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 The Puzzle of the Metallic Line StarsIn the puzzle of the metallic line (Am) stars, there still seem to bemissing pieces. While the normal'' A stars have elemental abundancesclose to solar, the classical Am stars show stronger absorption linesfor most heavy elements in their spectra. Elements with ionizationpotentials that nearly agree with those of hydrogen or helium havereduced abundances. The Ca II and Sc II lines are especially weak. TheAm stars have no ultraviolet emission lines. They are binaries that,with very few exceptions, have rotational velocities vsini lower than100 km s-1. Of the main-sequence A stars, 20% to 30% are Amstars. Here we rediscuss previous suggestions that tried to explain thepeculiar line strengths in the Am star spectra. In particular, wecompare the well-studied properties of Hyades A and Am stars in order toidentify reasons that can or cannot explain the differences. We findthat accretion of interstellar material by A stars with distortedmagnetic fields, which are weaker than those in peculiar A (Ap) stars,has the best chance of explaining the main characteristics of thepeculiar heavy-element abundances in Am star photospheres.Charge-exchange reactions also seem to be important. IR observations of Am starsThe IR observations of chemically peculiar stars are carried out andcompared with the previous data in IR and far IR from IRAS. The fluxredistribution appears to be a common phenomenon in all the stars ofthis class. The observed energy distribution and a model fit based oneffective temperature estimates show slight excess in the IR. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 Empirical calibration of the near-infrared Ca ii triplet - II. The stellar atmospheric parametersWe present a homogeneous set of stellar atmospheric parameters(Teff, logg, [Fe/H]) for a sample of about 700 field andcluster stars which constitute a new stellar library in the near-IRdeveloped for stellar population synthesis in this spectral region(λ8350-9020). Having compiled the available atmospheric data inthe literature for field stars, we have found systematic deviationsbetween the atmospheric parameters from different bibliographicreferences. The Soubiran, Katz & Cayrel sample of stars with verywell determined fundamental parameters has been taken as our standardreference system, and other papers have been calibrated and bootstrappedagainst it. The obtained transformations are provided in this paper.Once most of the data sets were on the same system, final parameterswere derived by performing error weighted means. Atmospheric parametersfor cluster stars have also been revised and updated according to recentmetallicity scales and colour-temperature relations. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 A Hipparcos study of the Hyades open cluster. Improved colour-absolute magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russell diagramsHipparcos parallaxes fix distances to individual stars in the Hyadescluster with an accuracy of ~ 6 percent. We use the Hipparcos propermotions, which have a larger relative precision than the trigonometricparallaxes, to derive ~ 3 times more precise distance estimates, byassuming that all members share the same space motion. An investigationof the available kinematic data confirms that the Hyades velocity fielddoes not contain significant structure in the form of rotation and/orshear, but is fully consistent with a common space motion plus a(one-dimensional) internal velocity dispersion of ~ 0.30 kms-1. The improved parallaxes as a set are statisticallyconsistent with the Hipparcos parallaxes. The maximum expectedsystematic error in the proper motion-based parallaxes for stars in theouter regions of the cluster (i.e., beyond ~ 2 tidal radii ~ 20 pc) isla 0.30 mas. The new parallaxes confirm that the Hipparcos measurementsare correlated on small angular scales, consistent with the limitsspecified in the Hipparcos Catalogue, though with significantly smalleramplitudes'' than claimed by Narayanan & Gould. We use the Tycho-2long time-baseline astrometric catalogue to derive a set of independentproper motion-based parallaxes for the Hipparcos members. The newparallaxes provide a uniquely sharp view of the three-dimensionalstructure of the Hyades. The colour-absolute magnitude diagram of thecluster based on the new parallaxes shows a well-defined main sequencewith two gaps''/turn-offs''. These features provide the first directobservational support of Böhm-Vitense's prediction that (the onsetof) surface convection in stars significantly affects their (B-V)colours. We present and discuss the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram (log L versus log T_eff) for an objectively defined set of 88high-fidelity members of the cluster as well as the delta Scuti startheta 2 Tau, the giants delta 