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Contact Binaries with Additional Components. II. A Spectroscopic Search for Faint Tertiaries
It is unclear how very close binary stars form, given that during thepre-main-sequence phase the component stars would have been inside eachother. One hypothesis is that they formed farther apart but were broughtin closer after formation by gravitational interaction with a thirdmember of the system. If so, all close binaries should be members oftriple (or higher order) systems. As a test of this prediction, wepresent a search for the signature of third components in archivalspectra of close binaries. In our sample of 75 objects, 23 show evidencefor the presence of a third component, down to a detection limit oftertiary flux contributions of about 0.8% at 5200 Å (consideringonly contact and semidetached binaries, we find 20 out of 66). In ahomogeneous subset of 59 contact binaries, we are fairly confident thatthe 15 tertiaries we have detected are all tertiaries present with massratios 0.28<~M3/M12<~0.75 and implied outerperiods P<~106 days. We find that if the frequency oftertiaries were the same as that of binary companions to solar-typestars, one would expect to detect about 12 tertiaries. In contrast, ifall contact binaries were in triple systems, one would expect about 20.Thus, our results are not conclusive but are sufficiently suggestive towarrant further studies.

Astrophysics in 2004
In this 14th edition of ApXX,1 we bring you the Sun (§ 2) and Stars(§ 4), the Moon and Planets (§ 3), a truly binary pulsar(§ 5), a kinematic apology (§ 6), the whole universe(§§ 7 and 8), reconsideration of old settled (§ 9) andunsettled (§ 10) issues, and some things that happen only on Earth,some indeed only in these reviews (§§ 10 and 11).

Atmospheric Chemical Abundances of the Components of the Quadruple System ADS 11061. 40 Draconis
As part of our study of the components of the hierarchic quadruplesystem ADS 11061, we acquired spectroscopic observations of the binary40 Dra. Echelle spectra showing the separation of the components’lines were obtained in the spectral range 3700 9200 Å. Effectivetemperatures and surface gravities were derived for the components fromBV photometry and the hydrogen-line profiles. The components of the 40Dra system have parameters close to T eff a = 6420 K, log g a = 4.17, Teff b = 6300 K, and log g b = 4.20. We find the microturbulence velocityin the component atmospheres to be V t = 2.6 km/s. The abundances ofiron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in the atmospheres of both componentsare estimated to be log N(Fe)a = 7.50, log N(Fe)b = 7.46, log N(C)a =8.39, log N(C)b = 8.45, log N(N)a = 8.12, log(N)b = 8.15, log N(O)a =8.77, log N(O)b = 8.74.

Atmospheric Elemental Abundances for the Components of the Multiple System ADS 11061. 41 Draconis
We obtained speckle interferometric and spectroscopic observations ofthe system 41 Dra during its periastron passage in 2001. Thecomponents’ lines are resolved in the spectral interval 3700 9200Å. The observed wavelength dependence of the brightness differencebetween the components is used to estimate the B-V indices separatelyfor each of the components: B-V = 0.511 for component a and B-V = 0.502for component b. We derived improved effective temperatures of thecomponents from their B-V values and hydrogen-line profiles. Theobservations can be described with the parameters for the components Teff a = 6370 K, log g a = 4.05 and T eff b = 6410 K, log g b = 4.20. Theiron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances in the atmospheres of thecomponents are log N(Fe)a = 7.55, log N(Fe)b = 7.60, log N(C)a = 8.52,log N(C)b = 8.58, log N(N)a = 8.05, log N(N)b = 7.99, log N(O)a = 8.73,log N(O)b = 8.76.

Differential photometry of speckle-interferometric binary and multiple stars
A method for differential photometry of speckle-interferometric binaryand multiple stars is presented. Both the accuracy and sources ofsystematic errors of the method are analysed. The photometric accuracyranges between 0.02 m and 0.20 m, depending on the atmospheric seeing,the brightness and the separation of the system components. A comparisonbetween our magnitude differences and those of other authors ispresented.

