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|The B Supergiant Components of the Double-lined Binary HD 1383|
We present new results from a study of high-quality red spectra of themassive binary star system HD 1383 (B0.5 Ib + B0.5 Ib). We determinedradial velocities and revised orbital elements (P=20.28184+/-0.0002days) and made Doppler tomographic reconstructions of the componentspectra. A comparison of these with model spectra from non-LTE,line-blanketed atmospheres indicates that the two stars have almostidentical masses (M2/M1=1.020+/-0.014),temperatures (Teff=28,000+/-1000 K), gravities(logg=3.25+/-0.25), and projected rotational velocities (Vsini<~30 kms-1). We investigate a number of constraints on the radii andmasses of the stars based on the absence of eclipses, surface gravity,stellar wind terminal velocity, and probable location in the Perseusspiral arm of the Galaxy, and these indicate a range in probable radiusand mass of R/Rsolar=14-20 and M/Msolar=16-35,respectively. These values are consistent with model evolutionary massesfor single stars of this temperature and gravity. Both stars are muchsmaller than their respective Roche radii, so the system is probably ina precontact stage of evolution. A fit of the system's spectral energydistribution yields a reddening of E(B-V)=0.55+/-0.05 and a ratio oftotal-to-selective extinction of R=2.97+/-0.15. We find no evidence ofHα emission from colliding stellar winds, which is probably theconsequence of the low gas densities in the colliding winds zone.
|Profiles of Very Weak Diffuse Interstellar Bands around 6440 Å|
Profiles of very weak diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) between 6400 and6470 Å observed with high resolution and very high S/N aredemonstrated. We show that with the increasing quality of reddenedstellar spectra, the whole spectral range is covered with weak or veryweak DIBs-at least one every 2-3 Å. We also present the details ofthe profiles of a few stronger features; the presence of substructuresresembles the profiles of strong DIBs observed in high resolution duringthe last decade and supports the hypothesis of a molecular origin of atleast a majority of DIBs.
|The Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra of Luminous B-Type Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud|
We present ultraviolet spectra from the Space Telescope ImagingSpectrograph (STIS) of 12 early B-type stars in the Small MagellanicCloud (SMC), composed of nine supergiants and three giants. Amorphological comparison with Galactic analogs is made using archivaldata from the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). In general, theintensity of the P Cygni emission in the UV resonance lines is greaterand is seen to later spectral types in the Galactic spectra than intheir metal-deficient SMC counterparts. We attribute these effects asmost likely arising from weaker stellar winds in the SMC targets, aspredicted by radiatively driven wind theory. We also include unpublishedSTIS observations of two late O-type stars in the SMC. In combinationwith published O-type STIS data, we now have an extensive ultravioletspectral library of metal-deficient stars to use in the study ofunresolved starbursts and high-redshift star-forming galaxies. In thiscontext, we present empirical measurements for the B-type spectra of thenew ``1978 index'' suggested by Rix et al. as a probe of metallicity insuch systems.
|Correlations between diffuse interstellar bands and atomic lines|
We present and discuss correlations between strengths of the well-known,strong interstellar atomic lines of KI and CaII, and four selected,strong unidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs): 5780, 5797, 5850and 6614. In order to analyse a homogeneous sample of echellehigh-resolution spectra it has been chosen to use measurements fromTerskol Observatory in Northern Caucasus plus a selected number ofhigher resolution observations performed using other instruments. Wedemonstrate that the strength of certain DIBs correlate well withneutral potassium lines and to a much lower degree with ionized calciumlines. This fact suggests that the degree of irradiation of a cloud withUV photons, capable to ionize interstellar atoms, plays a crucial rolein the formation/maintenance of certain molecular species: possiblecarriers of DIBs.
|Grey extinction in the solar neighbourhood?|
Some of the close O and B dwarfs appear to be fainter than indicated bytheir Hipparcos distances, intrinsic absolute magnitudes attributed totheir spectral types, and estimated selective interstellar extinction.This discrepancy is explained in the paper by the grey (neutral)interstellar extinction in the visual range of spectrum. The measure ofsuch an effect is related to discrete features of the interstellarmatter.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Profiles of blue and infrared diffuse interstellar bands|
The paper presents a survey of profiles of reasonably strong diffuseinterstellar bands (DIBs) based on the extensive set of high-resolutionspectra acquired with the aid of echelle spectrographs installed at the2-m Terskol, 2-m Pic du Midi and 1-m SAO telescopes. The surveyeddiffuse interstellar bands cover the spectral ranges of blue andnear-infrared, i.e the DIBs not surveyed by Krełowski &Schmidt. The possible modifications caused by stellar and telluric linesare discussed. The very broad features such as 4430 are not discussedbecause the shapes of their profiles, extracted from echelle spectra,are very uncertain. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of the spectra arenot high enough to enable discussion of the profiles of numerous weakinterstellar features discovered recently.
