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Phase Lags in the Optical-Infrared Light Curves of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars
To search for phase lags in the optical-infrared light curves ofasymptotic giant branch stars, we have compared infrared data from theCOBE DIRBE satellite with optical light curves from the AAVSO and othersources. We found 17 examples of phase lags between the times ofinfrared and optical maximum, and 4 stars with no observed lags. Thereis a clear difference between the Mira variables and the semiregularvariables in the sample, with the maximum in the optical preceding thatin the near-infrared in the Miras, while in most of the semiregularvariables no lags are observed. Comparison to published theoreticalmodels indicates that the phase lags in the Miras are due to strongtitanium oxide absorption in the visual at stellar maximum, and suggeststhat Miras pulsate in the fundamental mode, while at least somesemiregular variables are first-overtone pulsators. There is a clearoptical-near-infrared phase lag in the carbon-rich Mira V CrB; this islikely due to C2 and CN absorption variations in the optical.

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Secular Evolution in Mira Variable Pulsations
Stellar evolution theory predicts that asymptotic giant branch (AGB)stars undergo a series of short thermal pulses that significantly changetheir luminosity and mass on timescales of hundreds to thousands ofyears. These pulses are confirmed observationally by the existence ofthe short-lived radioisotope technetium in the spectra of some of thesestars, but other observational consequences of thermal pulses are subtleand may only be detected over many years of observations. Secularchanges in these stars resulting from thermal pulses can be detected asmeasurable changes in period if the star is undergoing Mira pulsations.It is known that a small fraction of Mira variables exhibit largesecular period changes, and the detection of these changes among alarger sample of stars could therefore be useful in evolutionary studiesof these stars. The American Association of Variable Star Observers(AAVSO) International Database currently contains visual data for over1500 Mira variables. Light curves for these stars span nearly a centuryin some cases, making it possible to study the secular evolution of thepulsation behavior on these timescales. In this paper we present theresults of our study of period change in 547 Mira variables using datafrom the AAVSO. We use wavelet analysis to measure the period changes inindividual Mira stars over the span of available data. By making linearfits to the period versus time measurements, we determine the averagerates of period change, dlnP/dt, for each of these stars. We findnonzero dlnP/dt at the 2 σ significance level in 57 of the 547stars, at the 3 σ level in 21 stars, and at the level of 6 σor greater in eight stars. The latter eight stars have been previouslynoted in the literature, and our derived rates of period change largelyagree with published values. The largest and most statisticallysignificant dlnP/dt are consistent with the rates of period changeexpected during thermal pulses on the AGB. A number of other starsexhibit nonmonotonic period change on decades-long timescales, the causeof which is not yet known. In the majority of stars, the periodvariations are smaller than our detection threshold, meaning theavailable data are not sufficient to unambiguously measure slowevolutionary changes in the pulsation period. It is unlikely that morestars with large period changes will be found among heretoforewell-observed Mira stars in the short term, but continued monitoring ofthese and other Mira stars may reveal new and serendipitous candidatesin the future.

Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclusters
The availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165}

Letter to the Editor: Brighter Maxima of 30 Selected Mira-Type Variable Stars for the Period 1978-1977
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Galactic mass-losing AGB stars probed with the IRTS. II.
We are using the 2002 data-release from the Japanese space experimentIRTS to investigate the spatial distribution of galactic mass-losing(>2x 10-8 Msund) AGB stars and the relativecontribution of C-rich and O-rich ones to the replenishment of the ISM.Our sample contains 126 C-rich and 563 O-rich sources which are sortedon the basis of the molecular bands observed in the range 1.4-4.0 mu m,and for which we estimate distances and mass loss rates fromnear-infrared photometry (K and L'). There is a clear dependence ongalactocentric distance, with O-rich sources outnumbering C-rich onesfor rGC< 8 kpc, and the reverse for rGC> 10kpc. The contribution to the replenishment of the ISM by O-rich AGBstars relative to C-rich ones follows the same trend. Although they arerare ( ~ 10% in our sample), sources with 10-6Msund < dot {M} < 10-5 Msunddominate the replenishment of the ISM by contributing to ~ 50% of thetotal of the complete sample. We find 2 carbon stars at more than 1 kpcfrom the Galactic Plane, that probably belong to the halo of our Galaxy.The complete Tables \ref{tab_C-rich} and \ref{tab_O-rich} are availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/943}

