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|Virtual planet sleuths.|
|The Hill stability of a binary or planetary system during encounters with a third inclined body|
The dynamical interaction of a binary or planetary system and a thirdbody moving on a parabolic orbit inclined to the system is discussed interms of Hill stability for the full three-body problem. The situationarises in binary star disruption and exchange, in extrasolar planetarysystem disruption, exchange and capture. It is found that increasing theinclination of the third body decreases the Hill regions of stability.This makes exchange or disruption of the component masses more likely asdoes increasing the eccentricity of the binary.The stability criteria are applied to determine possible disruption andcapture distances for currently known extrasolar planetary systems.
|Reduction of time-resolved space-based CCD photometry developed for MOST Fabry Imaging data*|
The MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) satellite obtainsultraprecise photometry from space with high sampling rates and dutycycles. Astronomical photometry or imaging missions in low Earth orbits,like MOST, are especially sensitive to scattered light from Earthshine,and all these missions have a common need to extract target informationfrom voluminous data cubes. They consist of upwards of hundreds ofthousands of two-dimensional CCD frames (or subrasters) containing fromhundreds to millions of pixels each, where the target information,superposed on background and instrumental effects, is contained only ina subset of pixels (Fabry Images, defocused images, mini-spectra). Wedescribe a novel reduction technique for such data cubes: resolvinglinear correlations of target and background pixel intensities. Thisstep-wise multiple linear regression removes only those targetvariations which are also detected in the background. The advantage ofregression analysis versus background subtraction is the appropriatescaling, taking into account that the amount of contamination may differfrom pixel to pixel. The multivariate solution for all pairs oftarget/background pixels is minimally invasive of the raw photometrywhile being very effective in reducing contamination due to, e.g. straylight. The technique is tested and demonstrated with both simulatedoscillation signals and real MOST photometry.
|The origin and chemical evolution of carbon in the Galactic thin and thick discs*|
In order to trace the origin and evolution of carbon in the Galacticdisc, we have determined carbon abundances in 51 nearby F and G dwarfstars. The sample is divided into two kinematically distinct subsampleswith 35 and 16 stars that are representative of the Galactic thin andthick discs, respectively. The analysis is based on spectral synthesisof the forbidden [CI] line at 872.7nm using spectra of very highresolution (R~ 220000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >~ 300)that were obtained with the Coudé Echelle Spectrograph (CES)spectrograph by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 3.6-m telescopeat La Silla in Chile. We find that [C/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trends for thethin and thick discs are totally merged and flat for subsolarmetallicities. The thin disc that extends to higher metallicities thanthe thick disc shows a shallow decline in [C/Fe] from [Fe/H]~ 0 and upto [Fe/H]~+0.4. The [C/O] versus [O/H] trends are well separated betweenthe two discs (due to differences in the oxygen abundances) and bear agreat resemblance to the [Fe/O] versus [O/H] trends. Our interpretationof our abundance trends is that the sources that are responsible for thecarbon enrichment in the Galactic thin and thick discs have operated ona time-scale very similar to those that are responsible for the Fe and Yenrichment [i.e. SNIa and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars,respectively]. We further note that there exist other observational datain the literature that favour massive stars as the main sources forcarbon. In order to match our carbon trends, we believe that the carbonyields from massive stars then must be very dependent on metallicity forthe C, Fe and Y trends to be so finely tuned in the two discpopulations. Such metallicity-dependent yields are no longer supportedby the new stellar models in the recent literature. For the Galaxy, wehence conclude that the carbon enrichment at metallicities typical ofthe disc is mainly due to low- and intermediate-mass stars, whilemassive stars are still the main carbon contributor at low metallicities(halo and metal-poor thick disc).
|Colour-differential interferometry for the observation of extrasolar planets|
We present the high angular resolution technique of colour-differentialinterferometry for direct detection of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs).The measurement of differential phase with long-baseline ground-basedinterferometers in the near-infrared could allow the observation ofseveral hot giant extrasolar planets in tight orbit around the nearbystars, and thus yield their low- or mid-resolution spectroscopy,complete orbital data set and mass. Estimates of potentially achievablesignal-to-noise ratios are presented for a number of planets alreadydiscovered by indirect methods. The limits from the instrumental andatmospheric instability are discussed, and a subsequent observationalstrategy is proposed.
