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 The Distribution of SiO in the Circumstellar Envelope around IRC +10216New interferometric observations of SiO J=5-->4 circumstellar lineemission around the carbon star IRC +10216 using the Submillimeter Arrayare presented. Complemented by multitransition single-dish observations,including infrared observations of rovibrational transitions, detailedradiative transfer modeling suggests that the fractional abundance ofSiO in the inner part of the envelope, between ~3 and 8 stellar radii,is as high as ~1.5×10-6. This is more than an order ofmagnitude higher than predicted by equilibrium stellar atmospherechemistry in a carbon-rich environment and indicative of the importanceof non-LTE chemical processes. In addition to the compact component, aspatially more extended (re~2.4×1016 cm) lowfractional abundance (f0~1.7×10-7) region isrequired to fit the observations. This suggests that the majority of theSiO molecules are effectively accreted onto dust grains in the innerwind, while the remaining gas-phase molecules are eventuallyphotodissociated at larger distances. Evidence of departure from asmooth wind is found in the observed visibilities, indicative of densityvariations of a factor 2-5 on an angular scale corresponding to atimescale of about 200 yr. In addition, constraints on the velocitystructure of the wind are obtained. The evolutionary state of the southern dense core Chamaeleon-MMS1Aims.Our goal is to set constraints on the evolutionary state of thedense core Cha-MMS1 in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. Methods:.We analyze molecular line observations carried out with the newsubmillimeter telescope APEX. We look for outflow signatures around thedense core and probe its chemical structure, which we compare topredictions of models of gas-phase chemistry. We also use the publicdatabase of the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST) to compare Cha-MMS1 withthe two Class 0 protostars IRAM 04191 and L1521F, which are at the samedistance. Results: .We measure a large deuterium fractionation forN2H+ (11 ± 3 %), intermediate between the prestellarcore L1544 and the very young Class 0 protostar L1521F. It is largerthan for HCO+ (2.5 ± 0.9 %), which is probably theresult of depletion removing HCO+ from the high-density innerregion. Our CO(3-2) map reveals the presence of a bipolar outflow drivenby the Class I protostar Ced 110 IRS 4 but we do not find evidence foran outflow powered by Cha-MMS1. We also report the detection of Cha-MMS1at 24, 70 and 160 μm by the instrument MIPS of the SST, at a levelnearly an order of magnitude lower than IRAM 04191 and L1521F.Conclusions: .Cha-MMS1 appears to have already formed a compact object,either the first hydrostatic core at the very end of the prestellarphase, or an extremely young protostar that has not yet powered anyoutflow, at the very beginning of the Class 0 accretion phase. SiO in C-rich circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars: effects of non-LTE chemistry and grain adsorptionAims.New SiO multi-transition millimetre line observations of a sampleof carbon stars, including J = 8→7 observations with the APEXtelescope, are used to probe the role of non-equilibrium chemistry andthe influence of grains in circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars. Methods: .A detailed radiative transfer modelling, including theeffect of dust emission in the excitation analysis, of the observed SiOline emission is performed. A combination of low- and high-energy linesare important in constraining the abundance distribution. Results:.It is found that the fractional abundance of SiO in these C-richenvironments can be several orders of magnitude higher than predicted byequilibrium stellar atmosphere chemistry. In fact, the SiO abundancedistribution of carbon stars closely mimic that of M-type (O-rich) AGBstars. A possible explanation for this behaviour is a shock-inducedchemistry, but also the influence of dust grains, both as a source fordepletion as well as production of SiO, needs to be furtherinvestigated. As observed for M-type AGB stars, a clear trend that theSiO fractional abundance decreases as the mass-loss rate of the starincreases is found for the carbon stars. This indicates that SiO isaccreted onto dust grains in the circumstellar envelopes. Oscillation mode lifetimes in ξ Hydrae: will strong mode damping limit asteroseismology of red giant stars?We introduce a new method to measure frequency separations and modelifetimes of stochastically excited and damped oscillations, so-calledsolar-like oscillations. Our method shows that velocity data of the redgiant star ξ Hya (Frandsen et al. 2002) support a large frequencyseparation between