The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of ˜14 000 F and G dwarfs
We present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our˜63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the ``G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989

Model atmosphere parameters of the binary system 41 Dra
Model atmospheres were built for the individual components of the system41 Dra using the grid of the Kurucz (1994) blanketed models and theentire spectral energy distribution of the system. The fundamentalparameters of the system components were derived as:Teffa = 6100K, Teffb =6100K, lg ga = 3.86, lg gb = 4.01, Ra =2.15Rsolar, Rb = 1.76Rsolar,Ma = 1.24Msolar, Mb =1.18Msolar and the spectral types F8 for both components. Theformation and evolution of the system were discussed depending on thefilament fragmentation process.

Fundamental parameters and origin of the very eccentric binary 41 Dra
The evolutionary status and origin of the most eccentric known binary ina quadruple system, 41 Dra (e=0.9754, period 3.413 yr), are discussed.New observations include the much improved combinedspeckle-interferometric orbit, resolved photometry of the components andtheir spectroscopic analysis. The age of the system is 2.5 +/- 0.2 Gyr;all four components are likely coeval. The high eccentricity of theorbit together with known age and masses provide a constraint on thetidal circularization theory: it seems that the eccentric orbit survivedbecause the convective zones of the F-type dwarfs were very thin. Now asthe components of 41 Dra are leaving the Main Sequence, their increasedinteraction at each periastron passage may result in detectable changesin period and eccentricity.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/409/245

Speckle interferometry of nearby multiple stars
We present the results of diffraction-limited optical speckleinterferometry and infrared bispectrum speckle interferometry of 111double and 10 triple systems performed in 1998-1999 with the 6-mtelescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Zelenchuk. Theobservations concentrated on nearby close binaries discovered during theHipparcos mission. Many nearby fast-orbiting low-mass binaries knownbefore Hipparcos were also included in the program. New companions werefirst resolved in 4 systems: HIP 5245, ADS 3179, Kui 99, and ADS 16138.In addition to accurate relative positions, magnitude differences weremeasured for most of the pairs. We combined our results with theHipparcos parallaxes to derive absolute magnitudes and spectral typesfor 63 binaries and 4 triples. Preliminary orbital elements and themass-sum are derived for HIP 689, and improved orbits are presented forHIP 16602 (CHR 117) and HIP 21280 (CHR 17). Based on data collected atthe Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russia Table 1 is only, and Table2 also, available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymons ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/385/87

Statistics of spectroscopic sub-systems in visual multiple stars
A large sample of visual multiples of spectral types F5-M has beensurveyed for the presence of spectroscopic sub-systems. Some 4200 radialvelocities of 574 components were measured in 1994-2000 with thecorrelation radial velocity meter. A total of 46 new spectroscopicorbits were computed for this sample. Physical relations are establishedfor most of the visual systems and several optical components areidentified as well. The period distribution of sub-systems has a maximumat periods from 2 to 7 days, likely explained by a combination of tidaldissipation with triple-star dynamics. The fraction of spectroscopicsub-systems among the dwarf components of close visual binaries withknown orbits is similar to that of field dwarfs, from 11% to 18% percomponent. Sub-systems are more frequent among the components of widevisual binaries and among wide tertiary components to the known visualor spectroscopic binaries - 20% and 30%, respectively. In triple systemswith both outer (visual) and inner (spectroscopic) orbits known, we findan anti-correlation between the periods of inner sub-systems and theeccentricities of outer orbits which must be related to dynamicalstability constraints. Tables 1, 2, and 6 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/382/118

Infrared Speckle Interferometry of Eleven Binaries Using a Bispectral Analysis
Infrared speckle-masking observations of eleven binary systems with the6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope are presented. Aresolution of 43 mas in J (1.25 micrometer) and 76 mas in K (2.2micrometers) has been achieved in reconstructed images. Accuratemagnitude differences, separations, and position angles have beendetermined for all the resolved binaries. The pair HR 1071 with anabnormally low lithium abundance is considered in more detail.

