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|Reliability Checks on the Indo-US Stellar Spectral Library Using Artificial Neural Networks and Principal Component Analysis|
The Indo-US coudé feed stellar spectral library (CFLIB) madeavailable to the astronomical community recently by Valdes et al. (2004,ApJS, 152, 251) contains spectra of 1273 stars in the spectral region3460 to 9464Å at a high resolution of 1Å (FWHM) and a widerange of spectral types. Cross-checking the reliability of this databaseis an important and desirable exercise since a number of stars in thisdatabase have no known spectral types and a considerable fraction ofstars has not so complete coverage in the full wavelength region of3460-9464Å resulting in gaps ranging from a few Å to severaltens of Å. We use an automated classification scheme based onArtificial Neural Networks (ANN) to classify all 1273 stars in thedatabase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried outto reduce the dimensionality of the data set before the spectra areclassified by the ANN. Most importantly, we have successfullydemonstrated employment of a variation of the PCA technique to restorethe missing data in a sample of 300 stars out of the CFLIB.
|A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars|
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i 100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.
|Correlation patterns between 11 diffuse interstellar bands and ultraviolet extinction|
We relate the equivalent widths of 11 diffuse interstellar bands,measured in the spectra of 49 stars, to different colour excesses in theultraviolet. We find that most of the observed bands correlatepositively with the extinction in the neighbourhood of the2175-Åbump. Correlation with colour excesses in other parts of theextinction curve is more variable from one diffuse interstellar band toanother; we find that some diffuse bands (5797, 5850 and 6376 Å)correlate positively with the overall slope of the extinction curve,while others (5780 and 6284 Å) exhibit negative correlation. Wediscuss the implications of these results on the links between thediffuse interstellar band carriers and the properties of theinterstellar grains.
|Catalog of Galactic β Cephei Stars|
We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic β Cepheistars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview ofobservational characteristics of all known β Cephei stars, coveringinformation until 2004 June. Ninety-three stars could be confirmed to beβ Cephei stars. We use data from more than 250 papers publishedover the last nearly 100 years, and we provide over 45 notes onindividual stars. For some stars we reanalyzed published data orconducted our own analyses. Sixty-one stars were rejected from the finalβ Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be β Cepheistars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmedβ Cephei stars is also presented.We analyze the β Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributionsof their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radialvelocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm thatthe majority of the β Cephei stars are multiperiodic pulsators. Weshow that, besides two exceptions, the β Cephei stars with highpulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. Those higher amplitude starshave angular rotational velocities in the same range as thehigh-amplitude δ Scuti stars (Prot>~3 days).We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93β Cephei stars are main-sequence objects. We discuss theobservational boundaries of β Cephei pulsation and the physicalparameters of the stars. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modesare near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show thatthe mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 Msolar. Wepoint out that the theoretical instability strip of the β Cepheistars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt toexplain this observation.
|Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - III. An analysis of helium lines in spectra of 102 stars|
Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of He I lines in spectraof 102 B stars is implemented in order to derive the helium abundanceHe/H, the microturbulent parameter Vt and the projectedrotation velocity v sini. A simultaneous determination of He/H andVt for the stars is effected by analysing equivalent widthsof the 4471- and 4922-Å lines primarily as indicators of He/H andthe 4713-, 5016-, 5876- and 6678-Å lines primarily as indicatorsof Vt. The rotation velocities v sini are found from profilesof the same lines. It is shown that, when Vt > 7 kms-1, the Vt(He I) values determined from He Ilines are systematically overestimated as compared with theVt(OII, NII) values derived from OII and NII lines. Thisdiscrepancy is especially appreciable for hot evolved B giants withVt(He I) = 16-23 km s-1 and may indicate a failureof classical model atmospheres to represent the strong He I lines forthese stars.Two programme stars, HR 1512 and 7651, are found to be helium-weakstars. The remaining 100 stars are divided into three groups accordingto