stars covers a time span of 35 yr. Complex variations are foundover time and wavelength and in both the amount of polarization and itsposition angle, providing constraints for understanding the polarizingenvironments in and around these cool stars.

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

High-Precision Radial Velocity Measurements of Some Southern Stars
Precise absolute radial velocities have been obtained at Mount JohnUniversity Observatory for a number of southern stars, using the 1 mtelescope and fiber-fed echelle spectrograph. Only the stars that havebeen observed three or more times are presented, including 14 IAUstandards and 11 program stars. Six echelle orders in the green(5000-5600 Å) are used. Many delicate steps have been undertakenin order to maintain the same conditions in both recording and reducingthe spectra over a period of 27 months. The Th-Ar lamp has been used forthe wavelength calibration. The absolute radial velocities have beendetermined by cross-correlation with synthetic spectra computed by R. L.Kurucz. The zero point has been adjusted using blue-sky spectra. Anadditional strong correlation, between the measured velocities andphoton counts in stellar and Th-Ar spectra, has been detected for thePM3000 CCD camera and has been eliminated. A resulting precision ofabout 20-30 m s-1 has been obtained. The overall uncertaintyof the absolute radial velocities was estimated to be about 100-200 ms-1. The present paper is a continuation of our recentprevious work, including more details on the reduction process and thepresentation of the radial velocities for more stars.

Identification of Variable Stars in Grus
Not Available

CCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars from the Southern Hemisphere. II. Measures from the Lowell-Tololo Telescope during 1999
Speckle observations of 145 double stars and suspected double stars arepresented and discussed. On the basis of multiple observations, a totalof 280 position angle and separation measures are determined, as well as23 high-quality nondetections. All observations were taken with the(unintensified) Rochester Institute of Technology fast-readout CCDcamera mounted on the Lowell-Tololo 61 cm telescope at the Cerro TololoInter-American Observatory during 1999 October. We find that themeasures, when judged as a whole against ephemeris positions of binarieswith very well-known orbits, have root mean square deviations of1.8d+/-0.3d in position angle and 13+/-2 mas in separation. Elevendouble stars discovered by Hipparcos were also successfully observed,and the change in position angle and/or separation since the Hipparcosobservations was substantial in three cases.

Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutions
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included).

Near- and mid-infrared imaging polarimetry of NGC 1068
We present the results of a series of observations of the near- andmid-infrared polarization properties of the type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGC1068. Our data agree well with previously published results in showingthe need for a separate polarization mechanism in the near-infraredapart from scattering. We find that the predictions of a simple model inwhich this component arises through absorptive dichroism caused byaligned grains within the extended warm (~ 400 K) dust fit the datareasonably if the obscured background source is itself the result ofdust emission (at temperature >1000 K). By considering the change ofpolarization with wavelength we show that the extinction to this hotdust region is in the range A_V=20-40. Consideration of the observeddata then leads us to the conclusion that, if viewed face-on, NGC 1068would have a strong near-infrared excess similar to type 1 Seyfertgalaxies. Comparison with other independent measures of the extinctionto the active nucleus itself leads us to the conclusion that the hotdust must provide screening equivalent to at least A_V=40, and possiblymuch higher. We speculate that this component alone may be the`classical' torus discussed in terms of the unified model, and the moreextensive mid-infrared emission may arise from circumnuclear molecularcloud material, and dust in the ionization cones.

The outer atmosphere of Tau - II. Fluorescent lines
The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble SpaceTelescope has been used to observe α Tau (K5 III). The resultingspectra contain many sharp fluorescent lines. Most of these have beenidentified as lines of Fe ii, Ca ii and H2, radiativelyexcited by H Lyα. The chromospheric model developed in anaccompanying paper has been used to calculate the fluxes in these lines.The Ca ii lines have been modelled with a full radiative transfercalculation, but the Fe ii and H2 systems are more complexand, for these, a simpler calculation has been made. Overall, the trendin the Fe ii line fluxes provides evidence for a multicomponent model ofthe atmosphere, a chromosphere with intrusions of hotter material orvice versa. The hotter material could be in shocks propagating throughthe chromosphere. Comparisons of the observed and calculated fluxes ofindividual lines of Fe ii show that some atomic data need to beimproved. The analysis of the H2 lines is restricted by alack of suitable molecular data. The two observed Ca ii lines arereproduced to within a factor of 2.