The long-period companions of multiple stars tend to have moderate eccentricities
We examined the statistics of an angle gamma between the radius vectorof a visual companion of a multiple star and the vector of its apparentrelative motion in the system. Its distribution f(gamma ) is related tothe orbital eccentricity distribution in the investigated sample. Wefound that for the wide physical subsystems of the 174 objects from theMultiple Star Catalogue f(gamma ) is bell-shaped. The Monte-Carlosimulations have shown that our f(gamma ) corresponds to the populationof the moderate-eccentricity orbits and is not compatible with thelinear distribution f(e)=2e which follows from stellar dynamics andseems to hold for wide binaries. This points to the absence of highlyelongated orbits among the outer subsystems of multiple stars. Theconstraint of dynamical stability of triple systems is not sufficient toexplain the ``rounded-off'' outer orbits; instead, we speculate that itcan result from the angular momentum exchange in multiple systems duringtheir early evolution.

Evolution of X-ray activity of 1-3 Msun late-type stars in early post-main-sequence phases
We have investigated the variation of coronal X-ray emission duringearly post-main-sequence phases for a sample of 120 late-type starswithin 100 pc, and with estimated masses in the range 1-3Msun, based on Hipparcos parallaxes and recent evolutionarymodels. These stars were observed with the ROSAT/PSPC, and the dataprocessed with the Palermo-CfA pipeline, including detection andevaluation of X-ray fluxes (or upper limits) by means of a wavelettransform algorithm. We have studied the evolutionary history of X-rayluminosity and surface flux for stars in selected mass ranges, includingstars with inactive A-type progenitors on the main sequence and lowermass solar-type stars. Our stellar sample suggests a trend of increasingX-ray emission level with age for stars with masses M > 1.5Msun, and a decline for lower-mass stars. A similar behaviorholds for the average coronal temperature, which follows a power-lawcorrelation with the X-ray luminosity, independently of their mass andevolutionary state. We have also studied the relationship between X-rayluminosity and surface rotation rate for stars in the same mass ranges,and how this relationships departs from the Lx ~vrot2 law followed by main-sequence stars. Ourresults are interpreted in terms of a magnetic dynamo whose efficiencydepends on the stellar evolutionary state through the mass-dependentchanges of the stellar internal structure, including the properties ofenvelope convection and the internal rotation profile.

Emerging trends of optical interferometry in astronomy
The current status of the high spatial resolution imaging interferometryin optical astronomy is reviewed in the light of theoreticalexplanation, as well as of experimental constraints that exist in thepresent day technology. The basic mathematical interlude pertinent tothe interferometric technique and its applications in astronomicalobservations are presented in detail. An elaborate account of the randomrefractive index fluctuations of the atmosphere producing randomaberrations in the telescope pupil, elucidating the trade offs betweenlong-exposure and short-exposure imaging is given. Further, the othermethods viz., (i) speckle spectroscopy, (ii) speckle polarimetry, (iii)phase closure, (iv) aperture synthesis, (v) pupil plane interferometry,(vi) differential speckle interferometry etc., using single moderate orlarge telescopes are described as well. The salient features of variousdetectors that are used for recording short-exposure images aresummarized. The mathematical intricacies of the data processingtechniques for both Fourier modulus and Fourier phase are analyzed; thevarious schemes of image restoration techniques are examined as wellwith emphasis set on their comparisons. The recent technologicalinnovation to compensate the deleterious effects of the atmosphere onthe telescope image in real-time is enumerated. The experimentaldescriptions of several working long baseline interferometers in thevisible band are summarized. The astrophysical results obtained tilldate are highlighted.

Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk
We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binarystars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m BigAzimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special AstrophysicalObservatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on thesmaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. Themeasured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTAdiffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

A test of Hipparcos parallaxes on multiple stars.
Not Available

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright main-sequence stars and subgiant stars
We present X-ray data for all main-sequence and subgiant stars ofspectral types A, F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV and V listed inthe Bright Star Catalogue that have been detected as X-ray sources inthe ROSAT all-sky survey; several stars without luminosity class arealso included. The catalogue contains 980 entries yielding an averagedetection rate of 32 percent. In addition to count rates, sourcedetection parameters, hardness ratios, and X-ray fluxes we also listX-ray luminosities derived from Hipparcos parallaxes. The catalogue isalso available in electronic form via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Speckle interferometry of the spectroscopic binaries Gliese 150.2 and 41 Draconis.
Not Available

Multiple stars and celestical mechanics; visual binary stars: formation dynamics, and evolutionary tracks
Not Available

MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple stars
The MSC catalogue contains data on 612 physical multiple stars ofmultiplicity 3 to 7 which are hierarchical with few exceptions. Orbitalperiods, angular separations and mass ratios are estimated for eachsub-system. Orbital elements are given when available. The catalogue canbe accessed through CDS (Strasbourg). Half of the systems are within 100pc from the Sun. The comparison of the periods of close and widesub-systems reveals that there is no preferred period ratio and allpossible combinations of periods are found. The distribution of thelogarithms of short periods is bimodal, probably due to observationalselection. In 82\% of triple stars the close sub-system is related tothe primary of a wide pair. However, the analysis of mass ratiodistribution gives some support to the idea that component masses areindependently selected from the Salpeter mass function. Orbits of wideand close sub-systems are not always coplanar, although thecorresponding orbital angular momentum vectors do show a weak tendencyof alignment. Some observational programs based on the MSC aresuggested. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Dynamical studies of nine wide visual binaries in the solar neighborhood
Not Available

The Multiple System ADS:11061
Not Available

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Photoelectric photometry of bright stars in the vicinity of the North Celestial Pole
Not Available

Maximum separations among cataloged binaries
The paper classifies many of the widest common-motion binaries listed inthe Aitken catalog and list 72 physical pairs with known photoelectricphotometry, 31 physical pairs without good photometry, and 27 opticalpairs. As a function of primary types, the physical systems have upperlimits to their separations that are exceeded by some of the opticalpairs. The fact that optical pairs occur with larger separations impliesthat the limits are real ones and not just catalog limitations. Thoselimits (in AU) are expressed by 2500 M1 exp 1.54 for B5-KO main-sequenceprimaries. The same limits hold for the Trapezium and hierarchicalsystems studied previously.

Search for wide binaries in the Yale Bright Star Catalogue
A specific scheme for identifying wide binary candidates in the YaleBright Star Catalogue is presented. The choice of criteria for selectingcandidates is discussed, and the final criteria are used to compile apreliminary list of candidates which is presented and discussed. Thestatistics of the candidate list are characterized, and the list is usedto compute upper bounds on the wide binary density using a simpletheoretical model.

Locations of the components of triple star systems north of +70 deg
Micrometric measurements of triple systems north of +70 deg declinationwere made with the 10.5-inch Fraunhofer refractor of Munich UniversityObservatory. Absolute positions of all measured components were derivedby using the positions of the main stars as given in the catalog AGK3and, in some cases, also in the SAO-catalog.

Common proper motion stars in the AGK 3
A search was made of common-proper-motion (CPM) systems among AGK 3stars. The selection of physical systems was based upon the ratiobetween the angular separation (rho) and the proper motion (mu); the CPMstars found are presented in two tables. Table I lists systems withrho/mu less than 1000 years. It contains 326 entries, and the proportionof optical pairs is estimated to be 1 percent. Table II lists systemswith rho/mu in the range 1000 to 3500 years; it contains 113 systems,but only 60 percent of them are physical. Nevertheless, these systemsoften have separations larger than 10,000 AU and are the mostinteresting for the study of the tail of the distribution function ofthe semimajor axes.

Erratum - Errata in the La-Plata Catalog of MK Spectral Types
Not Available

Visual multiples. VII - MK classifications
Classifications are given for 865 components of visual multiples; theyshow no systematic differences from the MK system, and the random errorsare one subclass in type and two-thirds of a luminosity class. It isfound that at least 1% of the F-type IV and V stars are weak-lined, 32%of the A4-F1 IV and V stars are Am, and 5% of the A0-A3 IV and V starsare early-type Am. Attention is called to the large fraction (55%) ofthe A3-A9 III-V stars that are of luminosity classes III or IV, unlikethe percentage (16%) at neighboring types.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:18h00m09.20s
Apparent magnitude:5.68
Distance:53.079 parsecs
Proper motion RA:41.1
Proper motion Dec:122.2
B-T magnitude:6.231
V-T magnitude:5.699

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Flamsteed41 Dra
HD 1989HD 166866
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4578-1433-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1650-01996570
BSC 1991HR 6810
HIPHIP 88136

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