their masses M. The microturbulent parameter Vt(He I) islow for all stars of group A (M= 4.1-6.9 Msolar) and for allstars with the relative ages t/tMS < 0.8 of group B (M=7.0-11.2 Msolar). Their Vt(He I) values are withinthe 0 to 5 km s-1 range, as a rule; the mean value isVt= 1.7 km s-1. Only evolved giants of group B,which are close to the termination of the main-sequence (MS)evolutionary phase (t/tMS > 0.8), show Vt(He I)up to 11 km s-1. The helium abundance He/H is correlated withthe relative age t/tMS in both groups; the averaged He/Henhancement during the MS phase is 26 per cent. For group C, containingthe most massive stars (M= 12.4-18.8 Msolar), theVt(He I) values display a correlation with t/tMS,varying from 4 to 23 km s-1. The He/H determination for hotevolved B giants of the group with Vt(He I) > 15 kms-1 depends on a choice between the Vt(He I) andVt(OII, NII) scales. The mean He/H enrichment by 67 per centduring the MS phase is found, if the abundances He/H are based on theVt(OII, NII) scale; however, two evolved giants withespecially high v sini, HR 7446 and 7993, show the He/H enhancement byabout a factor of 2.5. When using the same Vt scale, we founda trend of He/H with projected rotational velocities v sini a largedispersion for v sini > 150 km s-1 can result fromdifferences in masses M.A comparison with the stellar model computations with rotationallyinduced mixing shows that the observed helium enrichment during the MSphase can be explained by rotation with initial velocities 250-400 kms-1. The He/H distribution on M and v sini based on theVt(OII, NII) scale seems to be in better agreement with thetheory than one based on the Vt(He I) scale. The mean valueHe/H = 0.10 derived for stars in the zero age main sequence (ZAMS)vicinity can be adopted as the typical initial helium abundance forearly B stars in the solar neighbourhood.
|The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra|
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.
|Toward an adequate method to isolate spectroscopic families of diffuse interstellar bands|
We divide some of the observed diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) intofamilies that appear to have the spectral structure of single species.Three different methods are applied to separate such families, exploringthe best approach for future investigations of this type. Starting witha statistical treatment of the data, we found that statistical methodsby themselves give insufficient results. Two other methods of dataanalysis (`averaging equivalent widths' and `investigating the figureswith arranged spectrograms') were found to be more useful as tools forfinding the spectroscopic families of DIBs. On the basis of thesemethods, we suggest some candidates as `relatives' of 5780- and5797-Å bands.
|A Method for Simultaneous Determination of AV and R and Applications|
A method for the simultaneous determination of the interstellarextinction (AV) and of the ratio of total to selectiveextinction (R), derived from the 1989 Cardelli, Clayton, & Mathisfitting of the interstellar extinction law, is presented and applied toa set of 1900 color excesses derived from observations of stars inUBVRIJHKL. The method is used to study the stability of AVand R within selected regions in Perseus, Scorpius, Monoceros, Orion,Sagittarius, Ophiuchus, Carina, and Serpens. Analysis shows that R isapproximately constant and peculiar to each sector, with mean valuesthat vary from 3.2 in Perseus to 5.6 in Ophiuchus. These results aresimilar to published values by Aiello et al., He et al., Vrba &Rydgren, O'Donnell, and Cardelli, Clayton, & Mathis.
|The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars|
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.
|Grey extinction in the solar neighbourhood?|
Some of the close O and B dwarfs appear to be fainter than indicated bytheir Hipparcos distances, intrinsic absolute magnitudes attributed totheir spectral types, and estimated selective interstellar extinction.This discrepancy is explained in the paper by the grey (neutral)interstellar extinction in the visual range of spectrum. The measure ofsuch an effect is related to discrete features of the interstellarmatter.
|The relation between far-UV and visible extinctions|
For directions of sufficient reddening (/E(B-V)>~0.25), there is asimple relation between the slope of the extinction curve in the far-UVand /E(B-V). Regardless of direction, the far-UV extinction curve isproportional to 1/λn e-2E(B-V)/λ(/λ in μm, /n=4), in accordance with the idea that reddenedstars spectra are contaminated by scattered light (Zagury, 2001b). Thisrelation is not compatible with the standard theory of extinction whichstates that far-UV and visible extinctions are due to different classesof particle. In that model the two (far-UV and visible) extinctions varythus independently according to the proportion of each type of particle.In preceding papers I have shown that the standard theory cannot explainUV observations of nebulae, and is contradicted by the UV spectra ofstars with very low reddening: for how long shall the standard theory beconsidered as the interpretation of the extinction curve?
|Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - II. Basic parameters of 107 stars|
Effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities logg andinterstellar extinctions AV are found for 107 B stars.Distances d of the stars, which are based on the derivedTeff, logg and AV values, show good agreement withthose obtained from the Hipparcos parallaxes. Comparing theTeff and logg values with evolutionary computations, we infermasses, radii, luminosities, ages and relative ages of the stars.Empirical relations between the Teff and logg parameters, onthe one hand, and the photometric indices Q, [c1] and β,on the other hand, are constructed; these relations give a fast methodfor the Teff and logg estimation of early and medium B stars.Inclusion of the infrared J, H and K colours into the Teff,logg and AV determination shows that (i) the Teffand logg parameters are altered only slightly; (ii) the AVvalue is rather sensitive to these colours, so an accuracy better than0.05mag in the JHK data is necessary for precise AVevaluation.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Far-ultraviolet extinction and diffuse interstellar bands|
We relate the equivalent widths of the major diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) near 5797 and 5780Å with different colour excesses,normalized by E(B-V), which characterize the growth of interstellarextinction in different wavelength ranges. It is demonstrated that thetwo DIBs correlate best with different parts of the extinction curve,and the ratio of these diffuse bands is best correlated with thefar-ultraviolet (UV) rise. A number of peculiar lines of sight are alsofound, indicating that the carriers of some DIBs and the far-UVextinction can be separated in certain environments, e.g. towards thePer OB2 association.
|Profiles of blue and infrared diffuse interstellar bands|
The paper presents a survey of profiles of reasonably strong diffuseinterstellar bands (DIBs) based on the extensive set of high-resolutionspectra acquired with the aid of echelle spectrographs installed at the2-m Terskol, 2-m Pic du Midi and 1-m SAO telescopes. The surveyeddiffuse interstellar bands cover the spectral ranges of blue andnear-infrared, i.e the DIBs not surveyed by Krełowski &Schmidt. The possible modifications caused by stellar and telluric linesare discussed. The very broad features such as 4430 are not discussedbecause the shapes of their profiles, extracted from echelle spectra,are very uncertain. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios of the spectra arenot high enough to enable discussion of the profiles of numerous weakinterstellar features discovered recently.
|Evidence for Asphericity in a Subluminous Type Ia Supernova: Spectropolarimetry of SN 1999by|
We present polarization spectra near maximum light for the stronglysubluminous Type Ia supernova SN 1999by that show that the supernova isintrinsically polarized. SN 1999by has an observed, overall level ofpolarization of ~0.3%-0.8%, a rise of the polarization P redward of 6500Å, and a change in polarization across the Si II λ6150feature of about 0.4%. The presentation of the polarization at differentwavelengths in the Q-U plane is shown to be a powerful tool to determinethe overall geometry and the interstellar component. The distribution ofpoints with wavelength using this empirical Q-U plane method revealsthat SN 1999by has a well-defined axis of symmetry and suggests aninterstellar polarization (ISP) vector with PISP=0.3% andposition angle Θ=150deg with an error circle in the Q-Uplane of radius about 0.1%. Synthetic non-LTE spectra for axisymmetricconfigurations based on delayed-detonation models have been computedassuming ellipsoidal geometry. The input ejecta structure andcomposition are based on a Chandrasekhar mass delayed-detonation model.The parameters of the explosion are chosen to reproduce the timeevolution of IR spectra of SN 1999by without further adjustments.Spherical models are then mapped onto ellipsoidal geometries and theaxis ratio, viewing angle, and ISP adjusted to provide the bestagreement with the polarization spectra. Both flux and polarizationspectra can be reasonably well reproduced by models with an asphericityof ~20% observed equator-on. The general properties of the polarizationcan be understood as a consequence of the structure of subluminousmodels. Best fits are obtained for the theoretical models withPISP=0.25% and Θ=140deg, consistent with theempirical method. We discuss our results for this subluminous Type Ia inthe context of ``normally bright'' Type Ia supernovae. For normallybright Type Ia, the photosphere is near the inner iron-rich layers atmaximum light and the ubiquitous iron lines give a rapid variation tothe model polarization spectra. In subluminous models, the photospherenear maximum is in the silicon layers with fewer lines and a smootheroverall polarization spectrum, as observed for SN 1999by. Though dataare sparse, the low upper limits for polarization determined for manynormal events in contrast to the high polarization in SN 1999by maysuggest a relation between the asymmetry we observed and the mechanismthat produces a subluminous Type Ia. Among various mechanisms, rapidrotation of the progenitor white dwarf and/or an explosion during abinary white dwarf merger process are likely candidates to explain theasphericity in SN 1999by.