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

High Angular Resolution Observations of Late-Type Stars
This paper presents speckle observations of Mira (o Cet) and late-typestars with the PISCO speckle camera of Pic du Midi during the period1995-1998. A survey for binarity among a sample of late-type stars wasperformed, which led to seven positive detections out of 36 objects.Photometric and color variations of the companion of Mira were searchedfor, but no significant brightness variations could be found over atimescale of ~5-10 minutes. The position and photometry measurements,the restored images with high angular resolution of the binary systemMira A-B (ADS 1778) are in full agreement with Hubble Space Telescopedata obtained at the same epoch. A new orbit has been derived for MiraA-B.

Stars with the Largest Hipparcos Photometric Amplitudes
A list of the 2027 stars that have the largest photometric amplitudes inHipparcos Photometry shows that most variable stars are all Miras. Thepercentage of variable types change as a function of amplitude. Thiscompilation should also be of value to photometrists looking forrelatively unstudied, but large amplitude stars.

Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrations
In this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr).

Infrared Properties of SiO Maser Sources in Late-Type Stars
The results of an SiO maser survey for late-type stars selected by theIRTS (Infrared Telescope in Space) are presented. We have detected SiOJ=1-0, v=1 and/or v=2 lines in 27 stars out of 59 stars. The maserintensity increases with the depth of the H_2O absorption in theinfrared spectra and redness of the 2.2 and 12 mu m color. The columndensities of the water vapor in the target stars were estimated from thedepth of the water absorption in the IRTS spectra. We found that the SiOmaser was detected mostly in the stars with a column density of watervapor higher than 3*E19-3*E20 cm-2. Wefurther estimated the density of hydrogen molecules in the outeratmosphere corresponding to these column densities, obtaining109-1010 cm-3 as a lower limit. Thesevalues are roughly in agreement with the critical hydrogen densitypredicted by models for the excitation of SiO masers. It is possiblethat the SiO masers are excited in clumps with column density evenhigher than this value. The present results provide useful informationfor the understanding of the physical conditions of the outeratmospheres in late-type stars.

Infrared colours for Mira-like long-period variables found in the (Mȯ<~10-7 Msolar yr-1) Hipparcos Catalogue
Near-infrared, JHKL, photometry is presented for 193 Mira andsemi-regular variables that were observed by Hipparcos; periods,bolometric magnitudes and amplitudes are derived for 92 of them. Becauseof the way in which the Hipparcos targets were selected, this group ofstars provides a useful data base of Miras with low mass-loss rates(Mȯ<~10-7Msolaryr-1).Various period-colour relationships are discussed in detail. The colour,particularly BCK = 10.86 - 38.10 K (J - K)0 +64.16(J - K)20 - 50.72(J -K)30 + 19, K-L, at a given period is found todepend on the pulsation amplitude of the star. A comparison with modelssuggests that this is a consequence of atmospheric extension, in thesense that large-amplitude pulsators have very extended atmospheres andredder Mȯ<10-7Msolaryr-1, K-L and H-K but bluerJ-H than their lower amplitude counterparts. The stars with veryextended atmospheres also have higher values of K-[12] and hence highermass-loss rates. This finding provides further evidence for the causalconnection between pulsation and mass loss. Two sequences are identifiedin the Hp-K versus logP diagram (where Hp is the Hipparcos broad-bandmagnitude) at short periods (logP<2.35). At a given period these twogroups have, on average, the same pulsation amplitude, but differentJHKL colours and spectral types. The short-period stars in the bluersequence have similar near-infrared colours to the Miras found inglobular clusters. Long-term trends in the infrared light curves arediscussed for stars that have sufficient data.