|Metallicity, debris discs and planets|
We investigate the populations of main-sequence stars within 25 pc thathave debris discs and/or giant planets detected by Doppler shift. Themetallicity distribution of the debris sample is a very close match tothat of stars in general, but differs with >99 per cent confidencefrom the giant planet sample, which favours stars of above averagemetallicity. This result is not due to differences in age of the twosamples. The formation of debris-generating planetesimals at tens of authus appears independent of the metal fraction of the primordial disc,in contrast to the growth and migration history of giant planets withina few au. The data generally fit a core accumulation model, with outerplanetesimals forming eventually even from a disc low in solids, whileinner planets require fast core growth for gas to still be present tomake an atmosphere.
|Spectral synthesis analysis and radial velocity study of the northern F-, G- and K-type flare stars|
In this paper, we present a study of the general physical and chemicalproperties and radial velocity monitoring of young active stars. Wederive temperatures, logg, [Fe/H], v sini and Rspec valuesfor eight stars. The detailed analysis reveals that the stars are nothomogeneous in their principal physical parameters or in the agedistribution. In 4/5, we found a periodic radial velocity signal whichoriginates in surface features; the fifth is surprisingly inactive andshows little variation.
|Asteroseismology and interferometry .|
Asteroseismology aims at constraining the stellar evolution theory, andallows to determine the age of stars together with other fundamentalparameters. We present recent results obtained by interferometry, andprospects for the future.
|An Upper Limit on the Albedo of HD 209458b: Direct Imaging Photometry with the MOST Satellite|
We present space-based photometry of the transiting exoplanetary systemHD 209458 obtained with the Microvariablity and Oscillations of Stars(MOST) satellite, spanning 14 days and covering 4 transits and 4secondary eclipses. The HD 209458 photometry was obtained in MOST'slower precision direct imaging mode, which is used for targets in thebrightness range 6.5>=V>=13. We describe the photometric reductiontechniques for this mode of observing, in particular the corrections forstray earthshine. We do not detect the secondary eclipse in the MOSTdata, to a limit in depth of 0.053 mmag (1 σ). We set a 1 σupper limit on the planet-star flux ratio of 4.88×10-5corresponding to a geometric albedo upper limit in the MOST bandpass(400-700 nm) of 0.25. The corresponding numbers at the 3 σ levelare 1.34×10-4 and 0.68, respectively. HD 209458b ishalf as bright as Jupiter in the MOST bandpass. This low geometricalbedo value is an important constraint for theoretical models of the HD209458b atmosphere, in particular ruling out the presence of reflectiveclouds. A second MOST campaign on HD 209458 is expected to be sensitiveto an exoplanet albedo as low as 0.13 (1 σ), if the star does notbecome more intrinsically variable in the meantime.MOST is a Canadian Space Agency mission, operated jointly by Dynacon,Inc., and the Universities of Toronto and British Columbia, withassistance from the University of Vienna.
|Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems|
We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known asof 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated usingthe multiepoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching thetrigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distancesestimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refutecompanions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog, in the Catalogsof Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiß, in Hipparcosresults, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey. Ourfindings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanetsystems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. Weconfirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six starsin five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions toexoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in theWashington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions.At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five(including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside intriple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, andγ Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planetsat roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellarcompanions at projected separations of ~20 AU, similar to the Sun-Uranusdistance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarfcompanions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicatesthat solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicityenvironments-singles, binaries, and triples-and that planets survive thepost-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.
|Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets|
We present a catalog of nearby exoplanets. It contains the 172 knownlow-mass companions with orbits established through radial velocity andtransit measurements around stars within 200 pc. We include fivepreviously unpublished exoplanets orbiting the stars HD 11964, HD 66428,HD 99109, HD 107148, and HD 164922. We update orbits for 83 additionalexoplanets, including many whose orbits have not been revised sincetheir announcement, and include radial velocity time series from theLick, Keck, and Anglo-Australian Observatory planet searches. Both thesenew and previously published velocities are more precise here due toimprovements in our data reduction pipeline, which we applied toarchival spectra. We present a brief summary of the global properties ofthe known exoplanets, including their distributions of orbital semimajoraxis, minimum mass, and orbital eccentricity.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. The Keck Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.