|A possible sets of diffuse bands originating at the same carrier|
This paper discusses measurements of eight selected diffuse interstellarbands (DIBs): lambda lambda 5793, 5809, 5819, 5828, 6196, 6397, 6614 and6660 performed in high resolution, high S/N spectra of 41 reddenedstars. Central depths, considered less error-prone than equivalentwidths, are measured and mutual correlations between the selected DIBsare analyzed. Tight correlations between the DIBs: 5809, 6196, 6614 and6660 may suggest their common origin despite their widths differing by afactor of up to 2. The performed simulations prove that this fact doesnot preclude a common, molecular carrier of such features.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|NaI and HI 3-D density distribution in the solar neighbourhood|
A study of the local interstellar medium (LISM) using a robust inversionmethod, similar to current tomography techniques, is applied to compileddata on neutral interstellar absorbers and Hipparcos parallaxes. Wepresent here the 3-D distribution of two neutral species, NaI and HI.Our analysis enables us to obtain a reliable 3-D density distribution ofthe IS matter in the solar neighbourhood, providing a new basis for thediscussion of origin, present state and evolution of the LISM. We showthat neutral IS matter is distributed in compact clouds or in cloudcomplexes with cavities between them. It is now easy to distinguish theso-called Local Bubble and the Loop I cavities and also two tunnelslinking the Local Bubble to the outer regions of the galaxy, away fromthe galactic plane. Better accuracy is achieved for NaI, as to a largernumber of lines-of-sight and target stars than are available for HI. Arather detailed NaI 3-D density distribution is obtained with a 40 pcsmoothing length. The extended high-density regions in the NaI and HImaps are correlated which is not the case for the diffuse regions. Thedensity ratio rho_HI /rho_NaI is lower or equal to 9.1.108+/- 3.108 for extended high density clouds. Usingobservations from the ESA Hipparcos space astrometry mission.
|Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutions|
The FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included).
|Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - I. Spectral observations of 123 stars; measurements of hydrogen and helium lines; infrared photometry|
High-resolution spectral observations of 123 B0-B5 stars in the mainsequence evolutionary phase were obtained at two observatories, namelythe McDonald Observatory (McDO) and the Crimean AstrophysicalObservatory (CrAO). Accurate equivalent widths W of two Balmer lines,Hβ and Hγ, and ten Hei lines were obtained for all the stars,as well as of the Heiiλ4686 line for the hottest ones. A carefulanalysis of the measured equivalent widths was performed. It is shownthat there is a very good agreement between the W values derived fromthe McDO and CrAO spectra for 14 common stars. A comparison withpublished data leads to the conclusion that the W values measuredearlier by some authors for strong Hei lines are very likely to beunderestimated. Infrared photometric observations in the J, H, and Kbands were performed for 70 programme stars. All these data will be usedin other papers: in particular for the Teff and loggdetermination and for the He, C, N and O abundance analyses.