|Multicomponent radiatively driven stellar winds. II. Gayley-Owocki heating in multitemperature winds of OB stars|
We show that the so-called Gayley-Owocki (Doppler) heating is importantfor the temperature structure of the wind of main sequence stars coolerthan the spectral type O6. The formula for Gayley-Owocki heating isderived directly from the Boltzmann equation as a direct consequence ofthe dependence of the driving force on the velocity gradient. SinceGayley-Owocki heating deposits heat directly on the absorbing ions, wealso investigated the possibility that individual components of theradiatively driven stellar wind have different temperatures. This effectis negligible in the wind of O stars, whereas a significant temperaturedifference takes place in the winds of main sequence B stars for starscooler than B2. Typical temperature differences between absorbing ionsand other flow components for such stars is of the order 103K. However, in the case when the passive component falls back onto thestar, the absorbing component reaches temperatures of order106 K, which allows for emission of X-rays. Moreover, wecompare our computed terminal velocities with the observed ones. Wefound quite good agreement between predicted and observed terminalvelocities. The systematic difference coming from the using of the socalled ``cooking formula'' has been removed.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutions|
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included).
|Galactic B-supergiants: A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis to estimate atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions|
A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of moderate resolution (R ~ 5 000)spectra of 46 Galactic B-type supergiants is presented. Standardtechniques are adopted, viz. plane-parallel geometry and radiative andhydrostatic equilibrium. Spectroscopic atmospheric parameters (T_eff,log g & v_turb) and chemical abundances (He, C, N, O, Mg & Si)are estimated, both as a test of the validity of such an approach and inan attempt to provide consistent results for supergiants covering asignificant range of spectral types. The values of the estimatedatmospheric parameters and their dependence on the physics adopted inthe model atmospheres calculations are discussed. The absolute metalabundances are compared to those of main sequence B-type stars and, ingeneral, their chemical compositions appear to be similar. Theabundances for He, C, N & O are considered in some detail and arediscussed in the context of possible evolutionary histories for thisstellar sample. Specifically, it is found that the supergiant sample canbe subdivided into a number of evolutionarily distinct groups. The lowermass objects are predominantly chemically near-normal i.e. theirphotospheres show little or no evidence for chemical processing, whereasthe higher mass supergiants have CNO ratios which are indicative of CNand possibly NO-cycle burning. An attempt is made to quantify thedifference in nitrogen and carbon abundances between the high and lowmass targets but this is hampered by theoretical uncertainties. Thepossibilities that the most highly processed supergiants may have eitherlarger rotational velocities or have undergone mass transfer within abinary system are discussed.
|Suprathermal rotation of PAHs in the ISM II. Observational evidence for the rotational broadening of lambda 5797 DIB in reflection nebulae - implication for the carrier size|
In a previous paper, we described a model which can explain thelambda5797 diffuse interstellar band (DIB) profile as seen in absorptionin the diffuse interstellar medium and in emission in the Red Rectangle(RR), as a rotational envelope of electronic transitions where themolecular carrier is a free PAH of size ~ 40 atoms. One of the strongestpredictions is the behaviour of the rotational temperature of PAH in thecase of regions rich in UV such as Reflection Nebulae: it must besuprathermal with respect to the gas temperature but clamped to ~ 100 Kfor any PAH size. The width of the DIB, in such regions, can then bebroader than in the classical ISM (T_rot ~ 30 K) if the values of themolecular transition are favorable. In order to test this prediction, wehave obtained high resolution spectra of 27 reddened early type stars,mostly in reflection nebulae, in order to compare their lambda 5797 DIBwidth to those of stars in classical diffuse interstellar medium. Thesespectra were made for several DIBs such as lambda 5797, lambda6379 andlambda6613 , with a spectral resolving power of about 60 000. Theanalysis of the results agrees with our predic tion since the width ofthe lambda 5797 DIB is broader in a majority of areas with strong UVradiation. Moreover, the broadening is not observed on DIBs lambda6379and lambda6613 , indicating that the molecular parameters of theelectronic transitions at the origin of the different DIBs are prettyvariable from one DIB to another and confirming that the measuredbroadening on lambda 5797 is not due to an instrumental bias. Thestatistical measurement of the lambda 5797 width in this medium permitsthe derivation of new constraints on the size of the carrier of thisDIB, a molecule that should have 30 to 45 carbon atoms if, as wepropose, it is indeed a PAH. Based on observations made at Observatoirede Haute Provence (CNRS), France.
|UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous Stars|
A database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data.
|Cross-correlation characteristics of OB stars from IUE spectroscopy|
We present a catalogue of homogeneous measures of the linewidthparameter, v_esin i, for 373 O-type stars and early B supergiants(including the separate components of 25 binary and three triplesystems), produced by cross-correlating high-resolution,short-wavelength IUE spectra against a `template' spectrum of tauSco. Wealso tabulate terminal velocities. There are no O supergiants in oursample with v_esin i<65 km s^-1, and only one supergiant earlier thanB5 has v_esin i<50 km s^-1, confirming that an important linebroadening mechanism in addition to rotation must be present in theseobjects. A calibration of the area under the cross-correlation peakagainst spectral type is used to obtain estimates of continuum intensityratios of the components in 28 spectroscopically binary or multiplesystems. At least seven SB2 systems show evidence for the `Struve-Sahadeeffect', a systematic variation in relative line strength as a functionof orbital phase. The stellar wind profiles of the most rapid rotator inour sample, the O9III:n* star HD 191423 (v_esin i=436km s^-1), show itto have a `wind-compressed disc' similar to that of HD 93521; this starand other rapid rotators are good candidates for studies of non-radialpulsation.
|Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars.III.The High Resolution Maps|
In a recent survey for bow shock structures around OB runaway starsusing the ISSA/IRAS archival data and excess maps at 60 \mum, 58candidates were found. These objects are surrounded by extended infraredemission at 60 \mum, characteristic of warm dust heated by ultravioletphotons, a signature of wind bow shocks. High resolution IRAS (HiRes)images have been produced for these 58 objects and some of thosespatially resolved are presented in this study. The images were used todistinguish between multiple confused IR sources, possible artifacts andunambiguous bow shocks, as the sources of the extended 60 \mum emission.Six new bow shocks have been identified using this method, and threehave been rejected. Twenty two of the targets, however, remain spatiallyunresolved even at the nominal HiRes resolution of ~ 1arcmin . For thelarger and better defined bow shocks some internal substructure isdiscernible. The length of these features suggest that they arise as theresult of a subtle dynamical instability. It can not be ruled out,however, that some of the bow shock morphology could be imprinted by thesurrounding medium.
|Metallicities of 4 blue supergiants near the Galactic centre.|
High resolution optical spectra of four blue supergiants (HD 148422B0.5Ib; HD 178487 B0.5Ib; HD 179407 B1Ib, HD 163522 B1Ib) which liewithin 4.5kpc of the Galactic centre are presented. Careful differentialLTE model atmosphere analyses are used to quantify the differences inphotospheric metal abundances between these stars and MK spectralstandards in the solar neighborhood. A detailed non-LTE model atmosphereanalysis of one star (HD 163522) confirms that the LTE differentialabundances should be reliable, provided we use a comparison star withsimilar atmospheric parameters. One star (HD 148422; R_g_=4.5kpc) has achemical composition similar to normal nearby B-type stars while HD178487 (R_g_=4.1kpc) shows a mild but consistent pattern of a metalenhanced atmosphere (with elements up by 0.1-0.3dex). The other twostars HD 163522 (R_g_=4.1kpc) and HD 179407 (R_g_=3.5kpc) havesignificantly higher metal compositions than their standard comparisonstars with abundances enhanced by 0.30-0.40dex and 0.20-0.5dexrespectively. All of the stars lie outside the Galactic plane (withdistances in the range 0.5
|A Spectral Atlas of Hot, Luminous Stars at 2 Microns|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..107..281H&db_key=AST
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Terminal Velocities and the Bistability of Stellar Winds|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...455..269L&db_key=AST
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Radio continuum emission from stars: a catalogue update.|
An updated version of my catalogue of radio stars is presented. Somestatistics and availability are discussed.