Late-type stars and magnetic activity.
Not Available

Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph Optical and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Bow Shock HH 47A
We present new spectra obtained with the Faint Object Spectrographaboard the Hubble Space Telescope of the HH 47A bow shock and Mach diskthat cover the entire spectral range between lambdalambda2220 and 6810.In addition to emission lines seen previously from HH objects, weuncover over a dozen weak Fe IItransitions in the ultraviolet. The fluxratios between these permitted lines can only be understood iftransitions to the ground state are resonantly scattered within HH 47A.The expected column density of Fe II within HH 47A suffices to scatterthese lines, although the scattering optical depths imply that the Fe IIline broadening must exceed that expected from thermal motions.Excitation of ultraviolet Fe II occurs locally within HH 47A, probablyfrom collisions within the hot postshock gas and not from UV pumpingfrom some nearby O stars. The data show no evidence for significantdepletion of Fe within HH 47A. The emission line's fluxes and ratiosindicate that jet material currently enters the Mach disk with a densityof ~350 cm^-3 and a velocity of ~40 km s^-1. The mass-loss rate of theexciting star, as measured by the mass flux through the Mach disk, is1.6x10^-8 M_solar yr^-1. This mass-loss rate is considerably lower thanthat closer to the star where the jet is brighter, probably because thedensity along the jet is highly nonuniform. A single-shock velocity doesnot match the bow shock spectrum well. We propose that secondary shocksreheat the gas within the cooling zone of the HH 47A bow shock.Compression from the first shock will cause these secondary shocks to bestrongly magnetized, and the secondary shocks should emit strongly inlow-excitation lines such as Mg II, C II], and [S II]. The weak bluecontinua seen at optical wavelengths in spectra of the Mach disk and bowshock extend into the ultraviolet and have spectral energy distributionsand total fluxes consistent with those expected from two-photonemission.

Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS Binaries
The ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged ``G,''``O,'' ``V,'' or ``X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as ``suspected nonsingle'' (flag ``S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 ``problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras.

Searching for very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with DENIS
We present the results of infrared spectroscopic observations of asample of very low-mass stars and brown dwarf candidates detected in a230 square degree area by the DENIS (DEep Near Infrared Southern sky;Epchtein, 1997) survey. We find that objects as faint as the faintestknown stars are easily detected by DENIS. This sample also includesthree members of the new ``L'' dwarf class, one of which was the firstconfirmed isolated field brown dwarf. As this data represents ~ 1% ofthe total DENIS survey area, the completed survey can be expected tohave a dramatic impact on the study of the faintest stars and browndwarfs. In particular, it should detect ~ 300 of the new and poorlyunderstood ``L'' class of dwarfs. Based on observations made at theAnglo-Australian Telescope, Siding Spring. Figures 2 to 5 are onlyavailable at the http://www.edpsciences.com

Evolution of X-ray activity and rotation on G-K giants
The recent availability of stellar parallaxes provided by the Hipparcosstar catalogue (ESA 1997) enables an accurate determination of thepositions of single field giants in a theoretical H-R diagram and areliable estimate of their masses. The present study combines these newastrometric data with previously published X-ray fluxes and rotationalvelocities. The results confirm the existence of a sharp decrease ofX-ray emission at spectral type K1 for 2.5 M_sun < M < 5 M_sungiants. The study shows that the rotational velocity of these starsreaches a minimum at the same location in the H-R diagram. However, notight relationship between X-ray luminosities and projected equatorialvelocities was found among the sample stars. I suggest that theseresults could reflect the importance of differential rotation indetermining the level of coronal emission among >= 2.5Msun G and K giants. The restoration of rigid rotation at thebottom of the red giant branch could prevent the maintenance of largescale magnetic fields, thus explaining the sharp decrease of coronalX-ray emission at spectral type K1.