|The HB Narrowband Comet Filters: Standard Stars and Calibrations|
We present results concerning the development and calibration of a newset of narrowband comet filters, designated the HB filter set, which wasdesigned and manufactured to replace aging IHW filters. Information isalso presented about the design and manufacturing of the filters,including the reasoning that was used for deciding the final wavelengthsand bandpasses. The new filters are designed to measure five differentgas species (OH, NH, CN, C2, C3), two ions(CO+, H2O+), and four continuum points.An improved understanding of extended wings from emission bands in cometspectra, gained since the development of the IHW filters, wasincorporated into the new design, so that contamination from undesiredspecies is significantly reduced compared to previous filters. Inaddition, advances in manufacturing techniques lead to squarertransmission profiles, higher peak transmission and UV filters withlonger lifetimes. We performed the necessary calibrations so that dataobtained with the filters can be converted to absolute fluxes, allowingfor, among other things, accurate subtraction of the continuum from thegas species. Flux standards and solar analogs were selected andobserved, and the data were used to establish a magnitude system for theHB filters. The star measurements were also used to evaluate which solaranalogs were best representatives of the Sun and to explore how the fluxstandards differed in the UV with respect to their spectral type. Newprocedures were developed to account for the non-linear extinction inthe OH filter, so that proper extrapolations to zero airmass can beperformed, and a new formalism, which can account for mutualcontaminations in two (or more) filters, was developed for reducingcomet observations. The relevant equations and reduction coefficientsare given, along with detailed instructions on how to apply them. Wealso performed a series of tests involving factors that can affecteither the filter transmission profiles or the distribution of theemission lines in the gas species to determine how these effectspropagate through to the calibration coefficients. The results indicatethat there are only two factors that are a concern at a level of morethan a few percent: f-ratios smaller than f/4, and a few individualfilters whose transmission profiles are significantly different from thefilters used in the calibrations.
|On the Correlation between CO Absorption and Far-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Extinction toward Galactic OB Stars|
A sample of 59 sight lines to reddened Galactic OB stars was examinedfor correlations of the strength of the CO Fourth Positive(A1Π-X1Σ+) absorption bandsystem with the ultraviolet interstellar extinction curve parameters. Weused archival high-dispersion NEWSIPS IUE spectra to measure the COabsorption for comparison with parametric fits of the extinction curvesfrom the literature. A strong correlation with the nonlinear far-UVcurvature term was found with greater absorption, normalized to E(B-V),being associated with more curvature. A weaker trend with the linearextinction term was also found. Mechanisms for enhancing CO in dustenvironments exhibiting high nonlinear curvature are discussed.
|The Size Distribution of Dust toward HD 210121 as Determined from Extinction|
Several observations suggest that the molecular cloud toward HD 210121contains an enhanced relative abundance of small dust grains. Inparticular, the value of the ratio of total-to-selective extinction(RV) is unusually low. In this paper, we estimate the sizedistribution of dust grains in this line of sight from the extinctioncurve observed in the near-infrared through the ultraviolet. We use themaximum entropy method (MEM) to find the smoothest possible sizedistribution consistent within a χ2 confidence level fitto the extinction data. While MEM has been shown to be a powerful toolin modeling average extinction curves, we show in this paper that MEMcan also be a useful technique in modeling individual lines of sightthat differ significantly from Galactic averages. We review existingdata for HD 210121 and calculate the dust-to-gas ratio in order toconstrain the amount of material used in the grain model. We presentsize distributions for both two-component models of silicate andgraphite and three-component models that include amorphous carbon. Wecompare HD 210121 with the average diffuse interstellar medium and withthree other high-latitude lines of sight. The grain-size distributiontoward HD 210121 contains a relative excess of grains with radiusa<0.1 μm as well as a relative deficiency of grains with radiusa>0.1 μm as compared with the average diffuse interstellar mediumand other clouds at high latitude.
