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# HD 188209

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 The Discordance of Mass-Loss Estimates for Galactic O-Type StarsWe have determined accurate values of the product of the mass-loss rateand the ion fraction of P+4, M˙q(P+4), for asample of 40 Galactic O-type stars by fitting stellar wind profiles toobservations of the P V resonance doublet obtained with FUSE, ORFEUSBEFS, and Copernicus. When P+4 is the dominant ion in thewind [i.e., 0.5<~q(P+4)<=1], M˙q(P+4)approximates the mass-loss rate to within a factor of <~2. Theorypredicts that P+4 is the dominant ion in the winds of O7-O9.7stars, although an empirical estimator suggests that the range O4-O7 maybe more appropriate. However, we find that the mass-loss rates obtainedfrom P V wind profiles are systematically smaller than those obtainedfrom fits to Hα emission profiles or radio free-free emission bymedian factors of ~130 (if P+4 is dominant between O7 andO9.7) or ~20 (if P+4 is dominant between O4 and O7). Thesediscordant measurements can be reconciled if the winds of O stars in therelevant temperature range are strongly clumped on small spatial scales.We use a simplified two-component model to investigate the volumefilling factors of the denser regions. This clumping implies thatmass-loss rates determined from ρ2'' diagnostics havebeen systematically overestimated by factors of 10 or more, at least fora subset of O stars. Reductions in the mass-loss rates of this size haveimportant implications for the evolution of massive stars andquantitative estimates of the feedback that hot-star winds provide totheir interstellar environments. Circumstellar Disk around HD 143275 and Interstellar AbsorptionThis paper presents a collection of spectra of the star HD 143275(δ Sco), acquired during the last 11 years. During this period,stellar absorption lines turned into emission features possiblyoriginating in the circumstellar disk. We demonstrate that thecircumstellar shell does not produce any components of interstellarabsorption features (atomic lines, molecular features, and diffuseinterstellar bands), which remain of the same equivalent widths duringthe whole period covered by our observations. IGR J17544-2619: a new supergiant fast X-ray transient revealed by optical/infrared observationsOne of the most recent discoveries of the INTEGRAL observatory is theexistence of a previously unknown population of X-ray sources in theinner arms of the Galaxy. IGR J17544-2619,IGR J16465-4507 and XTE J1739-302are among these sources. Although the nature of these systems is stillunexplained, the investigations of the optical/NIR counterparts of thetwo last sources, combined with high energy data, have provided evidenceof them being highly absorbed high mass X-ray binaries with bluesupergiant secondaries and displaying fast X-ray transient behaviour. Inthis work we present our optical/NIR observations of IGRJ17544-2619, aimed at identifying and characterizing itscounterpart. We show that the source is a high mass X-ray binary at adistance of 2-4 kpc with a strongly absorbed O9Ib secondary, and discussthe nature of the system. Bright OB stars in the Galaxy. II. Wind variability in O supergiants as traced by HαWe investigate the line-profile variability (lpv) of Hα for alarge sample of O-type supergiants (15 objects between O4 and O9.7), inan objective, statistically rigorous manner. We employed the TemporalVariance Spectrum (TVS) analysis, developed for the case of photosphericabsorption lines and modified by us to take into account the effects ofwind emission. By means of a comparative analysis we place constraintson the properties of this variability - quantified in terms of a meanand a newly defined fractional amplitude of deviations - as a functionof stellar and wind parameters. The results of our analysis show thatall the stars in the sample show evidence of significant lpv inHα, mostly dominated by processes in the wind. The variationsoccur between zero and 0.3 v_&infy; (i.e., below 1.5 R_star ), in goodagreement with results from similar studies. A comparison between theobservations and corresponding line-profile simulations indicates thatfor stars with intermediate wind densities the properties of theHα variability can be explained by simple models consisting ofcoherent or broken shells (blobs) uniformly distributed over the windvolume, with an intrinsic scatter in the maximum density contrast ofabout a factor of two. For stars at lower and higher wind densities, onthe other hand, we found certain inconsistencies between theobservations and our predictions, most importantly concerning the meanamplitude and the symmetry properties of the TVS. This disagreementmight be explained by the presence of coherent large-scale structures,partly confined in a volume close to the star. Interpreted in terms of avariable mass-loss rate, the observed variations of Hα indicatechanges of ±4% with respect to the mean value of dot M for starswith stronger winds and of ± 16% for stars with weaker winds. Theeffect of these variations on the corresponding wind momenta is ratherinsignificant (less than 0.16 dex), increasing only the local scatterwithout affecting the Wind Momentum Luminosity Relationship. The origin of massive O-type field stars: II. Field O stars