1, theta1, epsilon , and gamma Tau, and the white dwarfs V471 Tau andHD 27483 (all of which are also members). The precision with which thenew parallaxes place individual Hyades in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram is limited by (systematic) uncertainties related to thetransformations from observed colours and absolute magnitudes toeffective temperatures and luminosities. The new parallaxes providestringent constraints on the calibration of such transformations whencombined with detailed theoretical stellar evolutionary modelling,tailored to the chemical composition and age of the Hyades, over thelarge stellar mass range of the cluster probed by Hipparcos. The Evolution of AMFM Stars, Abundance Anomalies, and Turbulent TransportStellar evolution models of stars of 1.45-3.0 Msolar havebeen calculated, including the atomic diffusion of metals and radiativeaccelerations for all species in the OPAL opacities. As the abundanceschange, the opacities and radiative accelerations are continuouslyrecalculated during evolution. These models develop iron-peak convectionzones centered at a temperature of approximately 200,000 K. If one thenassumes that there is sufficient overshoot to homogenize the surfaceregions between the hydrogen, helium, and iron-peak convection zones, itis shown here that the surface abundance variations that are produced,without any arbitrary parameter, closely resemble the abundanceanomalies of AmFm stars, except that they are larger by a factor ofabout 3. Detailed evolutionary model calculations have been carried out,varying the turbulence in the outer stellar regions in order to improvethe agreement with the observed anomalies in AmFm stars. The outer massmixed by turbulence has been varied, as well as the density dependenceof the turbulent diffusion coefficient. It is shown that the anomaliesdepend on only one parameter characterizing turbulence, namely, thedepth of the zone mixed by turbulence. The calculated surface abundancesare compared to observations of a number of recently observed AmFmstars. For Sirius A, 16 abundances (including four upper limits) areavailable for comparison. Of these, 12 are well reproduced by the model,while three are not so well reproduced, and one is a very uncertainobservation. In cluster AmFm stars, the age and initial abundances areknown. There is then less arbitrariness in the calculations, but fewerchemical species have been observed than in Sirius. The availableobservations (Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe stars are compared) agreereasonably well with the calculated models for the five stars that arecompared. The zone mixed by turbulence is deeper than the ironconvection zone, reducing the abundance anomalies to values that are toosmall for iron-peak convection zones to develop in many of the models.The origin of the mixing process then remains uncertain. There isconsiderable scatter in the observations between different observers, soit is premature to conclude that hydrodynamical processes other thanturbulence are needed to explain the observations. We do not rule outthe possibility that this might be the case, but the observations do notappear to us to be good enough to establish it. Binarity of Am stars in Praesepe and HyadesCORAVEL radial-velocity observations of Am stars in the Hyades andPraesepe have allowed the determination of orbital elements for 10spectroscopic binaries, among which 3 are first determinations. One Amstar (KW 40) is found to be a well hierarchisedtriple system. KW 538 has a rather long period (435days) for an Am star. Orbits of systems with periods shorter than 8.5days are circularized, or present eccentricities smaller than 0.04. For19 Am stars, the number of quadruple-, triple-, double-, single systemsis 1:2:14(10+4?):(2?). The Am stars in a (beta , B-V) diagram clearlystand away by 0.03 mag from the sequence defined by normal main-sequencestars. This diagram could be a powerful method to identify Am stars inmore distant open clusters, provided there is no differential reddening.In the colour-magnitude diagram (M_V, beta ), double-lined binaries are0.6 - 0.7 mag above the ZAMS as expected, while most single-lined areclose to or on the ZAMS because the secondary does not contribute muchlight. The absence of X-ray detection of 4 systems in the Hyades is anargument for the presence of a white dwarf secondary. based onobservations collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory(France)}\fnmsep \thanks{Table~2 is available only in electronic form atCDS by ftp at 130.79.128.5 or on the Web athttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/CDS.html The Pleiades, Coma, Hyades, and Praesepe open clusters: Li, Al, Si, S, Fe, Ni, and Eu abundances compared in A starsIn the third of a series of papers on the A stars in open clusters, theComa and Hyades clusters are revisited; in the first