modes of roughly 7~μHz. We also conclude that thedata are consistent with a mode lifetime of 2 days, which is so shortrelative to its pulsation period that none of the observed frequenciesare unambiguous. Hence, we argue that the maximum asteroseismic outputthat can be obtained from these data is an average large frequencyseparation, the oscillation amplitude and the average mode lifetime.However, the significant discrepancy between the theoreticalcalculations of the mode lifetime (Houdek & Gough 2002) and ourresult based on the observations of ξ Hya, implies that red giantstars can help us better understand the damping and driving mechanismsof solar-like p-modes by convection. Oxygen-rich AGB stars with optically thin dust envelopesThe dust composition and dynamics of the circumstellar envelopes ofoxygen-rich AGB stars with low mass-loss rates (5 ×10-8-10-5 Mȯ yr-1) havebeen investigated. We have analyzed the ISO-SWS spectra of twenty-eightoxygen-rich AGB stars with optically thin shells, and modelled theobservations with the radiative transfer code DUSTY using the opticalconstants from laboratory dust analogues. This has allowed us todetermine the composition of the dust and the physical conditions at theinner edge of the shell. Moreover, by comparing with CO observationsavailable in the literature, we have determined the gas-to-dust massratios and the mass-loss rates of these sources, and analyzed thewind-driving mechanism. The results show that the small amounts of dustpresent in these envelopes, characterized by visual optical depths inthe 0.03-0.6 range, are enough to drive the wind by radiation pressureon the grains. In some sources there are indications of circumstellardust that does not contribute to the wind-driving, and that maydistributed in a disk or clumps. Other sources show signs of variablemass-loss rates. A grain mixture in the shell consisting of aluminiumoxide, melilite, olivine, spinel and Mg{0.1}Fe{0.9}O fit the observedspectra well. From these species, only melilite is required to have afractional abundance greater than 25% in all cases. Although spinelreproduces the 13 μm feature, the absence of the 16.8 μm peak inour SWS spectra casts doubts on this identification. The outcome of themodelling reveals that the olivine content in these CSEs increases withpressure and temperature at the inner edge. Moreover, the aluminiumoxide percentage in the dust of the envelopes shows a positivecorrelation with the gas-to-dust mass ratio. These results, togetherwith the derived dust compositions, are consistent with thethermodynamic dust condensation sequence scenario and its freezing-outdue to kinetics. However, the temperatures at the inner edge of theshell are substantially lower than those predicted by theory. An empirical formula for the mass-loss rates of dust-enshrouded red supergiants and oxygen-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch starsWe present an empirical determination of the mass-loss rate as afunction of stellar luminosity and effective temperature, foroxygen-rich dust-enshrouded Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and redsupergiants. To this aim we obtained optical spectra of a sample ofdust-enshrouded red giants in the Large Magellanic Cloud, which wecomplemented with spectroscopic and infrared photometric data from theliterature. Two of these turned out to be hot emission-line stars, ofwhich one is a definite B[e] star. The mass-loss rates were measuredthrough modelling of the spectral energy distributions. We thus obtainthe mass-loss rate formula log dot{M} = -5.65 + 1.05 log ( L / 10 000{L}_ȯ ) -6.3 log ( T_eff / 3500 K ), valid for dust-enshrouded redsupergiants and oxygen-rich AGB stars. Despite the low metallicity ofthe LMC, both AGB stars and red supergiants are found at late spectraltypes. A comparison with galactic AGB stars and red supergiants showsexcellent agreement between the mass-loss rate as predicted by ourformula and that derived from the 60 μm flux density fordust-enshrouded objects, but not for optically bright objects. Wediscuss the possible implications of this for the mass-loss mechanism. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 A study of bright Southern long period variablesIn this paper we present radial velocity curves of AGB variables thatexhibit various kinds of anomalies: semiregular variables (SRVs) withtypical mira periods, SRVs exceeding the mira 2.5 mag amplitude limit,miras with secondary maxima in their light curves, and a SRV with a longsecondary period. The stars with reliable Hipparcos parallaxes from thisand from previous studies are plotted in a log P-MK-diagram.Our objects nicely follow the log P-MK-relations determinedfor the LMC. This allows the pulsation mode to be identified. While allmiras fall on the fundamental mode sequence, the SRVs fall on both thefirst overtone and fundamental mode sequences. The SRVs on thefundamental mode sequence occur at both high and low luminosities, someof them being more luminous than larger amplitude miras. Thisdemonstrates observationally that some parameter other than luminosityaffects the stability of long period variables, probably mass. Firstovertone pulsators all show velocity amplitudes around 4 kms-1. For the fundamental mode pulsators, the velocityamplitude shows a correlation with light amplitude. The two miras R Cenand R Nor, known for their double-peaked light curves, have velocitycurves that are quite different. The R Nor velocity curve shows noevidence of the double peaks, meaning that the true pulsation period isthe time between alternate minima or maxima. There is slight evidencefor a double bump in the R Cen velocity curve. It is suggested thatthese stars are relatively massive (3-5 Mȯ). Infrared Irradiance CalibrationInfrared astronomical measurements are calibrated against referencesources, usually primary standard stars that are, in turn, calibratedeither by direct or indirect means. A direct calibration compares thestar with a certified source, typically a blackbody. Indirect methodsextrapolate a direct measurement of the flux at one wavelength to theflux at another. Historically, α Lyr (Vega) has been used as theprimary standard as it is bright, easily accessible from the northernhemisphere, and is well calibrated in the visual. Until recently, thedirect absolute infrared calibrations of α Lyr and those derivedfrom the absolute solar flux scaled to the observed spectral energydistributions of solar type stars increasingly diverged with wavelengthfrom those obtained using a model atmosphere to extrapolate the absolutevisual flux of Vega into the infrared. The exception is the directcalibration by the 1996/97 Midcourse Space Experiment of the absolutefluxes for a number of the commonly used infrared standard stars,including Vega. A W Roberts: the observations (paper 2).Not Available Period-luminosity relation for M-type semiregular variables from Hipparcos parallaxesWe have studied the period-luminosity (P-L) relationships of oxygen-richsemiregular (SR) variables in several wavelength bands using Hipparcosparallaxes with an accuracy of better than 10 per cent. We have shownthat there is a clear dependence on period of absolute magnitude in theU,B,V,R,IC,J,H,K,L,M,N, [12], [25], [60] and [100] bands, andthat the slope of the linear Mλ- logP relation is asmooth function of wavelength. We point out that this relation can inprinciple be used to derive absolute bolometric magnitude as a functionof period.The behaviour of the second periods of SR variables in the P-L relationin the V and K bands is also discussed. Period and chemical evolution of SC starsThe SC and CS stars are thermal-pulsing asymptotic giant branch starswith a C/O ratio close to unity. Within this small group, the Miravariable BH Cru recently evolved from spectral type SC (showing ZrObands) to CS (showing weak C2). Wavelet analysis shows thatthe spectral evolution was accompanied by a dramatic period increase,from 420 to 540 d, indicating an expanding radius. The pulsationamplitude also increased. Old photographic plates are used to establishthat the period before 1940 was around 490 d. Chemical models indicatethat the spectral changes were caused by a decrease in stellartemperature, related to the increasing radius. There is no evidence fora change in C/O ratio. The evolution in BH Cru is unlikely to be relatedto an ongoing thermal pulse. Periods of the other SC and CS stars,including nine new periods, are determined. A second SC star, LX Cyg,also shows evidence for a large increase in period, and one further starshows a period inconsistent with a previous determination. Mira periodsmay be intrinsically unstable for C/O ~ 1; possibly because of afeedback between the molecular opacities, pulsation amplitude, andperiod. LRS spectra of 6 SC stars suggest a feature at λ > 15μm, which resembles one recently attributed to the iron-sulphidetroilite. Chemical models predict a large abundance of FeS in SC stars,in agreement with the proposed association. Multiwavelength diameters of nearby Miras and semiregular variablesWe have used optical interferometry to obtain multiwavelength visibilitycurves for eight red giants over the wavelength range 650-1000 nm. Theobservations consist of wavelength-dispersed fringes recorded withMAPPIT (Masked Aperture-Plane Interference Telescope) at the 3.9-mAnglo-Australian Telescope. We present results for four Miras (R Car, oCet, R Hya and R Leo) and four semiregular variables (R Dor, W Hya,L2 Pup and γ Cru). All stars