as runawaysIn two papers we try to confirm that all Galactic high-mass stars areformed in a cluster environment, by excluding that O-type stars found inthe Galactic field actually formed there. In de Wit et al. (2004) wepresented deep K-band imaging of 5 arcmin fields centred on 43 massiveO-type field stars that revealed that the large majority of theseobjects are single objects. In this contribution we explore thepossibility that the field O stars are dynamically ejected from youngclusters, by investigating their peculiar space velocity distribution,their distance from the Galactic plane, and their spatial vicinity toknown young stellar clusters. We (re-)identify 22 field O-type stars ascandidate runaway OB-stars. The statistics show that 4 ± 2% ofall O-type stars with V<8m can be considered as formedoutside a cluster environment. Most are spectroscopically singleobjects, some are visual binaries. The derived percentage for O-typestars that form isolated in the field based on our statistical analysesis in agreement with what is expected from calculations adopting auniversal cluster richness distribution with power index of β= 1.7,assuming that the cluster richness distribution is continuous down tothe smallest clusters containing one single star. The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. A Galactic O Star CatalogWe have produced a catalog of 378 Galactic O stars with accuratespectral classifications that is complete for V<8 but includes manyfainter stars. The catalog provides cross-identifications with othersources; coordinates (obtained in most cases from Tycho-2 data);astrometric distances for 24 of the nearest stars; optical (Tycho-2,Johnson, and Strömgren) and NIR photometry; group membership,runaway character, and multiplicity information; and a Web-based versionwith links to on-line services. On the Hipparcos parallaxes of O starsWe compare the absolute visual magnitude of the majority of bright Ostars in the sky as predicted from their spectral type with the absolutemagnitude calculated from their apparent magnitude and the Hipparcosparallax. We find that many stars appear to be much fainter thanexpected, up to five magnitudes. We find no evidence for a correlationbetween magnitude differences and the stellar rotational velocity assuggested for OB stars by Lamers et al. (1997, A&A, 325, L25), whosesmall sample of stars is partly included in ours. Instead, by means of asimulation we show how these differences arise naturally from the largedistances at which O stars are located, and the level of precision ofthe parallax measurements achieved by Hipparcos. Straightforwardlyderiving a distance from the Hipparcos parallax yields reliable resultsfor one or two O stars only. We discuss several types of bias reportedin the literature in connection with parallax samples (Lutz-Kelker,Malmquist) and investigate how they affect the O star sample. Inaddition, we test three absolute magnitude calibrations from theliterature (Schmidt-Kaler et al. 1982, Landolt-Börnstein; Howarth& Prinja 1989, ApJS, 69, 527; Vacca et al. 1996, ApJ, 460, 914) andfind that they are consistent with the Hipparcos measurements. AlthoughO stars conform nicely to the simulation, we notice that some B stars inthe sample of \citeauthor{La97} have a magnitude difference larger thanexpected. The origin of massive O-type field stars. I. A search for clustersWe present a study aimed at clarifying the birthplace for 43 massiveO-type field stars. In this first paper we present the observationalpart: a search for stellar clusters near the target stars. We derivestellar density maps at two different resolving scales, viz. 0.25pc and 1.0 pc from NTT and TNG imaging and the 2MASS catalogue.These scales are typical for cluster sizes. The main result is that thelarge majority of the O-type field population are isolated stars: only12% (5 out of 43) of the O-type field stars is found to harbour asmall-scale stellar cluster. We review the literature and aim atcharacterizing the stellar field of each O-type field star with theemphasis on star formation and the presence of known young stellarclusters. An analysis of the result of this paper and a discussion ofthe O-type field population as products of a dynamical ejection event ispresented in an accompanying paper.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile, and at the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated onthe island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the CNAA(Consorzio Nazionale per l'Astronomia e l'Astrofisica) at the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisicade Canarias.Table 2 and Figs. 4 to 17 are available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org NLTE models of line-driven stellar winds. I. Method of calculation and first results for O starsNew numerical models of line-driven stellar winds of late O stars arepresented. Statistical equilibrium (NLTE) equations of the most abundantelements are solved. Properly obtained occupation numbers are used tocalculate consistent radiative force and radiative heating terms. Winddensity, velocity and temperature are calculated as a solution of modelhydrodynamical equations. Contrary to other published models we accountfor a multicomponent wind nature and do not simplify the calculation ofthe radiative