and second papers,the Pleiades and Praesepe were respectively investigated. All thespectra were secured with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope at highspectral resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios. Photosphericabundances have been determined for Li, Al, Si, S, Fe, Ni, and Eu frommodel atmosphere abundance analysis. All the A stars with enough-sharplines to be studied for Li were observed in the four clusters. Abundanceresults are summarized for 31 cluster members, including 21 Am, 7 normalA, and 3 early-A stars. The Am stars have very uniform Li, Al, Si, S,and Fe abundances in a large temperature range of nearly 1000 K.Compared to normal A stars, Li is significantly deficient in Am stars(by a factor of 3), Al marginally overabundant, Si, S, and Fe are thesame, Ni and Eu (with only a few results) overabundant. Those uniformabundances of Li, Al, Si, S, or Fe in Am stars involve that abundancesare little affected by the magnitude of the rotational velocity. Forboth Am and normal A samples, no abundance trend as a function of ageand/or evolution is detected in the case of Li, Al, Si, S, or Fe. Theages considered are in the range 0.8 - 7 108 years; theevolution is limited from the ZAMS to the cluster turn-off. The build-upof the chemical abundances studied, in particular the Li differentiationbetween Am and normal A stars, could have taken place very early whenthe stars arrive on the Main Sequence. The spread in lithium found forthe A stars is reminiscent of that reported in the field and one opencluster for stars of nearly the same mass and slightly evolved out ofthe Main Sequence. The Li abundance does not change as soon as the starevolves through the subgiant phase and the convection zone becomesdeeper. There are two exceptional Am stars: one, in the Hyades, isLi-deficient and the other, in Praesepe, Li-overabundant. They are noobvious circumstances that can distinguish both stars from others in thevery same region of their respective cluster sequence. In each of thefour clusters, the maximum Li abundance is found in A stars, generallyin normal A stars. The Fe abundance of both Am and normal A groups isfound to be twice the original Fe value (on the ZAMS) in each of thefour clusters, independently of their age or metallicity. It is wellestablished for the Am group and in only a narrow range of Teff for thenormal A group. This behavior is unexpected for normal A stars which arethought to have their original abundances and Fe abundance differentfrom that of Am stars. A larger normal A sample is needed to concludeanything. Our abundance results for cluster Am stars quantitativelyagree with predictions of new models coupling atomic diffusion withturbulent transport (Richer et al. \cite{richer99}). Based onobservations collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope (Hawaii) Empirical calibration of the lambda 4000 Å breakEmpirical fitting functions, describing the behaviour of the lambda 4000Ä break, D4000, in terms of effective temperature,metallicity and surface gravity, are presented. For this purpose, thebreak has been measured in 392 stars from the Lick/IDS Library. We havefollowed a very detailed error treatment in the reduction and fittingprocedures, allowing for a reliable estimation of the breakuncertainties. This calibration can be easily incorporated into stellarpopulation models to provide accurate predictions of the break amplitudefor, relatively old, composite systems. Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Chemical abundances of A and F-type stars: the Hyades open clusterAbundances of 11 chemical elements have been determined for 29 F and 19A dwarfs (normal'' and chemically peculiar with apparent rotationalvelocities ranging from 11 to 237 km.s^{-1}) members of the Hyadescluster using Takeda's (1995) iterative procedure well suited for fastrotators. High quality spectra of high to moderate resolution have beensynthesized to derive the apparent rotational velocities, microturbulentvelocities and abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba.For the F stars, the found abundances are compared to the predictions ofTurcotte et al.'s (1998) evolutionary models for the age of the Hyades.We fail to find the expected underabundances for light elements nor theoverabundances for the iron-peak elements for stars having effectivetemperatures greater than 6500 K. This suggests that diffusion alonecannot account for the derived abundances: other transport processeswhich counteract diffusion are probably at play. For the A stars,abundances of Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni and Ba are anticorrelated(correlated for O) with the apparent equatorial velocities forve\sin i higher than ~ 100 km.s^{-1}. Below this value, wefind no correlation in agreement with the predictions of Charbonneau& Michaud (1991) except possibly for