except γ Cru showstrong variations of angular size with wavelength. A uniform-disc modelwas found to be a poor fit in most cases, with Gaussian (or other moretapered) profiles preferred. This, together with the fact that moststars showed a systematic increase in apparent size towards the blue anda larger-than-expected linear size, even in the red, all point towardssignificant scattering by dust in the inner circumstellar environment.Some stars showed evidence for asymmetric brightness profiles, whileL2 Pup required a two-component model, indicating anasymmetrical circumstellar dust shell. Multiwavelength visibility measurements of Miras: observations of R Dor and R Leo with MAPPITWe present interferometric visibility measurements of the nearbyMira-like star R Doradus and the Mira R Leo taken over a wide range ofwavelengths (650-990 nm). These are the first simultaneous observationsof visibility as a function of wavelength over such a wide wavelengthrange for a Mira. The observations were made using MAPPIT (MaskedAPerture-Plane Interference Telescope), an interferometer operating atthe 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope. We used a slit to mask thetelescope aperture and a prism to disperse the interference pattern inwavelength. We observed in both stars strong decreases in visibilitywithin the TiO absorption bands across the observed wavelength range.Comparison of our results with theoretical models shows generalagreement but differences in detail, suggesting that further work isneeded to refine the theoretical models. We find that models for starspulsating in the fundamental mode best fit our observations. Searches for OH masers in the circumstellar envelopes of red giant irregular variable starsIrregular variables of type Lb share many characteristics withasymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars such as Miras and semiregulars(SRs). Despite their large number, irregulars are poorly understood.Using the large Nançay radio telescope, we searched for 18-cm OHmaser emission from these stars. We selected two samples of Lbs thatpresent a noticeable circumstellar envelope. In the first one, 44high-latitude objects with infrared colours of dusty mass-losing starswere observed in a wide-bandwidth velocity-search mode. In addition, 16objects (including six from the first sample), in which othercircumstellar molecular lines had recently been found, were observedwith higher resolution and sensitivity. We did not detect any new OHmaser emission from these samples down to 3σ sensitivity limitsranging from 30 to 200 mJy. We derived upper limits for the efficiencyof a typical pump using far-infrared photons. When compared with knownOH masers in AGB stars, we show that a significant gap is leftunexplored below the threshold that we determined for Lbs. Lowerefficiencies exist in some OH Miras and in the OH SRs. We cannot discardthe possibility of faint OH emission from certain Lbs, based on the sameprocesses as encountered in those sources. We briefly discuss physicalconditions allowing OH emission in the envelope, and the evolutionarystage of objects classified as Lb variables with respect to the AGB. Probing the inner wind of AGB stars: Interferometric observations of SiO millimetre line emission from the oxygen-rich stars R Dor and L2PupHigh angular resolution Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA)observations of SiO thermal'' millimetre line emission towards the twooxygen-rich, low mass loss rate AGB stars R Dor andL2 Pup are presented. In both cases the emission isresolved with an overall spherical symmetry. Detailed radiative transfermodelling of the SiO line emission has been performed, and thecomparison between observations and models are conducted in thevisibility plane, maximizing the sensitivity. The excitation analysissuggests that the abundance of SiO is as high as 4×10-5 in the inner part of the wind, close to the predictedvalues from stellar atmosphere models. Beyond a radius of ≈ 1×1015 cm the SiO abundance is significantly lower, about3× 10-6, until it decreases strongly at a radius ofabout 3× 1015 cm. This is consistent with a scenariowhere SiO first freezes out onto dust grains, and then eventuallybecomes photodissociated by the interstellar UV-radiation field. Inthese low expansion velocity sources the turbulent broadening of thelines plays an important role in the line formation. Micro-turbulentvelocity widths in the range 1.1-1.5 km s-1 result in a verygood reproduction of the observed line shapes even if the gas expansionvelocity is kept constant. This, combined with the fact that the SiO andCO lines are well fitted using the same gas expansion velocity (towithin 5-10%), suggest that the envelope acceleration occurs close tothe