|IRS Spectra of Solar-Type Stars: A Search for Asteroid Belt Analogs|
We report the results of a spectroscopic search for debris diskssurrounding 41 nearby solar-type stars, including eight planet-bearingstars, using the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on the Spitzer SpaceTelescope. With the accurate relative photometry of the IRS between 7and 34 μm we are able to look for excesses as small as ~2% ofphotospheric levels, with particular sensitivity to weak spectralfeatures. For stars with no excess, the 3 σ upper limit in a bandat 30-34 μm corresponds to ~75 times the brightness of our zodiacaldust cloud. Comparable limits at 8.5-13 μm correspond to ~1400 timesthe brightness of our zodiacal dust cloud. These limits correspond tomaterial located within the <1 to ~5 AU region that, in our solarsystem, originates predominantly from debris associated with theasteroid belt. We find excess emission longward of ~25 μm from fivestars, of which four also show excess emission at 70 μm. Thisemitting dust must be located in a region starting around 5-10 AU. Onestar has 70 μm emission but no IRS excess. In this case, the emittingregion must begin outside 10 AU; this star has a known radial velocityplanet. Only two stars of the five show emission shortward of 25 μm,where spectral features reveal the presence of a population of small,hot dust grains emitting in the 7-20 μm band. One of these stars, HD72905, is quite young (300 Myr), while the other, HD 69830, is olderthan 2 Gyr. The data presented here strengthen the results of previousstudies to show that excesses at 25 μm and shorter are rare: only 1out of 40 stars older than 1 Gyr or ~2.5% shows an excess. Asteroidbelts 10-30 times more massive than our own appear are rare amongmature, solar-type stars.
|The N2K Consortium. V. Identifying Very Metal-rich Stars with Low-Resolution Spectra: Finding Planet-Search Targets|
We present empirical calibrations that provide estimates of stellarmetallicity, effective temperature, and surface gravity as a function ofLick IDS indices. These calibrations have been derived from a trainingset of 261 stars for which (1) high-precision measurements of [Fe/H],Teff, and logg have been made using spectral-synthesisanalysis of HIRES spectra, and (2) Lick indices have also been measured.Estimation of atmospheric parameters with low-resolution spectroscopyrather than photometry has the advantage of producing a highly accuratemetallicity calibration, and requires only one observation per star. Ourcalibrations have identified a number of bright (V<9) metal-richstars that are now being screened for hot-Jupiter-type planets. Usingthe Yonsei-Yale stellar models, we show that the calibrations providedistance estimates accurate to ~20% for nearby stars. We have alsoinvestigated the possibility of constructing a ``planeticity''calibration to predict the presence of planets based on stellarabundance ratios but find no evidence that a convincing relation of thistype can be established. High metallicity remains the best singleindicator that a given star is likely to harbor extrasolar planets.
|The N2K Consortium. III. Short-Period Planets Orbiting HD 149143 and HD 109749|
We report the detection of two short-period planets discovered at KeckObservatory. HD 149143 is a metal-rich G0 IV star with a planet ofMsini=1.33MJ and an orbital radius of 0.053 AU. The best-fitKeplerian model has an orbital period, P=4.072 days, semivelocityamplitude, K=149.6 m s-1, and eccentricity, e=0.016+/-0.01.The host star is chromospherically inactive and metal-rich, with[Fe/H]=0.26. Based on the Teff and stellar luminosity, wederive a stellar radius of 1.49 Rsolar. Photometricobservations of HD 149143 were carried out using the automatedphotometric telescopes at Fairborn Observatory. HD 149143 isphotometrically constant over the radial velocity period to0.0003+/-0.0002 mag, supporting the existence of the planetarycompanion. No transits were detected down to a photometric limit ofapproximately 0.02%, eliminating transiting planets with a variety ofcompositions and constraining the orbital inclination to less than83°. A short-period planet was also detected around HD 109749, a G3IV star. HD 109749 is chromospherically inactive, with [Fe/H]=0.25 and astellar radius of 1.24. The radial velocities for HD 109749 are modeledby a Keplerian with P=5.24 days and K=28.7 m s-1. Theinferred planet mass is Msini=0.28MJ and the semimajor axisof this orbit is 0.0635 AU. Photometry of HD 109749 was obtained withthe SMARTS consortium telescope, the PROMPT telescope, and bytransitsearch.org observers in Adelaide and Pretoria. These observationsdid not detect a decrement in the brightness of the host star at thepredicted ephemeris time, and they constrain the orbital inclination toless than 85° for gas giant planets with radii down to0.7RJ.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute ofTechnology, the University of California, and the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration (NASA). The Observatory was made possible bythe generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authorswish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role andreverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within theindigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have theopportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Keck time hasbeen granted by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) andNASA.