the abundance of Ni which mightbe anticorrelated with ve\sin i. The fastest rotators(ve\sin i >= 150 km.s^{-1}) are strongly depletted in Mg,Si, Ca, Fe, Ni and Ba (between -0.3 dex and -0.94 dex) while their Oabundance is normal. Based on observations collected at Observatoire deHaute Provence (France) Testing convection theories using Balmer line profiles of A, F, and G starsWe consider the effects of convection on the Balmer line profiles({H_α} and {H_β}) of A, F, and G stars. The standardmixing-length theory (MLT) atlas9 models of Kurucz (1993), with andwithout overshooting, are compared to atlas9 models based on theturbulent convection theory proposed by Canuto & Mazzitelli (1991,1992) and implemented by Kupka (1996), and the improved version of thismodel proposed by Canuto et al. (1996) also implemented by Kupka. TheBalmer line profiles are a useful tool in investigating convectionbecause they are very sensitive to the parameters of convection used inthe stellar atmosphere codes. The {H_α} and {H_β} lines areformed at different depths in the atmosphere. The {H_α} line isformed just above the convection zone. The {H_β} line, however, ispartially formed inside the convection zone. We have calculated the{T_eff} of observed stars by fitting Balmer line profiles to syntheticspectra and compared this to: (i) the {T_eff} of the fundamental stars;(ii) the {T_eff} of stars determined by the Infra-Red Flux Method and(iii) the {T_eff} determined by Geneva photometry for the stars in theHyades cluster. We find that the results from the {H_α} and{H_β} lines are different, as expected, due to the differing levelsof formation. The tests are inconclusive between three of the fourmodels; MLT with no overshooting, CM and CGM models, which all giveresults in reasonable agreement with fundamental values. The resultsindicate that for the MLT theory with no overshooting it is necessary toset the mixing length parameter alpha equal to 0.5 for stars with {T_eff<= 6000} K or {T_eff >= 7000} K. However for stars with {6000}K{<= T_eff <= 7000} K the required value for the parameter is{alpha >= 1.25}. Models with overshooting are found to be clearlydiscrepant, consistent with the results with uvby photometry by Smalley& Kupka (1997). Based on observations made at the Observatorio delRoque de los Muchachos using the Richardson-Brealey Spectrograph on the1.0m Jacobs Kapteyn Telescope. Color indices of the Sun and Hyades stars in the WBVR systemUsing an original setup at high altitudes, we measured the color indicesof the Sun in the WBVR photometric system relative to standard stars: (W- B)_solar = -0.05, (B - V)_solar = +0.67, and (V - R)_solar = +0.53. Wepresent the WBVR photometry for the Hyades members selected by vanBueren by their space velocities. The solar position is shown intwo-color diagrams relative to Hyades stars and bright G2 V stars. Acomparison of our results with Kurucz's models reveals a discrepancybetween the metallicities of the models and the Hyades members. The Age Range of Hyades StarsOn the basis of canonical models, the age of Hyades supercluster stars,whether in the Hyades and Praesepe clusters or the noncluster field,ranges from (5-6) x 10^8 to 10^9 yr. The difference between the parallaxderived from the supercluster motion and that obtained from Hipparcosobservations has a dispersion only twice that of the mean dispersion ofthe individual Hipparcos values. The supercluster appears not to containred giants on the first ascent of the red giant branch, but onlyasymptotic giant branch (clump'') stars. The masses obtained forindividual components of binary stars in the supercluster show adispersion of less than 10% when compared with model predictions. The Multiplicity of the Hyades and Its Implications for Binary Star Formation and EvolutionA 2.2 μm speckle imaging survey of 167 bright (K < 8.5 mag) Hyadesmembers reveals a total of 33 binaries with separations spanning 0.044"to 1.34" and magnitude differences as large as 5.5 mag. Of thesebinaries, 9 are new detections and an additional 20 are now spatiallyresolved spectroscopic binaries, providing a sample from which dynamicalmasses and distances can be obtained. The closest three systems,marginally resolved at Palomar Observatory, were reobserved with the 10m Keck Telescope in order to determine accurate binary star parameters.Combining the results of this survey with previous radial velocity,optical speckle, and direct-imaging Hyades surveys, the detectedmultiplicity of the sample is 98 singles, 59 binaries, and 10 triples. Astatistical analysis of this sample investigates a variety of multiplestar formation and evolution theories. Over the binary separation range0.1"-1.07" (5-50 AU), the sensitivity to companion stars is relativelyuniform, with = 4 mag, equivalent to a mass ratio = 0.23. Accounting for the inability to detect high fluxratio binaries results in an