Mira kinematics from Hipparcos data: a Galactic bar to beyond the Solar circle
The space motions of Mira variables are derived from radial velocities,Hipparcos proper motions and a period-luminosity relation. Thepreviously known dependence of Mira kinematics on the period ofpulsation is confirmed and refined. In addition, it is found that Miraswith periods in the range 145-200d in the general Solar neighbourhoodhave a net radial outward motion from the Galactic Centre of75+/-18kms-1. This, together with a lag behind the circularvelocity of Galactic rotation of 98+/-19kms-1, is interpretedas evidence for an elongation of their orbits, with their major axesaligned at an angle of ~17° with the Sun-Galactic Centre line,towards positive Galactic longitudes. This concentration seems to be acontinuation to the Solar circle and beyond of the bar-like structure ofthe Galactic bulge, with the orbits of some local Miras probablypenetrating into the bulge. These conclusions are not sensitive to thedistance scale adopted. A further analysis is given of the short-period(SP) red group of Miras discussed in companion papers in this series. InAppendix A the mean radial velocities and other data for 842 oxygen-richMira-like variables are tabulated. These velocities were derived frompublished optical and radio observations.

On the Variability of K5-M Stars
I investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of K5-M stars to seethe pattern of activity of these stars. A few stars for which furtherstudy is desirable are identified.

Period-Luminosity-Colour distribution and classification of Galactic oxygen-rich LPVs. I. Luminosity calibrations
The absolute K magnitudes and kinematic parameters of about 350oxygen-rich Long-Period Variable stars are calibrated, by means of anup-to-date maximum-likelihood method, using Hipparcos parallaxes andproper motions together with radial velocities and, as additional data,periods and V-K colour indices. Four groups, differing by theirkinematics and mean magnitudes, are found. For each of them, we alsoobtain the distributions of magnitude, period and de-reddened colour ofthe base population, as well as de-biased period-luminosity-colourrelations and their two-dimensional projections. The SRa semiregulars donot seem to constitute a separate class of LPVs. The SRb appear tobelong to two populations of different ages. In a PL diagram, theyconstitute two evolutionary sequences towards the Mira stage. The Mirasof the disk appear to pulsate on a lower-order mode. The slopes of theirde-biased PL and PC relations are found to be very different from theones of the Oxygen Miras of the LMC. This suggests that a significantnumber of so-called Miras of the LMC are misclassified. This alsosuggests that the Miras of the LMC do not constitute a homogeneousgroup, but include a significant proportion of metal-deficient stars,suggesting a relatively smooth star formation history. As a consequence,one may not trivially transpose the LMC period-luminosity relation fromone galaxy to the other Based on data from the Hipparcos astrometrysatellite. Appendix B is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

On the period history of chi Cygni
We discuss the light variability of the Mira variable chi Cygni, presenta homogeneous set of times of minimum and maximum light since itsdiscovery date in 1686, and analyse the variations of the pulsationperiod. There is a substantial cycle-to-cycle variation in thepulsations (standard error ~ 6fd5 ) with quite strong evidence for alinearly increasing period. Quasi-cyclic patterns in the O-C diagramsare visible, but there is no compelling evidence that these apparentcyclic period changes are real since the residuals left after fitting alinear period increase plus intrinsic period scatter have propertiesconsistent with being white noise. The Lombard frequency domain test fora changing period applied to the residuals also gives unconvincingsignificance levels. The low gradient of the luminosity change withperiod is compatible with the star undergoing a rise in luminosity whenH shell-burning takes over.