|Spectropolarimetry of the symbiotic nova HM Sge|
We present the first spectropolarimetric observations of the symbioticnova HM Sge. We first note that marked spectral changes occurred: in thenear IR the spectrum of the Mira in the system has clearly appeared. Thenebular emission line spectrum remains largely unchanged but we detectfor the first time the Raman line at lambda 6825. These changes indicatethat the dust content in HM Sge is rapidly decreasing and that the dustobscuration period which began in 1985 has come to an end. In terms ofpolarization we find that the red giant spectrum is intrinsicallypolarized at the 0.5 % level and the polarization signal is structuredacross the TiO absorption bands. The Raman scattered O vi line at lambda6825 shows a polarization of 3.4 % at an angle of 33 deg. Thebehaviour of the polarization angle across the Raman line stronglyindicates that an axisymmetric O vi-H i scattering geometry prevails.The distribution of the neutral hydrogen in the inner binary system doesnot seem to be strongly perturbed by binary motion. We conclude that thepresent binary axis is orientated at a position angle of ~ 123deg. The deduced orientation of the binary axis of HM Sge isparallel or perpendicular to distinct geometric features of thesurrounding nebulosity. This indicates that the orientation of thebinary system is of prime importance for the understanding of thenebular structure. Based on observations taken with the 4.2m WilliamHerschel Telescope at La Palma and the 2.3m ANU Telescope at SidingSpring.
|A New Spectropolarimeter at the Dodaira Observatory|
We report a newly developed spectropolarimeter with a low-dispersionresolution (R=40-200) and a wide coverage in wavelength (400-900 nm). Itis mainly used along with the 0.91 m telescope at the DodairaObservatory of the National Astronomical Observatory, Japan. Thisinstrument and the related reduction software are described briefly. Thepresent polarimetric accuracy (rms) is estimated to be[(P/50)^2+(0.05)^2]^1/2%, where P is the linear polarization degree inpercent. The spectropolarimeter has the advantage of being most usefulin the polarimetric studies of both the continuum and the strongemission and/or absorption lines. It is mainly used for the short- orlong-term monitoring of variable circumstellar polarization and ofpolarization in comets, and for studies on interstellar polarization.
|Discovery of a high-speed outflow in 4C 74.26|
We present intermediate-resolution optical spectropolarimetry of theradio-loud quasar 4C 74.26. Large variations in both the degree andposition angle of polarization are observed across the broad H alphaline. After continuum subtraction, we find that in polarized flux thisfeature is redshifted by ~ 2000 km s^-1 relative to its medianwavelength in total flux. We show that the H alpha polarization can beexplained by scattering in a high-speed outflow which, if it is directedalong the axis of the radio jet, must have a velocity >= 5000 km s^-1in order to account for the observed redshift. The polarization positionangle is not precisely orthogonal to that of the radio source,suggesting that the scattering outflow is either inhomogeneous, orsomewhat misaligned with the jet axis.
|A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 Stars|
Ultraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories.
|On correlations between diffuse interstellar bands|
One way to better apprehend the problem of diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) is to search for correlations between the bands in a large sampleof spectra towards various lines of sight: a strict correlation mayimply that a common carrier is at the origin of the bands, whereas anon-correlation means that different species are involved. We proposethis observational test for 10 DIBs collected in up to 62 Galactic linesof sight. Strong DIBs do not strictly correlate, and sometimes thecorrelation is very poor. Only one example of a strict correlation hasbeen found in our sample between the DIBs at 6614 and 6196 Ä, thatcould signify a single carrier for those two bands. The general absenceof strict correlations is discussed in the context of molecular carriersfor the DIBs.
|On the relation between diffuse interstellar bands and simple molecular species|
We present observations of the major diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs)at 5780 and 5797 Ä as well as literature data and our ownobservations of the violet lines of CH and CH(+) , in the lines of sighttoward some 70 stars representing various degrees of the interstellarreddening. The correlations are shown and discussed in the context ofindicators such as far-UV extinction parameters and neutral molecularabundances. The results show that the DIBs in question (lambda lambda5797 and 5780) both probably form in diffuse cloud interiors, in arelated regime where CH and H_2 form. The ratio of the two DIBscorrelates with CH abundance, confirming that the lambda 5797 carrier isfavoured in enhanced molecular gas regions over the lambda 5780 carrier.The ratio of the two DIBs correlates poorly with CH(+) abundance. Ourcompilation of observational data also suggests that the DIB ratio maybe equally useful as a cloud type indicator as is R_V, the ratio oftotal to selective extinction, and much more readily observed. Based onobservations obtained at the Russian Special Astrophysical Observatory(SAO), Terskol Observatory (TER), Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT),European Southern Observatory (ESO), Observatoire de Haute-Provence(OHP)
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