implied companion star fraction (CSF) of0.30 +/- 0.06 in this separation range. The Hyades CSF is intermediatebetween the values derived from observations of T Tauri stars (CSF_TTS =0.40 +/- 0.08) and solar neighborhood G dwarfs (CSF_SN = 0.14 +/- 0.03).This result allows for an evolution of the CSF from an initially highvalue for the pre-main sequence to that found for main-sequence stars.Within the Hyades, the CSF and the mass ratio distribution provideobservational tests of binary formation mechanisms. The CSF isindependent of the radial distance from the cluster center and theprimary star mass. The distribution of mass ratios is best fitted by apower law q^-1.3+/-0.3 and shows no dependence on the primary mass,binary separation, or radial distance from the cluster center. Overall,the Hyades data are consistent with scale-free fragmentation, butinconsistent with capture and disk-assisted capture in small clusters.Without testable predictions, scale-dependent fragmentation and diskfragmentation cannot be assessed with the Hyades data. On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F starsThe Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Metal abundances of A-type stars in galactic clusters. II. Pleiades, Coma Berenices, Hyades, and PraesepeA study of chemical composition for 23 A-type stars in four nearby openclusters (Pleiades, Coma, Hyades and Praesepe) has derived detailedabundances for Mg, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, and Ni from high resolutionspectroscopy. These results are discussed using the microscopicdiffusion model, which yields time-dependent element stratifications asin the case of Am stars. For the Pleiades, the youngest cluster, we findseveral atypical abundance patterns, which may be transient phases ofthe Am phenomenon. The members of the older clusters show globally moreclassical patterns. Based on observations collected at the Observatoirede Haute-Provence (France) The Hyades: distance, structure, dynamics, and age{We use absolute trigonometric parallaxes from the Hipparcos Catalogueto determine individual distances to members of the Hyades cluster, fromwhich the 3-dimensional structure of the cluster can be derived.Inertially-referenced proper motions are used to rediscuss distancedeterminations based on convergent-point analyses. A combination ofparallaxes and proper motions from Hipparcos, and radial velocities fromground-based observations, are used to determine the position andvelocity components of candidate members with respect to the clustercentre, providing new information on cluster membership: 13 newcandidate members within 20 pc of the cluster centre have beenidentified. Farther from the cluster centre there is a gradual mergingbetween certain cluster members and field stars, both spatially andkinematically. Within the cluster, the kinematical structure is fullyconsistent with parallel space motion of the component stars with aninternal velocity dispersion of about 0.3 km s(-1) . The spatialstructure and mass segregation are consistent with N-body simulationresults, without the need to invoke expansion, contraction, rotation, orother significant perturbations of the cluster. The quality of theindividual distance determinations permits the cluster zero-age mainsequence to be accurately modelled. The helium abundance for the clusteris determined to be Y =3D 0.26+/-0.02 which, combined with isochronemodelling including convective overshooting, yields a cluster age of625+/-50 Myr. The distance to the observed centre of mass (a conceptmeaningful only in the restricted context of the cluster memberscontained in the Hipparcos Catalogue) is 46.34+/-0.27 pc, correspondingto a distance modulus m-M=3D3.33+/-0.01 mag for the objects within 10 pcof the cluster centre (roughly corresponding to the tidal radius). Thisdistance modulus is close to, but significantly better determined than,that derived from recent high-precision radial velocity studies,somewhat larger than that indicated by recent ground-based trigonometricparallax determinations, and smaller than those found from recentstudies of the cluster convergent point. These discrepancies areinvestigated and explained. } Based on observations made with the ESAHipparcos astrometry satellite. Table~2 is also available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Behaviour of calcium abundance in Am-Fm stars with evolutionCalcium abundance in the atmosphere of Am stars is examined as afunction of their evolutionary state within the main sequence. Newspectroscopic abundances as well as abundances obtained photometricallyby Guthrie (1987) are used, since they are mutually quite consistent.The main result of this work is that, contrary to earlier suggestions,calcium abundance does not tend to be larger in evolved Am stars than inunevolved ones, for objects distributed along a given evolutionary trackin