|Frequency of Debris Disks around Solar-Type Stars: First Results from a Spitzer MIPS Survey|
We have searched for infrared excesses around a well-defined sample of69 FGK main-sequence field stars. These stars were selected withoutregard to their age, metallicity, or any previous detection of IRexcess; they have a median age of ~4 Gyr. We have detected 70 μmexcesses around seven stars at the 3 σ confidence level. Thisextra emission is produced by cool material (<100 K) located beyond10 AU, well outside the ``habitable zones'' of these systems andconsistent with the presence of Kuiper Belt analogs with ~100 times moreemitting surface area than in our own planetary system. Only one star,HD 69830, shows excess emission at 24 μm, corresponding to dust withtemperatures >~300 K located inside of 1 AU. While debris disks withLdust/L*>=10-3 are rare around oldFGK stars, we find that the disk frequency increases from 2%+/-2% forLdust/L*>=10-4 to 12%+/-5% forLdust/L*>=10-5. This trend in thedisk luminosity distribution is consistent with the estimated dust inour solar system being within an order of magnitude greater or less thanthe typical level around similar nearby stars. Although there is nocorrelation of IR excess with metallicity or spectral type, there is aweak correlation with stellar age, with stars younger than a gigayearmore likely to have excess emission.
|Dwarfs in the Local Region|
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.
|A Comparative Study on Lithium Abundances in Solar-Type Stars With and Without Planets|
We have investigated the abundance anomalies of lithium for stars withplanets in the temperature range of 5600-5900 K reported by Israelianand coworkers, as compared to 20 normal stars in the same temperatureand metallicity ranges. Our result indicates a higher probability oflithium depletion for stars with planets in the main-sequence stage. Itseems that stellar photospheric abundances of lithium in stars withplanets may be somewhat affected by the presence of planets. Twopossible mechanisms are considered to account for the lower Liabundances of stars with planets. One is related to the rotation-inducedmixing due to the conservation of angular momentum by the protoplanetarydisk, and the other is a shear instability triggered by planetmigration. These results provide new information on stellar evolutionand the lithium evolution of the Galaxy.
|Frequency of Hot Jupiters and Very Hot Jupiters from the OGLE-III Transit Surveys toward the Galactic Bulge and Carina|
We derive the frequencies of hot Jupiters (HJs) with 3-5 day periods andvery hot Jupiters (VHJs) with 1-3 day periods by comparing the planetsactually detected in the OGLE-III survey with those predicted by ourmodels. The models are constructed following Gould and Morgan (2003) bypopulating the line of sight with stars drawn from the HipparcosCatalogue. Using these, we demonstrate that the number of stars withsensitivity to HJs and VHJs is only 5-16% of those in the OGLE-IIIfields satisfying the spectroscopic-follow-up limit of V_max < 17.5mag. Hence, the frequencies we derive are much higher than a naiveestimate would indicate. We find that at 90% confidence the fraction ofstars with planets in the two period ranges is (1/320)(1^+1.37_-0.59)for HJs and (1/710)(1^+1.10_-0.54) for VHJs. The HJ rate isstatistically indistinguishable from that found in radial velocity (RV)studies. However, we note that magnitude-limited RV samples are heavilybiased toward metal-rich (hence, planet-bearing) stars, while transitsurveys are not, and therefore we expect that more sensitive transitsurveys should find a deficit of HJs as compared to RV surveys. Thedetection of three transiting VHJs, all with periods less than 2 days,is marginally consistent with the complete absence of such detections inRV surveys. The planets detected are consistent with being uniformlydistributed between 1.00 and 1.25 Jovian radii, but there are too few inthe sample to map this distribution in detail.