stellar photosphere, within  20-30 stellar radii. Detection of carbon monoxide within the Magellanic BridgeThe Mopra 22-m and SEST 15-m telescopes have been used to detect andpartially map a region of 12CO(1-0) line emission within theMagellanic Bridge, a region lying between the Large and Small MagellanicClouds (LMC and SMC, respectively). The emission appears to be embeddedin a cloud of neutral hydrogen, and is in the vicinity of an IRASsource. The CO emission region is found to have a 60 μm/100 μmflux density ratio typical for 12CO(1-0) detections withinthe SMC, although it has a significantly lower 12CObrightness and velocity width. These suggest that the observed region isof a low metallicity, supporting earlier findings that the MagellanicBridge is not as evolved as the SMC and Magellanic Stream, which arethemselves of a lower metallicity than the Galaxy. Our observations,along with empirical models based on SMC observations, indicate that theradius of the detected CO region has an upper limit of ~16 pc. Thisdetection is, to our knowledge, the first detection of CO emission fromthe Magellanic Bridge and is the only direct evidence of star formationthrough molecular cloud collapse in this region. Really Cool Stars and the Star Formation History at the Galactic CenterWe present λ/Δλ=550-1200 near-infrared H and Kspectra for a magnitude-limited sample of 79 asymptotic giant branch andcool supergiant stars in the central ~5 pc (diameter) of the Galaxy. Weuse a set of similar spectra obtained for solar neighborhood stars withknown Teff and Mbol that is in the same range asthe Galactic center (GC) sample to derive Teff andMbol for the GC sample. We then construct the H-R diagram forthe GC sample. Using an automated maximum likelihood routine, we derivea coarse star formation history of the GC. We find that (1) roughly 75%of the stars formed in the central few parsecs are older than 5 Gyr; (2)the star formation rate (SFR) is variable over time, with a roughly 4times higher SFR in the last 100 Myr compared to the average SFR; (3)our model can match dynamical limits on the total mass of stars formedonly by limiting the initial mass function to masses above 0.7Msolar (this could be a signature of mass segregation or ofthe bias toward massive star formation from the unique star formationconditions in the GC); (4) blue supergiants account for 12% of the totalsample observed, and the ratio of red to blue supergiants is roughly1.5; and (5) models with isochrones with [Fe/H]=0.0 over all ages fitthe stars in our H-R diagram better than models with lower [Fe/H] in theoldest age bins, consistent with the finding of Ramírez et al.that stars with ages between 10 Myr and 1 Gyr have solar [Fe/H]. Guilt by Association: The 13 Micron Dust Emission Feature and Its Correlation to Other Gas and Dust FeaturesA study of all full-scan spectra of optically thin oxygen-richcircumstellar dust shells in the database produced by the ShortWavelength Spectrometer on ISO reveals that the strength of severalinfrared spectral features correlates with the strength of the 13 μmdust feature. These correlated features include dust features at 19.8and 28.1 μm and the bands produced by warm carbon dioxide molecules(the strongest of which are at 13.9, 15.0, and 16.2 μm). The databasedoes not provide any evidence for a correlation of the 13 μm featurewith a dust feature at 32 μm, and it is more likely that a weakemission feature at 16.8 μm arises from carbon dioxide gas ratherthan dust. The correlated dust features at 13, 20, and 28 μm tend tobe stronger with respect to the total dust emission in semiregular andirregular variables associated with the asymptotic giant branch than inMira variables or supergiants. This family of dust features also tendsto be stronger in systems with lower infrared excesses and thus lowermass-loss rates. We hypothesize that the dust features arise fromcrystalline forms of alumina (13 μm) and silicates (20 and 28 μm).Based on observations with the ISO, a European Space Agency (ESA)project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially thePrincipal Investigator countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, andthe United Kingdom) and with the participation of the Institute of Spaceand Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration (NASA). Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE DataFor a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima. Thermal'' SiO radio line emission towards M-type AGB stars: A probe of circumstellar dust formation and dynamicsAn extensive radiative transfer analysis of circumstellar SiOthermal'' radio line emission from a large sample of M-type AGB starshas been performed. The sample contains 18 irregulars of type Lb (IRV),7 and 34 semiregulars of type SRa and SRb (SRV), respectively, and 12Miras. New observational data, which contain spectra of several groundvibrational state SiO rotational lines, are presented. The detectionrate was about 60% (44% for the IRVs, and 68% for the SRVs). SiOfractional abundances have been determined through radiative transfermodelling. The abundance distribution of the IRV/SRV sample has a medianvalue of 6*E-6, and a minimum of 2*E-6 and amaximum of 5*E-5. The high mass-loss rate Miras have a muchlower median abundance, la 10-6. The derived SiO abundancesare in all cases well below the abundance expected from stellaratmosphere equilibrium chemistry, on average by a factor of ten. Inaddition, there is a trend of decreasing SiO abundance with increasingmass-loss rate. This is interpreted in terms of depletion of SiOmolecules by the formation of silicate grains in the circumstellarenvelopes, with an efficiency which is high already at low mass-lossrates and which increases with the mass-loss rate. The high mass-lossrate Miras appear to have a bimodal SiO abundance distribution, a lowabundance group (on average 4*E-7) and a high abundance group(on average 5*E-6). The estimated SiO envelope sizes agreewell with the estimated SiO photodissociation radii using an unshieldedphotodissociation rate of 2.5*E-10 s-1. The SiOand CO radio line profiles differ in shape. In general, the SiO lineprofiles are narrower than the CO line profiles, but they havelow-intensity wings which cover the full velocity range of the CO lineprofile. This is interpreted as partly an effect of selfabsorption inthe SiO lines, and partly (as has been done also by others) as due tothe influence of gas acceleration in the region which produces asignificant fraction of the SiO line emission. Finally, a number ofsources which have peculiar CO line profiles are discussed from thepoint of view of their SiO line properties.Based on observations using the SEST at La Silla, Chile, the 20 mtelescope at Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden, the JCMT on Hawaii, andthe IRAM 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain. Reprocessing the Hipparcos data of evolved stars. III. Revised Hipparcos period-luminosity relationship for galactic long-period variable starsWe analyze the K band luminosities of a sample of galactic long-periodvariables using parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos mission. Theparallaxes are in most cases re-computed from the Hipparcos IntermediateAstrometric Data using improved astrometric fits and chromaticitycorrections. The K band magnitudes are taken from the literature andfrom measurements by COBE, and are corrected for interstellar andcircumstellar extinction. The sample contains stars of several spectraltypes: M, S and C, and of several variability classes: Mira, semiregularSRa, and SRb. We find that the distribution of stars in theperiod-luminosity plane is independent of circumstellar chemistry, butthat the different variability types have different P-L distributions.Both the Mira variables and the SRb variables have reasonablywell-defined period-luminosity relationships, but with very differentslopes. The SRa variables are distributed between the two classes,suggesting that they are a mixture of Miras and SRb, rather than aseparate class of stars. New period-luminosity relationships are derivedbased on our revised Hipparcos parallaxes. The Miras show a similarperiod-luminosity relationship to that found for Large Magellanic CloudMiras by Feast et al. (\cite{Feast-1989:a}). The maximum absolute Kmagnitude of the sample is about -8.2 for both Miras and semi-regularstars, only slightly fainter than the expected AGB limit. We show thatthe stars with the longest periods (P>400 d) have high mass lossrates and are almost all Mira variables.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA \cite{Hipparcos}).Table \ref{Tab:data1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/993 Results of the ESO-SEST Key Programme on CO in the Magellanic Clouds. IX. The giant LMC HII region complex N 11The second-brightest star formation complex in the Large MagellanicCloud, N 11, was surveyed extensively in the J = 1-0 transition of12CO. In this paper we present maps and a cataloguecontaining the parameters of 29 individual molecular clouds in thecomplex, although more may be present. The distribution of molecular gasin the N 11 complex is highly structured. In the southwestern part of N11, molecular clouds occur in a ring or shell surrounding the major OBstar association LH 9. In the northeastern part, a chain of molecularclouds delineates the rim of one of the so-called supergiant shells inthe LMC. There appears to be very little diffuse molecular gasin-between