force (e.g. using force multipliers). We discuss theconvergence behaviour of our models. The ability of our models topredict correct values of mass-loss rates and terminal velocities ofselected late O stars (mainly giants and supergiants) is demonstrated.The systematic difference between predicted and observed terminalvelocities reported in the literature has been removed. Moreover, wefound good agreement between the theoretical wind momentum-luminosityrelationship and the observed one for Cyg OB2 supergiants.Appendices A, B and C are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org On the relation between diffuse bands and column densities of H2, CH and CO moleculesMutual relations between column densities of H2, CH and COmolecules as well as between the latter and strengths of the major 5780and 5797 diffuse bands are presented and discussed. The CH radical seemsto be a good H2 tracer, possibly better than CO. It is alsodemonstrated that the molecular fraction of the H2 moleculeis correlated with an intensity ratio of 5797 and 5780 DIBs, suggestingthe possible formation of narrow DIB carriers in denser clouds,dominated by molecular hydrogen and reasonably shielded from ionizing UVradiation by small dust grains.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/949 Bright OB stars in the Galaxy. I. Mass-loss and wind-momentum rates of O-type stars: A pure H\alpha analysis accounting for line-blanketingWe study mass-loss and wind momentum rates of 29 Galactic O-type starswith luminosity classes I, III and V by means of a pure H\alpha profileanalysis and investigate to what extent the results compare to thoseoriginating from a state-of-the-art, complete spectral analysis. Ourinvestigation relies on the approximate method developed by\citet{Puls96} which we have modified to account for the effects ofline-blanketing. Effective temperatures and gravities needed to obtainquantitative results from such a simplified approach have been derivedby means of calibrations based on most recent spectroscopic NLTEanalyses and models of Galactic stars by \citet{Repo03} and\citet{Martins02}. Comparing (i) the derived wind-densities to thosedetermined by \citet{Repo03} for eleven stars in common and (ii) theWind-momentum Luminosity Relationship (WLR) for our sample stars tothose derived by other investigations, we conclude that our approximateapproach is actually able to provide consistent results. Additionally,we studied the consequences of fine tuning'' some of the direct andindirect parameters entering the WLR, especially by accounting fordifferent possible values of stellar reddening and distances. Combiningour data set with the corresponding data provided by \citet{Herrero02}and \citet{Repo03} we finally study the WLR for the largest sample ofGalactic O-type stars gathered so far, including an elaborate errortreatment. The established disagreement between the theoreticalpredictions and the observed'' WLRs being a function of luminosityclass is suggested to be a result of wind clumping. Different strategiesto check this hypothesis are discussed, particularly by comparing theH\alpha mass-loss rates with the ones derived from radio observations. High-Resolution Observations of Interstellar Ca I Absorption-Implications for Depletions and Electron Densities in Diffuse CloudsWe present high-resolution (FWHM~0.3-1.5 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar Ca Iabsorption toward 30 Galactic stars. Comparisons of the column densitiesof Ca I, Ca II, K I, and other species-for individual componentsidentified in the line profiles and also when integrated over entirelines of sight-yield information on relative electron densities anddepletions (dependent on assumptions regarding the ionizationequilibrium). There is no obvious relationship between the ratio N(CaI)/N(Ca II) [equal to ne/(Γ/αr) forphotoionization equilibrium] and the fraction of hydrogen in molecularform f(H2) (often taken to be indicative of the local densitynH). For a smaller sample of sight lines for which thethermal pressure (nHT) and local density can be estimated viaanalysis of the C I fine-structure excitation, the average electrondensity inferred from C, Na, and K (assuming photoionizationequilibrium) seems to be independent of nH andnHT. While the electron density (ne) obtained fromthe ratio N(Ca I)/N(Ca II) is often significantly higher than the valuesderived from other elements, the patterns of relative nederived from different elements show both similarities and differencesfor different lines of sight-suggesting that additional processesbesides photoionization and radiative recombination commonly andsignificantly affect the ionization balance of heavy elements in diffuseinterstellar clouds. Such additional processes may also contribute tothe (apparently) larger than expected fractional ionizations(ne/nH) found for some lines of sight withindependent determinations of nH. In general, inclusion ofgrain-assisted'' recombination does reduce the inferred ne,but it does not reconcile the ne estimated from differentelements; it may, however, suggest some dependence of ne onnH. The depletion of calcium may have a much weakerdependence on density than was suggested by earlier comparisons with CHand CN. Two appendices present similar high-resolution spectra of Fe Ifor a few stars and