the HR diagram. The trend appears to be the reverse, if it is presentat all. For our whole sample of Am stars, there is a significantcorrelation between calcium abundance and effective temperature, in thesense that the cooler objects are the most Ca-deficient, hence have themost pronounced Am peculiarity. This implies an apparent correlationbetween calcium deficiency and age, although the lack of Am starsyounger than log t = 8.6 seems real. Our results are fully consistentwith the low rate of Am stars observed in young clusters and withtheoretical predictions of time-dependent radiative diffusion (Alecian1996). Based on observations collected at Observatoire de Haute Provence(CNRS), France, and on data from the ESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite. Oxygen lambda7771--5 Triplet in Hyades A-Type Stars: A Quest for the Key to the AM PhenomenonAn extensive profile-fitting analysis of the OI 7771--5 triplet (alongwith the nearby FeI line) was carried out for thirty-one A-type stars,eighteen of them belonging to the Hyades group, in order to clarify thekey factor which plays the decisive role in the appearance of abundanceanomalies of metallic-line stars (Am), by examining whether anymeaningful relation exists between the microturbulence (xi ), the oxygenabundance (log epsilon_O ), the iron abundance (log epsilon_Fe ), theprojected rotational velocity (v_esin i), and the stellar atmosphericparameters. It was clearly found based on the Hyades results that theabundance of O/Fe, both being good indicators of the Am phenomenon,because of the negative/positive correlation with the metallicityestimated from colors, progressively increases/decreases (i.e., towardthe direction of disappearance of anomaly) with an increase in v_esin ias well as with a decrease in log g. It was thus concluded that the mostimportant driver of the Am phenomenon, producing a significantdeficiency/excess of O/Fe, is the rotational velocity which appears tobe responsible for not only the triggering, but also the extent of thepeculiarity. Meanwhile, the observed log g-dependence of the abundance eanomalies is considered to be nothing but superficial, which may beinterpreted as being due to the correlation between log g and v_esin i,i.e., rotation-induced lowering of the effective gravity. A New and Comprehensive Determination of the Distance to Member Stars of the HyadesThis paper critiques the methods used in the past for estimating thedistances to the stars that make up the Hyades moving cluster, anddevelops one which is new and comprehensive. We develop a formalism forthe application of stochastic restrictions to the adjustment parameters(velocity components and distances) and test it on constructed clustermodels. We perform model calculations with fictitious model starclusters in which the `true' values of the input parameters (ie.positions, distances and velocity components) are therefore known. Thecomparison of the distances recovered by different methods with the trueinput distances shows our approach to be very superior to thetraditional ones that estimate distances by the method of streamparallaxes without restricting the adjustment parameters. Applying ouralgorithm to the Hyades, we assume a dispersion of 0.25 kps in eachcoordinate about a common value for the velocity components of thecluster members and a dispersion of 5pc about the distance to thecluster's centre for the distances to the stars in the cluster. Underthese stochastic restrictions, we analyse the known estimates (ie.measurements) of trigonometric parallaxes, sets of high-precision propermotion pairs and high-precision radial velocities subject to theabove-stated stochastic constraints, and as a result estimate thecluster's centre to be at a distance of 45.8+/-1.25 (standard error) pc. H gamma and H delta Absorption Features in Stars and Stellar PopulationsThe H gamma and H delta absorption features are measured in a sample of455 (out of an original 460) Lick/IDS stars with pseudo--equivalentwidth indices. For each Balmer feature, two definitions, involving anarrow (~20 Angstroms) and a wide (~40 Angstroms) central bandpass, aremeasured. These four new Balmer indices augment 21 indices previouslydetermined by Worthey et al., and polynomial fitting functions that giveindex strengths as a function of stellar temperature, gravity, and[Fe/H] are provided. The new indices are folded into models for theintegrated light of stellar populations, and predictions are given forsingle-burst stellar populations of a variety of ages and metallicities.Contrary to our initial hopes, the indices cannot break a degeneracybetween burst age and burst strength in post-starburst objects, but theyare successful mean-age indicators when used with sensitive metallicityindicators. An appendix gives data, advice, and examples of how totransform new spectra to the 25-index Lick/IDS