Are low-order resonances observed in Mira pulsation?
The possibility of a low-order, two-mode resonance in the pulsation ofLPVs is investigated by means of Fourier analysis of lightcurves,supplemented by spectral types and by kinematic population analysisbased on HIPPARCOS astrometric data. The question might be positivelyanswered. Based on data from the HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

Mean light curves of long-period variables and discrimination between carbon- and oxygen-rich stars
Using 75 years of AAVSO data, mean light curve parameters of a sample of355 long period M, S, and C mira and semi-regular variable stars areinvestigated. We present a classification of the light curves of LPVsinto 6 distinct groups. Combining this classification with IRAS colorsmakes it possible to distinguish oxygen-rich from carbon-rich miras.Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Water Masers Associated with Circumstellar Shells
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..106..579B&db_key=AST

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Mainline OH detection rates from blue circumstellar shells.
We identified 240 accessible circumstellar shells with water and/or SiOmasers, and used the Arecibo and Nancay radio telescopes to search formainline OH emission from them. Our targets are often Mira variableswithout previously known mainline masers. This search results in 89detections, of which 77 are new. The probability of detecting a maser islarger once a water maser is known, and becomes progressively larger thethicker and redder the shell. Nevertheless, almost all of our examplesof solitary 1665MHz masers, rather than the joint occurrence of both1665 and 1667MHz masers, are in the bluest shells. The IRAS lowresolution spectral type is the strongest factor correlating with themainline detection rate. We find that 67% of objects with a silicateemission feature exhibit masers, whereas only 27% of objects with acomparatively featureless 1n type do. These rates are colourinsensitive. We ascribe this clearcut difference to differing UVextinction properties of the two grain types, which is likely to resultfrom differing grain-size distributions. The IR colour sensitivity ofthe overall mainline detection rate is thus almost entirely anincidental artifact of the changing proportion of the two grain typeswith colour. Inferentially, since 90% of the sample exhibit watermasers, and the proportion of blue sources with silicate features issubstantially larger than an unbiased selection from the IRAS PointSource Catalog would give, the incidence of water masers is similarlysensitive to spectral type.

Spectral evolution of the H2O maser in late-type stars
We have carried out almost simultaneous observations of H2O and SiO (J =1-0, v = 1) masers for 171 known late-type maser stars with the 34 mradio telescope at Kashima. We found a systematic change in the H2Omaser spectra related to the evolution of the stars. Typically, H2Omaser spectral profiles are singly peaked in Mira variables, but doublypeaked in IRC/AFGL objects and OH/IR stars. The expansion velocity ofH2O masers increases with decreasing IRAS color temperature. This isexplained by the shock excitation model proposed by Cooke and Elitzur(1985). The blue shifted peak in the profiles is more prominent than thered shifted peak in most of the IRC/AFGL objects and OH/IR stars. Ablocking model of the redshifted peak is introduced.

Classification and Statistical Properties of Galactic H2O Masers
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&AS..101..153P&db_key=AST

Circumstellar Dust in Mira Variables and the Mass Loss Mechanisms
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&A...273..570A&db_key=AST

S stars: infrared colors, technetium, and binarity
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&A...271..463J&db_key=AST

SiO maser emission and the intrinsic properties of Mira variables
Observations of SiO maser emission from 161 Mira variables distributedover a wide range of intrinsic parameters like spectral type, bolometricmagnitude, and amplitude of pulsation are reported. The observationswere made at 86.243 GHz, using the 10.4 m millimeter-wave telescope ofthe Raman Research Institute at Bangalore, India. The maser emission isfound to be restricted to Miras having mean spectral types between M6and M10. The IR period-luminosity relation for Mira variables isemployed to calculate their distances and hence estimate their maserluminosities from the observed fluxes. The maser luminosity is found tobe correlated with the bolometric magnitude of the Mira variable. On anH-R diagram, the masing Mira variables are shown to lie in a regiondistinct from that for the nonmasing ones.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Großer Bär
Right ascension:12h36m23.30s
Apparent magnitude:5.5
Distance:10000000 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-10.7
Proper motion Dec:-6.4
B-T magnitude:10.917
V-T magnitude:9.775

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 109729
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 3847-1129-1
BSC 1991HR 4800
HIPHIP 61532

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