|Intrinsic colour indices of O- and B- type stars in the Vilnius photometric system.|
|An atlas of ultraviolet P Cygni profiles|
We have selected spectra of 232 stars from the International UltravioletExplorer (IUE) archives for inclusion in an atlas intended for varioususes but tailored especially for the study of stellar winds. The atlascovers the range in spectral types from O3 to F8. The full atlas coversthe reduced and normalized high resolution spectra from the IUE long-and short-wavelength spectrographs. Here we discuss the selection of thestars and the data reduction, and we present in velocity units theprofiles of lines formed in the stellar winds. The selected lines covera wide range of ionizations, allowing a comparison of the profiles fromdifferent ions in the wind of each star and a comparison of thedifferent wind lines as a function spectral type and luminosity. We alsopresent the basic data on the program stars to facilitate study of thedependence of wind features on stellar parameters such as luminosity,temperature, escape velocity, and v sin i. We provide an overview of thecharacteristic behavior of the wind lines in the H-R diagram. Thecomplete spectra are available in digital form through the NASAAstrophysics Data System (ADS). We offer a description of the electronicdatabase that is available through the ADS and guidelines for obtainingaccess to that database.
|Improved Mean Positions and Proper Motions for the 995 FK4 Sup Stars not Included in the FK5 Extension|
|Galactic B-supergiants. II - Line strengths in the visible: Evidence for evolutionary effects?|
Following the discovery by Lennon et al. (1992) of anomalously weakcarbon lines in the Galactic B-supergiants, a search was conducted forthe signatures of CNO processed material in the atmospheres of thesestars. It was found that the NII line strengths around spectral type B2correlate with luminosity, but exhibit a clear anticorrelation with theCII lines. It is suggested that this trend may be evidence for CNOprocessed material contaminating the atmospheres of the most luminousstars. The CNO processing signature was found to be most pronounced inthe more luminous supergiants, in qualitative agreement with stellarevolution calculations (provided that such stars have passed through aprevious red-supergiant phase of evolution).
|An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars|
About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are usedto measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars fallingin the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-fourdetected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it isestimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to theX-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition tosummarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant opticaldata, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process andanalyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completenessand IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-rayemission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quitecommon in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless ofluminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes lesscommon, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.
|Galactic B-supergiants. I - an atlas of O9-B9 supergiant spectra from 3950 A to 4950 A|
CCD spectra are presented for supergiants of spectral types O9-B9 andluminosity subclasses Ia and Ib. They cover the wavelength region fromapproximately 3950 A to 4950 A at a resolution of 0.8 A, and normallyhave a signal-to-noise in excess of 150 at 4600 A. The spectra arediscussed in respect to their classification. A number of stars showclear evidence of the 'filling in' of hydrogen lines by emission fromthe stellar wind, while HD 190603, a B1.5 Ia(+) hypergiant, exhibits anH-beta P-Cygni type line-profile. Also reported is the finding of a newnitrogen weak star, HD 13866, in the Per OB1 association which isclassified here as BC2 Ib.
|Absolute magnitudes of B emission line stars - Correlation between the luminosity excess and the effective temperature|
A new determination of the visual absolute magnitude of Be stars iscarried out. For this, a new calibration of visual absolute magnitudesof B stars of luminosity classes, V, IV, and III is first obtained froma sample of 215 stars. The absolute luminosity excess in the visual isdetermined for a sample of 49 Be stars. It is found that this excess iscorrelated with the effective temperature of the underlying stars. Awell defined correlation between this excess and the emission in thefirst two Balmer lines is established. From these results, using asimple model of circumstellar envelope, it is inferred that the zones ofthe circumstellar envelope contributing to the emission in the continuumand in the lines have to be rather small. It is also deduced that theemission measure of the envelope is correlated with the temperature ofthe central star and that the irregular photometric variations of Bestars are an envelope-opacity phenomenon.
|Photospheric Absorption Lines in the Ultraviolet Spectra of O-Stars and B-Stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990MNRAS.246..392P&db_key=AST
|Terminal velocities for a large sample of O stars, B supergiants, and Wolf-Rayet stars|
It is argued that easily measured, reliable estimates of terminalvelocities for early-type stars are provided by the central velocityasymptotically approached by narrow absorption features and by theviolet limit of zero residual intensity in saturated P Cygni profiles.These estimators are used to determine terminal velocities, v(infinity),for 181 O stars, 70 early B supergiants, and 35 Wolf-Rayet stars. For OBstars, the values are typically 15-20 percent smaller than the extremeviolet edge velocities, v(edge), while for WR stars v(infinity) = 0.76v(edge) on average. New mass-loss rates for WR stars which are thermalradio emitters are given, taking into account the new terminalvelocities and recent revisions to estimates of distances and to themean nuclear mass per electron. The relationships between v(infinity),the surface escape velocities, and effective temperatures are examined.