|Bisectors of the cross-correlation function applied to stellar spectra. Discriminating stellar activity, oscillations and planets|
Context: .Bisectors of strong, single spectral lines, usually the Fe I6252 line, have traditionally been used to examine the velocity fieldsin stellar atmospheres. This requires high S/N often achieved by summingmany individual spectra. Aims: .We investigate whether bisectorsderived from cross-correlation functions (CCF) of single-exposurespectra can be used to provide information on stellar atmospheres, andwhether they can be used to discriminate between radial velocity changescaused by planets, magnetic activity and oscillations. Methods:.Using a sample of bright stars observed with the HARPS spectrograph, weexamine the shapes of the bisectors of individual strong spectral linesin summed spectra, comparing with similar studies in the literature.Moreover, we examine four different quantitative CCF bisector measuresfor correlations with radial velocity and stellar parameters.Results: .We show that CCF bisector measures can be used forquantitative analysis, employing both the absolute values and thevariations. From absolute values, log g and absolute magnitude can beapproximated, and from the correlations with radial velocity one candistinguish between magnetic activity, oscillations and orbiting planetsas the probable cause of radial velocity variations. We confirm thatdifferent isolated spectral lines show different bisector shapes, evenbetween lines of the same element, calling for caution in trying toderive global stellar properties from the bisector of a CCF. For theactive star HR 1362 we suggest from the bisector shape an extraphotospheric heating caused by the chromosphere of several hundreddegrees. We confirm the fill-in of spectral lines of the Sun taken onthe daylight sky caused by Rayleigh-Brillouin and aerosol scattering,and we show for the first time that the fill-in has an asymmetriccomponent.
|Abundance ratios of volatile vs. refractory elements in planet-harbouring stars: hints of pollution?|
We present the [ X/H] trends as a function of the elemental condensationtemperature TC in 88 planet host stars and in avolume-limited comparison sample of 33 dwarfs without detected planetarycompanions. We gathered homogeneous abundance results for many volatileand refractory elements spanning a wide range of T_C, from a few dozento several hundred kelvin. We investigate possible anomalous trends ofplanet hosts with respect to comparison sample stars to detect evidenceof possible pollution events. No significant differences are found inthe behaviour of stars with and without planets. This is consistent witha "primordial" origin of the metal excess in planet host stars. However,a subgroup of 5 planet host and 1 comparison sample stars stands out ashaving particularly high [ X/H] vs. TC slopes.
|Abundances of refractory elements in the atmospheres of stars with extrasolar planets|
Aims.This work presents a uniform and homogeneous study of chemicalabundances of refractory elements in 101 stars with and 93 without knownplanetary companions. We carry out an in-depth investigation of theabundances of Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Na, Mg and Al. The newcomparison sample, spanning the metallicity range -0.70< [Fe/H]<0.50, fills the gap that previously existed, mainly at highmetallicities, in the number of stars without known planets.Methods.Weused an enlarged set of data including new observations, especially forthe field "single" comparison stars . The line list previously studiedby other authors was improved: on average we analysed 90 spectral linesin every spectrum and carefully measured more than 16 600 equivalentwidths (EW) to calculate the abundances.Results.We investigate possibledifferences between the chemical abundances of the two groups of stars,both with and without planets. The results are globally comparable tothose obtained by other authors, and in most cases the abundance trendsof planet-host stars are very similar to those of the comparison sample.Conclusions.This work represents a step towards the comprehension ofrecently discovered planetary systems. These results could also beuseful for verifying galactic models at high metallicities andconsequently improve our knowledge of stellar nucleosynthesis andgalactic chemical evolution.