give a compilation of column density data for Ca I,Ca II, Fe I, and S I. The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB starsThe paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes. STELIB: A library of stellar spectra at R ~ 2000We present STELIB, a new spectroscopic stellar library, available athttp://webast.ast.obs-mip.fr/stelib. STELIB consists of an homogeneouslibrary of 249 stellar spectra in the visible range (3200 to 9500Å), with an intermediate spectral resolution (la 3 Å) andsampling (1 Å). This library includes stars of various spectraltypes and luminosity classes, spanning a relatively wide range inmetallicity. The spectral resolution, wavelength and spectral typecoverage of this library represents a substantial improvement overprevious libraries used in population synthesis models. The overallabsolute photometric uncertainty is 3%.Based on observations collected with the Jacobus Kaptein Telescope,(owned and operated jointly by the Particle Physics and AstronomyResearch Council of the UK, The Nederlandse Organisatie voorWetenschappelijk Onderzoek of The Netherlands and the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias of Spain and located in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos on La Palma which is operated bythe Instituto de AstrofÃ­sica de Canarias), the 2.3 mtelescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring,Australia, and the VLT-UT1 Antu Telescope (ESO).Tables \ref{cat1} to \ref{cat6} and \ref{antab1} to A.7 are onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. The StellarLibrary STELIB library is also available at the CDS, via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/433 New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometryTwo selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcosunsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed. The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectraWe present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033 An atlas of 2.4 to 4.1 mu m ISO/SWS spectra of early-type starsWe present an atlas of spectra of O- and B-type stars, obtained with theShort Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) during the Post-Helium program ofthe Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). This program is aimed at extendingthe Morgan & Keenan classification scheme into the near-infrared.Later type stars will be discussed in a separate publication. Theobservations consist of 57 SWS Post-Helium spectra from 2.4 to 4.1 μm, supplemented with 10 spectra acquired during the nominal mission witha similar observational setting. For B-type stars, this sample providesample spectral coverage in terms of subtype and luminosity class. ForO-type stars, the ISO sample is coarse and therefore is complementedwith 8 UKIRT Larcmin -band observations. In terms of the presence ofdiagnostic lines, the Larcmin -band is likely the most promising of thenear-infrared atmospheric windows for the study of the physicalproperties of B stars. Specifically, this wavelength interval containsthe Bralpha , Pfgamma , and other Pfund lines which are probes ofspectral type, luminosity class and mass loss. Here, we present simpleempirical methods based on the lines present in the 2.4 to 4.1 mu minterval that allow the determination of i) the spectral type of Bdwarfs and giants to within two subtypes; ii) the luminosity class of Bstars to within two classes; iii) the mass-loss rate of O stars and Bsupergiants to within 0.25 dex. Based on observations with ISO, an ESAproject with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PIcountries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The appendix is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin.qcat?J/A+A/384/473 Astrophysics in 2000It was a year in which some topics selected themselves as importantthrough the sheer numbers of papers published. These include theconnection(s) between galaxies with active central engines and galaxieswith starbursts, the transition from asymptotic giant branch stars towhite dwarfs, gamma-ray bursters, solar data from three major satellitemissions, and the cosmological parameters, including dark matter andvery large scale structure. Several sections are oriented aroundprocesses-accretion, collimation, mergers, and disruptions-shared by anumber of kinds of stars and galaxies. And, of course, there are theusual frivolities of errors, omissions, exceptions, and inventories. Identification of the naphthalene cation in space?A painstaking comparison of laboratory gas-phase spectra of thenaphthalene cation with an extensive set of astrophysical spectra wascarried out. In the vicinity of both naphthalene features, found in thelaboratory experiment, we detected relevant interstellar features. Thestrongest of them is situated at 6710.5Å, which is reasonablyclose to the laboratory feature at 6706.5Å and which is also ofcomparable width, i.e. about 20Å. The second feature was found at6493Å - also close to the 6488.4-Å laboratory band of asimilar width. The structures can be observed only in spectra of O starsbecause of the growing stellar line contamination in colder objects. Thepossible third feature is intertwined with a strong stellar helium line,but the unusual strength of the latter suggests that this naphthalenecation band is