system. Spectrophotometry of 237 Stars in 7 Open ClustersSpectrophotometry is presented for 237 stars in 7 nearby open clusters:Hyades, Pleiades, Alpha Persei, Praesepe, Coma Berenices, IC 4665, andM39. The observations were taken by Lee McDonald and David Bursteinusing the Wampler single-channel scanner on the Crossley 0.9m telescopeat Lick Observatory from July 1973 through December 1974. Sixteenbandpasses spanning the spectral range 3500 Angstroms to 7780 Angstromswere observed for each star, with bandwidths 32Angstroms, 48 Angstromsor 64 Angstroms. Data are standardized to the Hayes-Latham system tomutual accuracy of 0.016 mag per passband. The accuracy of thespectrophotometry is assessed in three ways on a star-by-star basis.First, comparisons are made with previously published spectrophotometryfor 19 stars observed in common. Second, (B-V) colors and uvby colorsare compared for 236 stars and 221 stars, respectively. Finally,comparsions are made for 200 main sequence stars to the spectralsynthesis models of Kurucz, fixing log g = 4.0 and [Fe/H] = 0.0, andonly varying effective temperature. The accuracy of tests using uvbycolors and the Kurucz models are shown to track each other closely,yielding an accuracy estimate (1 sigma ) of 0.01 mag for the 13 colorsformed from bandpasses longward of the Balmer jump, and 0.02 mag for the3 colors formed from the three bandpasses below the Balmer jump. Incontrast, larger scatter is found relative to the previously publishedspectrophotometry of Bohm-Vitense & Johnson (16 stars in common) andGunn & Stryker (3 stars). We also show that the scatter in the fitsof the spectrophotometric colors and the uvby filter colors is areasonable way to identify the observations of which specific stars areaccurate to 1 sigma , 2 sigma , .... As such, the residuals from boththe filter color fits and the Kurucz model fits are tabulated for eachstar where it was possible to make a comparison, so users of these datacan choose stars according to the accuracy of the data that isappropriate to their needs. The very good agreement between the modelsand these data verifies the accuracy of these data, and also verifiesthe usefulness of the Kurucz models to define spectrophotometry forstars in this temperature range (>5000 K). These data define accuratespectrophotometry of bright, open cluster stars that can be used as asecondary flux calibration for CCD-based spectrophotometric surveys. A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The role of convection on the UVBY colours of A, F, and G starsWe discuss the effects of convection on the theoretical uvby colours ofA, F, and G stars. The standard mixing-length theory atlas9 models ofKurucz (1993), with and without approximate overshooting, are comparedto models using the turbulent convection theory proposed by Canuto &Mazzitelli (1991, 1992) and implemented by Kupka (1996a). Comparisonwith fundamental T_eff and log g stars reveals that the Canuto &Mazzitelli models give results that are generally superior to standardmixing-length theory (MLT) without convective overshooting. MLT modelswith overshooting are found to be clearly discrepant. This is supportedby comparisons of non-fundamental stars, with T_eff obtained from theInfrared Flux Method and log g from stellar evolutionary models for opencluster stars. The Canuto & Mazzitelli theory gives values of(b-y)_0 and c_0 that are in best overall agreement with observations.Investigations of the m_0 index reveal that all of the treatments ofconvection presented here give values that are significantly discrepantfor models with T_eff < 6000 K. It is unclear as to whether this isdue to problems with the treatment of convection, missing opacity, orsome other reason. None of the models give totally satisfactory m_0indices for hotter stars, but the Canuto & Mazzitelli models are inclosest overall agreement above 7000 K. Grids of uvby colours, based onthe CM treatment of convection, are presented. These grids represent animprovement over the colours obtained from models using themixing-length theory. The agreement with fundamental stars enables thecolours to be used directly without the need for semi-empiricaladjustments that were necessary with the earlier colour grids. Table~5is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST ROSAT All-Sky Survey Observations of the Hyades ClusterAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...448..683S&db_key=AST Blue Stragglers in the Solar Vicinity: Newborn or RebornAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110..823E&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. A new list of effective temperatures of chemically peculiar stars. II.Not Available

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 星座: 獵戶座 右阿森松: 04h46m01.70s 赤纬: +11Â°42'20.0" 视星: 5.37 距离: 81.699 天文距离 右阿森松适当运动: 66.2 赤纬适当运动: -7.5 B-T magnitude: 5.59 V-T magnitude: 5.367