|Hipparcos astrometric orbits for two brown dwarf companions: HD 38529 and HD 168443|
Context: .HD 38529 and HD 168443 have previously been identified assystems with two substellar companion candidates using precise radialvelocity measurements.Aims.We want to further constrain their orbits andthe nature of the outer companions.Methods.We fit astrometric orbits ofthe outer substellar companions in the two systems to the HipparcosIntermediate Astrometric Data.Results.The fit constrains all possiblesolutions to a small region in the parameter space of the two missingorbital parameters (inclination i and ascending node Ω). This canbe interpreted as a possible real detection of the astrometricsignatures of the companions in the Hipparcos data, although there isstill a 14-18% chance that the signal is not detectable in the data,according to an F-test. However, even in the case of a non-detection ofthe companion signal in the astrometric data, the knowledge of thespectroscopic orbital parameters enables us to place tight constraintson these two missing parameters, so that the astrometric orbit is fullydetermined (with confidence levels of around 80% for HD 38529, 95% forHD 168443). Inclinations derived from these astrometric fits enable usto calculate masses for the substellar companions rather than lower orupper limits. The best fit solution for HD 38529, (i, Ω) =(160°, 52°), yields a mass of 37+36-19M_Jup for the outer companion. For HD 168443, we derive best fitparameters of (i, Ω) = (150°, 19°), which imply acompanion mass of 34± 12 M_Jup.Conclusions.The outer companionsin both systems are thus brown dwarfs.
|Ground-based direct detection of close-in extra-solar planets with nulling and high order adaptive optics|
Ground-based direct detection of extra-solar planets is very challengingdue to high planet to star brightness contrasts. For giant close-inplanets, such as have been discovered by the radial velocity method,closer than 0.1 AU, the reflected light is predicted to be fairly highyielding a contrast ratio ranging from 10-4 to10-5 at near infra-red wavelengths. In this paper, weinvestigate direct detection of reflected light from such planets usingnulling interferometry, and high-order adaptive optics in conjunctionwith large double aperture ground-based telescopes. In thisconfiguration, at least 10-3 suppression of the entirestellar Airy pattern with small loss of planet flux as close as 0.03arcsec is achievable. Distinguishing residual starlight from the planetsignal is achieved by using the center of gravity shift method ormulticolor differential imaging. Using these assumptions, we deriveexposure times from a few minutes to several hours for direct detectionof many of the known extra-solar planets with several short-baselinedouble aperture telescopes such as the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT),the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Keck Telescope.
|Oxygen abundances in planet-harbouring stars. Comparison of different abundance indicators|
We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundances in 155solar type stars, 96 of which are planet hosts and 59 of which form partof a volume-limited comparison sample with no known planets. EWmeasurements were carried out for the [O I] 6300 Å line and the OI triplet, and spectral synthesis was performed for several OH lines.NLTE corrections were calculated and applied to the LTE abundanceresults derived from the O I 7771-5 Å triplet. Abundances from [OI], the O I triplet and near-UV OH were obtained in 103, 87 and 77dwarfs, respectively. We present the first detailed and uniformcomparison of these three oxygen indicators in a large sample ofsolar-type stars. There is good agreement between the [O/H] ratios fromforbidden and OH lines, while the NLTE triplet shows a systematicallylower abundance. We found that discrepancies between OH, [O I] and the OI triplet do not exceed 0.2 dex in most cases. We have studied abundancetrends in planet host and comparison sample stars, and no obviousanomalies related to the presence of planets have been detected. Allthree indicators show that, on average, [O/Fe] decreases with [Fe/H] inthe metallicity range -0.8< [Fe/H] < 0.5. The planet host starspresent an average oxygen overabundance of 0.1-0.2 dex with respect tothe comparison sample.
|Quand les planetes perdent leur atmosphere.|
|Astrometric Methods and Instrumentation to Identify and Characterize Extrasolar Planets: A Review|
I present a review of astrometric techniques and instrumentation used tosearch for, detect, and characterize extrasolar planets. First, Ibriefly summarize the properties of the current sample of extrasolarplanets, in connection with predictions from theoretical models ofplanet formation and evolution. Next, the generic approach to planetdetection with astrometry is described, with significant discussion of avariety of technical, statistical, and astrophysical issues to be facedby future ground-based and space-borne efforts in order to achieve therequired degree of measurement precision. After a brief summary of pastand present efforts to detect planets via milliarcsecond astrometry, Ithen discuss the planet-finding capabilities of future astrometricobservatories aiming at microarcsecond precision. Finally, I outline anumber of experiments that can be conducted by means of high-precisionastrometry during the next decade, to illustrate its potential forimportant contributions to planetary science, compared to other indirectand direct methods for the detection and characterization of planetarysystems.