the individual well-defined clouds, especially in thesouthwestern ring. Most of the clouds have dimensions only slightlylarger than those of the survey beam, i.e. diameters of 25 pc or less. Asubset of the clouds mapped in J= 1-0 12CO transition wasalso observed in the J= 2-1 12CO transition, and in thecorresponding transitions of 13CO. Clouds mapped in J= 2-112CO with a two times higher angular resolution show further,clear substructure. The elements of this substructure, however, havedimensions once again comparable to those of the mapping beam. For a fewclouds, sufficient information was available to warrant an attempt atmodelling their physical parameters. They contain fairly warm(Tkin = 60-150 K) and moderately dense (nH_2 =3000 cm-3) gas. The northeastern chain of CO clouds, althoughlacking in diffuse intercloud emission, is characteristic of the morequiescent regions of the LMC, and appears to have been subject torelatively little photo-processing. The clouds forming part of thesouthwestern shell or ring, however, are almost devoid of diffuseintercloud emission, and also exhibit other characteristics of anextreme photon-dominated region (PDR). How many Hipparcos Variability-Induced Movers are genuine binaries?Hipparcos observations of some variable stars, and especially oflong-period (e.g. Mira) variables, reveal a motion of the photocentercorrelated with the brightness variation (variability-induced mover -VIM), suggesting the presence of a binary companion. A re-analysis ofthe Hipparcos photometric and astrometric data does not confirm the VIMsolution for 62 among the 288 VIM objects (21%) in the Hipparcoscatalogue. Most of these 288 VIMs are long-period (e.g. Mira) variables(LPV). The effect of a revised chromaticity correction, which accountsfor the color variations along the light cycle, was then investigated.It is based on instantaneous'' V-I color indices derived fromHipparcos and Tycho-2 epoch photometry. Among the 188 LPVs flagged asVIM in the Hipparcos catalogue, 89 (47%) are not confirmed as VIM afterthis improved chromaticity correction is applied. This dramatic decreasein the number of VIM solutions is not surprising, since the chromaticitycorrection applied by the Hipparcos reduction consortia was based on afixed V-I color. Astrophysical considerations lead us to adopt a morestringent criterion for accepting a VIM solution (first-kind risk of0.27% instead of 10% as in the Hipparcos catalogue). With this moresevere criterion, only 27 LPV stars remain VIM, thus rejecting 161 ofthe 188 (86%) of the LPVs defined as VIMs in the Hipparcos catalogue.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).Table 1 is also available in electronic form at the CDS, via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/399/1167 Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systemsFor Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997 The evolution of the Mira variable R HydraeThe Mira variable R Hydrae is well known for its declining period, whichWood & Zarro attributed to a possible recent thermal pulse. Here weinvestigate the long-term period evolution, covering 340 years, goingback to its discovery in AD 1662. The data include photometricmonitoring by amateur and other astronomers over the last century, andrecorded dates of maximum for earlier times. Wavelets are used todetermine both the period and the semi-amplitude. We show that theperiod decreased linearly between 1770 and 1950; since 1950 the periodhas stabilized at 385d. The semi-amplitude is shown to follow the periodevolution closely. Analysis of the oldest data shows that before 1770the period was about 495d. We find no evidence for an increasing periodduring this time as found by Wood & Zarro. We discuss the mass-losshistory of R Hya: the IRAS data show that the mass loss droppeddramatically around AD 1750. The evolution of the mass loss as functionof period agrees with the mass-loss formalism from Vassiliadis &Wood; it is much larger than predicted by the Blöcker law. An outerdetached IRAS shell suggests that R Hya has experienced mass-lossinterruptions before. The period evolution can be explained by twomodels: a thermal pulse occurring around AD 1600, or a non-linearinstability leading to an internal relaxation of the stellar structure.The elapsed time between the mass-loss decline giving rise to the outerdetached shell and the recent event, of approximately 5000yr, suggeststhat only one of these events could be due to a thermal pulse. Furthermonitoring of R Hya is recommended, as both models make strongpredictions for the future period evolution. We argue that R Hya-typeevents could provide part of the explanation for the rings seen aroundsome asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB stars. Changes in Miraproperties were already known on a cycle-to-cycle basis, and on thethermal pulse time-scale of ~104yr. R Hya shows thatsignificant evolution can also occur on intermediate time-scales of theorder of 102-103yr. Mass loss rates of a sample of irregular and semiregular M-type AGB-variablesWe have determined mass loss rates and gas expansion velocities for asample of 69 M-type irregular (IRV 22 objects) and semiregular (SRV; 47objects) AGB-variables using a radiative transfer code to model theircircumstellar CO radio line emission. We believe that this sample isrepresentative for the mass losing stars of this type. The (molecularhydrogen) mass loss rate distribution has a median value of 2.0 x10-7 Msun yr-1, and a minimum of 2.0 x10-8 Msun yr-1 and a maximum of 8 x10-7 Msun yr-1. M-type IRVs and SRVswith a mass loss rate in excess of 5 x 10-7 Msunyr-1 must be very rare, and among these mass losing stars thenumber of sources with mass loss rates below a few 10-8Msun yr-1 must be small. We find no significantdifference between the IRVs and the SRVs in terms of their mass losscharacteristics. Among the SRVs the mass loss rate shows no dependenceon the period. Likewise the mass loss rate shows no correlation with thestellar temperature. The gas expansion velocity distribution has amedian of 7.0 km s-1, and a minimum of 2.2 km s-1and a maximum of 14.4 km s-1. No doubt, these objects samplethe low gas expansion velocity end of AGB winds. The fraction of objectswith low gas expansion velocities is very high, about 30% havevelocities lower than 5 km s-1, and there are objects withvelocities lower than 3 km s-1: V584 Aql,T Ari, BI Car, RXLac, and L2 Pup. The mass loss rate and thegas expansion velocity correlate well, a result in line with theoreticalpredictions for an optically thin, dust-driven wind. In general, themodel produces line profiles which acceptably fit the observed ones. Anexceptional case is R Dor, where the high-quality,observed line profiles are essentially flat-topped, while the model onesare sharply double-peaked. The sample contains four sources withdistinctly double-component CO line profiles, i.e., a narrow featurecentered on a broader feature: EP Aqr, RVBoo, X Her, and SV Psc.We have modelled the two components separately for each star and derivemass loss rates and gas expansion velocities. We have compared theresults of this M-star sample with a similar C-star sample analysed inthe same way. The mass loss rate characteristics are very similar forthe two samples. On the contrary, the gas expansion velocitydistributions are clearly different. In particular, the number oflow-velocity sources is much higher in the M-star sample. We found noexample of the sharply double-peaked CO line profile, which is evidenceof a large, detached CO-shell, among the M-stars. About 10% of theC-stars show this phenomenon. The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectraWe present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033 The 3 mu m spectrum of R Doradus observed with the ISO-SWSWe have modeled the 2.6-3.7 μm spectrum of the red semiregularvariable R Doradus observed with the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer onboard the Infrared Space Observatory. The wavelength resolution of theobservations varies between R ~ 2000-2500. We have calculated asynthetic spectrum using a hydrostatic model photosphere in sphericalgeometry. The agreement between the synthetic spectrum and the ISOobservations is encouraging, especially in the wavelength region of2.8-3.7 μm, suggesting that a hydrostatic model photosphere isadequate for the calculation of synthetic spectra in the near infraredfor this moderately varying red giant star. However, an additionalabsorption component is needed at 2.6-2.8 μm and this discrepancy isdiscussed. The spectral signatures are dominated by water vapour in thestellar photosphere, but several photospheric OH, CO, and SiO featuresare also present. The effective temperature and surface gravity derivedfor R Dor, based on the 2.6-3.7 μm ISO spectrum and the modeling ofit with a hydrostatic model photosphere, are 3000+/- 100 K and log g = 0+/- 1 (cgs), respectively. The spectral region observed is found to betemperature sensitive. The effective temperature given here is slightlyhigher than those reported in the literature. We also discuss possiblereasons for this. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participationof ISAS and NASA. The SWS is a joint project of SRON and MPE. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

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 星座: 北冕座 右阿森松: 04h36m45.60s 赤纬: -62Â°04'39.0" 视星: 5.4 距离: 62.422 天文距离 右阿森松适当运动: -67 赤纬适当运动: -73.4 B-T magnitude: 7.315 V-T magnitude: 5.869