present as well as the two former ones. We estimated thecolumn density of the carrier, for the reddening value E(B-V)=1.0, asroughly 4×1015cm-2. The lack of precisewavelength coincidence between laboratory and observed features,however, makes the identification uncertain and further laboratory andobservational works are both highly desirable. Far-ultraviolet extinction and diffuse interstellar bandsWe relate the equivalent widths of the major diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) near 5797 and 5780Å with different colour excesses,normalized by E(B-V), which characterize the growth of interstellarextinction in different wavelength ranges. It is demonstrated that thetwo DIBs correlate best with different parts of the extinction curve,and the ratio of these diffuse bands is best correlated with thefar-ultraviolet (UV) rise. A number of peculiar lines of sight are alsofound, indicating that the carriers of some DIBs and the far-UVextinction can be separated in certain environments, e.g. towards thePer OB2 association. Multicomponent radiatively driven stellar winds. II. Gayley-Owocki heating in multitemperature winds of OB starsWe show that the so-called Gayley-Owocki (Doppler) heating is importantfor the temperature structure of the wind of main sequence stars coolerthan the spectral type O6. The formula for Gayley-Owocki heating isderived directly from the Boltzmann equation as a direct consequence ofthe dependence of the driving force on the velocity gradient. SinceGayley-Owocki heating deposits heat directly on the absorbing ions, wealso investigated the possibility that individual components of theradiatively driven stellar wind have different temperatures. This effectis negligible in the wind of O stars, whereas a significant temperaturedifference takes place in the winds of main sequence B stars for starscooler than B2. Typical temperature differences between absorbing ionsand other flow components for such stars is of the order 103K. However, in the case when the passive component falls back onto thestar, the absorbing component reaches temperatures of order106 K, which allows for emission of X-rays. Moreover, wecompare our computed terminal velocities with the observed ones. Wefound quite good agreement between predicted and observed terminalvelocities. The systematic difference coming from the using of the socalled cooking formula'' has been removed. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). The spectral variations of the O-type runaway supergiant HD 188209We report spectral time series of the late O-type runaway supergiant HD188209. Radial velocity variations of photospheric absorption lines witha possible quasi-period of ~6.4d have been detected in high-resolutionechelle spectra. Night-to-night variations in the position and strengthof the central emission reversal of the Hα profile occurring overill-defined time-scales have been observed. The fundamental parametersof the star are derived using state-of-the-art plane-parallel andunified non-LTE model atmospheres, the latter including the mass-lossrate. The derived helium abundance is moderately enhanced with respectto solar, and the stellar masses are lower than those predicted by theevolutionary models. The binary nature of this star is not suggestedeither from Hipparcos photometry or from radial velocity curves. The Normal Energy Distributions in Stellar Spectra: Giants and SupergiantsWe have derived the normal spectral energy distributions for thoseearly-type subgiants, giants, and supergiants that were not investigatedin our earlier studies, which were in most cases also not included inthe studies of Sviderskiene. Color indices computed using our normalenergy distributions are in good agreement with normal colors derivedfrom observations in the Vilnius photometric system. The reliability ofour distribution curves is also demonstrated by comparisons of observedand computed (W-B)-(B-V) two-color diagrams in the WBVR system. Normalcolor indices for the photometric WBVR system are derived. A deep echelle survey and new analysis of diffuse interstellar bandsWe report a deep survey of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) between3906 Ä and 6812 Ä under consistent observing conditions towardthree very reddened and five unreddened stars. BD+63deg1964's line-of-sight was shown to present exceptional DIB enhancement innumber as well as in strength. The early spectral type of the star andthe use of spectra of an unreddened comparison star of the same spectraltype allowed to limit stellar line residuals. Using careful reductionand analysis methods we discovered 60 new DIBs which are confirmed inthe reddened targets HD 183143 and BD+40deg 4220. We detected25 possible DIBs which still await further confirmation, but we did notdetect or confirm 28 previously reported DIBs. The present survey with226 confirmed DIBs, measured in three targets allows a detailed andhomogeneous statistical analysis on the distribution of DIB widths andintensities. Based on observations at Observatoire Haute Provence withthe spectrograph ELODIE Figures 6 to 40 are only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org A search for nonthermal radio emission from OB and WR stars with RATAN-600We have searched for nonthermal radio emission from 40 OB and WR stars.Enhanced