|The XO Project: Searching for Transiting Extrasolar Planet Candidates|
The XO project's first objective is to find hot Jupiters transitingbright stars (i.e., V<12) by precision differential photometry. TwoXO cameras have been operating since 2003 September on the 10,000 footHaleakala summit on Maui. Each XO camera consists of a 200 mm f/1.8 lenscoupled to a 1024×1024 pixel, thinned CCD operated bydrift-scanning. In its first year of routine operation, XO has observed6.6% of the sky within six 7° wide strips scanned from 0° to+63° of declination and centered at R.A. = 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20hr. Autonomously operating, XO records 1 billion pixels per clear night,calibrates them photometrically and astrometrically, performs aperturephotometry, archives the pixel data, and transmits the photometric datato the Space Telescope Science Institute for further analysis. From thefirst year of operation, the resulting database consists of photometryof ~100,000 stars at more than 1000 epochs per star, with differentialphotometric precision better than 1% per epoch. Analysis of the lightcurves of those stars produces transiting-planet candidates requiringdetailed follow-up, described elsewhere, culminating in spectroscopy tomeasure radial velocity variation in order to differentiate genuineplanets from the more numerous impostors, primarily eclipsing binary andmultiple stars.
|Astrophysics in 2004|
In this 14th edition of ApXX,1 we bring you the Sun (§ 2) and Stars(§ 4), the Moon and Planets (§ 3), a truly binary pulsar(§ 5), a kinematic apology (§ 6), the whole universe(§§ 7 and 8), reconsideration of old settled (§ 9) andunsettled (§ 10) issues, and some things that happen only on Earth,some indeed only in these reviews (§§ 10 and 11).
|Subaru HDS Transmission Spectroscopy of the Transiting Extrasolar Planet HD 209458b|
We have searched for absorption in several common atomic species due tothe atmosphere or exosphere of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b, using high precision optical spectra obtained with the SubaruHigh Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS). Previously we reported an upperlimit on Hα absorption of 0.1% (3 σ) within a 5.1Åband. Using the same procedure, we now report upper limits on absorptiondue to the optical transitions of Na D, Li, Hα, Hβ, Hγ,Fe, and Ca. The 3 σ upper limit for each transition isapproximately 1% within a 0.3Å band (the core of the line), and afew tenths of a per cent within a 2Å band (the full line width).The wide-band results are close to the expected limit due tophoton-counting (Poisson) statistics, although in the narrow-band casewe have encountered unexplained systematic errors at a few times thePoisson level. These results are consistent with all previously reporteddetections and upper limits, but are significantly more sensitive.
|Precise Differential Analysis of Stellar Metallicities: Application to Solar Analogs Including 16 Cyg A and B|
A method is presented for very accurately establishing the differencesof the atmospheric parameters (the effective temperature, the surfacegravity, the microturbulent velocity, and the Fe abundance) between twosimilar stars by using the equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines,which is a variant of the numerical solution-search approach developedby Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451), while being inspired by thespirit of the orthodox ``differential curve-of-growth'' procedure. Byapplying this technique to eight selected stars similar to the Sun [HD20630, 76151, 134987, 181655, 186408 (16 Cyg A), 186427 (16 Cyg B),195019, and 217014] along with the Sun itself, the parameter differencesbetween any pairs of these stars could be successfully determined toprecisions of 10 K (in ΔTeff), 0.02dex (inΔlog g), 0.02 km s-1 (in Δv t), and 0.01 dex (in ΔA Fe). Regarding 16 Cyg A and B, awell-known ``solar twin'' system where a planet has been detected onlyin B, the metallicities of these two components were concluded to beessentially the same to a level of ≲ 0.01 dex.