Probing the {Na} BT I D and {K} BT I lambda 7699 resonance lines sensitivity to background opacity in late-type stars
We have measured the equivalent width WK of the K i resonanceline at 7699 Angstroms for a large sample of low activity late-typestars observed with high spectral resolution and we have verified thatthe relation WK vs. Teff is monotonicallydecreasing, for both dwarf and giant stars. This behaviour is differentfrom that of the Na I D lines for stars of the same type, which showedthat the relation WNa vs. Teff has a maximum forTeff ~ 4000 K, which is better defined for giants than fordwarfs (Tripicchio et al. 1997). The fit of the observed K I equivalentwidths by means of a NLTE spectral line synthesis using conventionalbackground opacity shows that, for dwarf stars, the adopted modelsoverestimate the observed WK for temperatures <~ 4000 K.This result is similar to that discussed for the Na I D lines in ourprevious paper. On the other hand, for giant stars with Teff<~ 3800 K these models in general underestimate WK. Thediscrepancies between observed and computed WK andWNa for cool stars are much stronger than the variations dueto uncertainties in either atmospheric model or line parameters, likeeffective temperature and surface gravity, or Van der Waals broadening.For M dwarf stars, the most convincing explanation for the disagreementis the lack of atomic and molecular line opacity in the adopted models.In fact, a NLTE spectral synthesis including an additional backgroundopacity reproduces with a good level of accuracy the equivalent widths,as well as the general shape of the profiles for both the Na I D and K Ilines, in a subsample of early-M dwarfs. Based on observations collectedat the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, and at theMcDonald Observatory, Mt. Locke, Texas, USA

Stellar radii of M giants
We determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass.

The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust Shells
This paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio.

HIPPARCOS Astrometry of Infrared-Selected Sources and the Connection Between Optical and Infrared Reference Frames
Astrometric data from the Hipparcos satellite are reported for theoptical counterparts of 87 bright infrared sources. These sources may beuseful in defining a reference frame for infrared observations. The dataare also useful in studying the locations of circumstellar SiO masers.(SECTION: Stars)

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

CA II K Emission Line Asymmetries Among Red Giants
In the spectra of red giants the chromospheric emission feature found inthe core of the Ca II K line often exhibits an asymmetric profile. Thisasymmetry can be documented by a parameter V/R which is classified as> 1, 1, or < 1 if the violet wing of the emission profile is ofgreater, equal, or lower intensity than the redward wing. A literaturesearch has been conducted to compile a V/R dataset which builds on thelarge survey of bright field giants made by Wilson (1976). Among starsof luminosity classes II-III-IV the majority of those with V/R > 1are found to be bluer than B-V =1.3, while those with V/R < 1 aremostly redder than this colour. Stars with nearly symmetric profiles,V/R≈ 1, are found throughout the colour range 0.8 < B-V < 1.5.There is no sharp transition line separating stars of V/R > 1 and< 1 in the colour-magnitude diagram, but rather a `transition zone'centered at B-V ≈ 1.3. The center of this zone coincides closely witha `coronal dividing line' identified by Haish, Schmitt and Rosso (1991)as the red envelope in the H-R diagram of giants detected in soft x-rayemission by ROSAT. It is suggested that both the transition to a Ca II Kemission asymmetry of V/R < 1 and the drop in soft x-ray activityacross the coronal dividing line are related to changes in the dynamicalstate of the chromospheres of red giants. By contrast, the onset ofphotometric variability due to pulsation occurs among stars of early-Mspectral type, that are redward of the mid-point of the Ca II V/R`transition zone', suggesting that the chromospheric motions whichproduce an asymmetry of V/R < 1 are established prior to the onset ofpulsation.

The NaI resonance lines as a spectroscopic test of late-type stellar atmospheres.
We have tested current models for the atmospheres (including photosphereand low chromosphere) of late-type stars using the D resonance lines ofneutral sodium as a diagnostic. To this end, we have measured theequivalent widths of the D lines for a sample of 39 dwarf and 45 giantlate-type stars observed with high spectral resolution. We constructedphotospheric models over a grid in effective temperature and surfacegravity spanning the spectral types F to M, and luminosity classes V andIII of the sample stars. The model photospheres were extended into thechromosphere by assuming a suitable scaling from the Sun, andtheoretical Nai D equivalent widths were computed over the grid ofmodels including the deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Bytaking into account both the experimental errors and the possiblevariations of stellar parameters (effective temperature, surfacegravity, sodium abundance and microturbulence), the comparison betweenobserved and computed equivalent widths allows us to state that themodel atmospheres we have used can reproduce the observations for thetwo luminosity classes and for all the spectral types except for theM-type stars. We have discussed the importance of line blanketing in thespectral analysis of these stars, but at present we cannot conclude thatthis effect would reduce the discrepancy.



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距离:52.165 天文距离
B-T magnitude:4.131
V-T magnitude:2.287

Bayerβ Gru
HD 1989HD 214952
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 8446-1644-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0375-40001206
BSC 1991HR 8636
HIPHIP 112122

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