nonthermal radio emission from an early-type star could beevidence for the presence of a collapsed companion, and thus for itsorigin as the result of a supernova explosion in a massive binary. Asshown in the evolutionary calculations of joint evolution of a neutronstar and a normal star in binaries (Lipunov & Prokhorov \cite{lp}),a considerable fraction of neutron stars in binary systems having anoptical companion must be in the ejector state. A neutron star in thisstate generates a relativistic wind like an isolated radio pulsar. Mostejectors in binary systems can not be identified as radio pulsarsbecause of absorption of radiowaves in the stellar wind of the normalcompanion, but instead, they may appear as sources of high-energy quantadue to the synchrotron radiation of relativistic particles (ejected bythe radio pulsar) in the magnetic field of a normal star (Lipunov &Prokhorov \cite{lp2}; Lipunov & Nazin \cite{naz}). In this case asource of nonthermal radiation in a wide range from radio to hardgamma-ray may appear as a result of a specific reflection effect in themagnetic field of the optical companion. Cyg X-3 and the periodicradioburster LS I +610303 may be examples of just this kind.To test this idea, measurements of radio flux densities in the rangefrom 0.96 to 21.7 GHz from selected OB and WR stars were made with theRATAN-600. No nonthermal radio emission from the selected stars weredetected. Fundamental parameters of Galactic luminous OB stars. IV. The upper HR diagramWe present observations and analyses of seven Galactic O stars of typeO6 and earlier. The analyses are carried out using NLTE plane-parallel,hydrostatic models as well as NLTE spherical models with mass-loss. Withdetailed calculations for the former and simulations for the latter, itis shown that the flux blocking due to UV metal lines is important forthese objects, in agreement with previous studies, and the way themechanism operates is explained. We find that the plane-parallel,hydrostatic unblanketed model atmospheres have increasing difficultiesin fitting the early-type spectra of massive stars, and for 50 000 K andabove a fit seems to be impossible. The gravities derived are relativelylow even for the luminosity class V stars. These objects also show themass discrepancy found in earlier studies, indicating that sphericityand mass-loss are important, even at their higher gravities. We thenperform an analysis using spherical models with mass-loss. It is foundthat gravities should be increased by 0.1-0.25 dex, reducing, but notsolving, the mass discrepancy. We show that spectroscopic masses are inbetter agreement with the theory of radiatively driven winds thanevolutionary masses are. A helium abundance larger than solar is alsoobtained for most objects. Some additional effects (partly related topresent approximations) that have an influence in our analyses arestudied. It is found that He iI lambda 4200 is less sensitive to detailsof the model calculations than He iI lambda 4541 and thus it ispreferred for temperature determinations, with the consequence of lowereffective temperatures. It is shown that the fits to He iI lambda 4686are improved when the upward rates of the He iI resonance lines arereduced (with respect to the conventional treatment adequate for linesformed in expanding atmospheres), either by setting them in detailedbalance or by artificially adding extra opacity sources that simulateline blocking. The He iI blend with H_alpha ,is also affected. Somestars of our sample have such high mass-loss rates that the derivationof gravities from the wings of Balmer lines, in particular H_{\loggamma}, becomes doubtful. For the most extreme objects, the mass-lossrates needed to fit H_alpha are different from those needed to fitH_{\log gamma}, by a maximum factor of two. From the point of view ofindividual stars, we have analysed some of the most massive and luminousstars in the Milky Way. According to our analysis, three of them (CygOB2 #7, HD 15 570 and HD 15 558) have particularly large initial masses,close to or in excess of 100 M/Msunsun. Finally, the leastluminous object in our sample, HD 5 689, could have been erroneouslyassigned to Cas OB7 and might be a runaway star. The INT is operated onthe island of La Palma by the RGO in the Spanish Obervatorio de El Roquede los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrof\'\i sica de Canarias. 1-m spectroscopy of normal OB stars We have obtained spectra of 70 normal OB stars in the near-IR I(1-μm) band. The strongest features are those due to lines of thehydrogen Paschen series and neutral and ionized helium, which are, forthe most part, in absorption. The information content in this spectralrange is sufficient for only a rough classification of hot stars intoearly O', late O' and B' types. Curiously, the leading He i tripletline, He i λ1.0830 μm, is usually not detectable, although ina few stars it is in emission; its behaviour generally correlates withthe leading helium singlet line, He i λ 2.058 μ m. These twofeatures appear to be present in emission only in stars with extremes ofmass loss or wind extension.

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 星座: 天鵝座 右阿森松: 19h51m59.10s 赤纬: +47Â°01'39.0" 视星: 5.62 距离: 4545.455 天文距离 右阿森松适当运动: -3.7 赤纬适当运动: -1.7 B-T magnitude: 5.498 V-T magnitude: 5.613