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|Radial Velocities for 889 Late-Type Stars|
We report radial velocities for 844 FGKM-type main-sequence and subgiantstars and 45 K giants, most of which had either low-precision velocitymeasurements or none at all. These velocities differ from the standardstars of Udry et al. by 0.035 km s-1 (rms) for the 26 FGKstandard stars in common. The zero point of our velocities differs fromthat of Udry et al.: =+0.053km s-1. Thus, these new velocities agree with the best knownstandard stars both in precision and zero point, to well within 0.1 kms-1. Nonetheless, both these velocities and the standardssuffer from three sources of systematic error, namely, convectiveblueshift, gravitational redshift, and spectral type mismatch of thereference spectrum. These systematic errors are here forced to be zerofor G2 V stars by using the Sun as reference, with Vesta and day sky asproxies. But for spectral types departing from solar, the systematicerrors reach 0.3 km s-1 in the F and K stars and 0.4 kms-1 in M dwarfs. Multiple spectra were obtained for all 889stars during 4 years, and 782 of them exhibit velocity scatter less than0.1 km s-1. These stars may serve as radial velocitystandards if they remain constant in velocity. We found 11 newspectroscopic binaries and report orbital parameters for them. Based onobservations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operatedjointly by the University of California and the California Institute ofTechnology, and on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, whichis operated by the University of California.
|A Strategy for Identifying the Grid Stars for the Space Interferometry Mission|
We present a strategy to identify several thousand stars that areastrometrically stable at the microarcsecond level for use in the SpaceInterferometry Mission (SIM) astrometric grid. The requirements on thegrid stars make this a rather challenging task. Taking a variety ofconsiderations into account, we argue for K giants as the best type ofstars for the grid, mainly because they can be located at much largerdistances than any other type of star owing to their intrinsicbrightness. We show that it is possible to identify suitable candidategrid K giants from existing astrometric catalogs. However, double starshave to be eliminated from these candidate grid samples, since theygenerally produce much larger astrometric jitter than tolerable for thegrid. The most efficient way to achieve this is probably by means of aradial velocity survey. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach,we repeatedly measured the radial velocities for a preselected sample of86 nearby Hipparcos K giants with precisions of 5-8 m s-1.The distribution of the intrinsic radial velocity variations for thebona fide single K giants shows a maximum around 20 m s-1,which is small enough not to severely affect the identification ofstellar companions around other K giants. We use the results of ourobservations as input parameters for Monte Carlo simulations on thepossible design of a radial velocity survey of all grid stars. Ourfavored scenario would result in a grid which consists to 68% of truesingle stars and to 32% of double or multiple stars with periods mostlylarger than 200 years, but only 3.6% of all grid stars would displayastrometric jitter larger than 1 μas. This contamination level isprobably tolerable.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|CCD observations of the H-alpha line in late G and K supergiants and their interpretation|
CCD echelle spectra of the H-alpha line at 6563 A have been obtained fora sample of 30 G and K supergiants with a spectral resolution of about0.24 A. The data clearly indicate that the observed H-alpha profile is adeep absorption, implying large optical depths in the chromosphere.Also, the line cores are blueshifted in all the stars which suggests thechromospheres are expanding outward. Detailed radiative transfercalculations of H-alpha have been carried out in a spherically symmetricatmosphere with outward-positive velocity and temperature gradients,including explicitly the effects of ionization. The H-alpha lineprofiles have been computed for a wide range of parameters in order toreproduce the observed features of the line. Within the framework of ourmodel, the calculations reinforce the idea that the nonthermalvelocities have to be as large as 25-30 km/s to explain the large widthsof the observed profiles. The rates of mass outflow have been calculatedto lie in the range 10 exp -8 to 10 exp -9 solar mass/yr.
|Photometry of F-K type bright giants and supergiants. I - Intermediate band and H-Beta observations|
Over 1500 observations of 560 bright giants and supergiants of types F-Kare presented and compared to the observations by Gray and Olsen (1991).The present results include intermediate-band which is slightlydifferent from the Stromgren data by Gray and Olsen due to a differentwidth for the v filter. A systematic difference in m(1) - M(1) withdecreasing temperature is noted in the two H-Beta data sets, and thecorrelations are defined.
|A critical appraisal of published values of (Fe/H) for K II-IV stars|
'Primary' (Fe/H) averages are presented for 373 evolved K stars ofluminosity classes II-IV and (Fe/H) values beween -0.9 and +0.21 dex.The data define a 'consensus' zero point with a precision of + or -0.018 dex and have rms errors per datum which are typically 0.08-0.16dex. The primary data base makes recalibration possible for the large(Fe/H) catalogs of Hansen and Kjaergaard (1971) and Brown et al. (1989).A set of (Fe/H) standard stars and a new DDO calibration are given whichhave rms of 0.07 dex or less for the standard star data. For normal Kgiants, CN-based values of (Fe/H) turn out to be more precise than manyhigh-dispersion results. Some zero-point errors in the latter are alsofound and new examples of continuum-placement problems appear. Thushigh-dispersion results are not invariably superior to photometricmetallicities. A review of high-dispersion and related work onsupermetallicity in K III-IV star is also given.
|Role of nonthermal velocity fields in determining the H-alpha widths in supergiant chromospheres|
Radiative transfer calculations of the H-alpha line in sphericallysymmetric, expanding chromospheres explain the large widths of the lineobserved in late G and K supergiants. The role of various dynamicalprocesses as well as that of opacity in determining the H-alpha width isillustrated. The H-alpha line profile is basically characterized bylarge optical depths and large Doppler broadening velocity. Thecalculations show that the existence of large microturbulence has to beinvoked in the chromosphere to understand the observed widths.
|Mass-losing M supergiants in the solar neighborhood|
A list of the 21 mass-losing red supergiants (20 M type, one G type; Lgreater than 100,000 solar luminosities) within 2.5 kpc of the sun iscompiled. These supergiants are highly evolved descendants ofmain-sequence stars with initial masses larger than 20 solar masses. Thesurface density is between about 1 and 2/sq kpc. As found previously,these stars are much less concentrated toward the Galactic center thanW-R stars, which are also highly evolved massive stars. Although withconsiderable uncertainty, it is estimated that the mass return by the Msupergiants is somewhere between 0.00001 and 0.00003 solar mass/sq kpcyr. In the hemisphere facing the Galactic center there is much less massloss from M supergiants than from W-R stars, but, in the anticenterdirection, the M supergiants return more mass than do the W-R stars. Theduration of the M supergiant phase appears to be between 200,000 and400,000 yr. During this phase, a star of initially at least 20 solarmasses returns perhaps 3-10 solar masses into the interstellar medium.
|Near-IR features in late type stars - Their relation with stellar atmosphere parameters|
CCD spectroscopic observations for a sample of 106 late type stars plusthree galactic globular clusters in the near-IR are presented. The mostprominent features in that spectral region, the IR Ca-II triplet (8498,8542, 8662A) and the Mg-I line at 8807 A, are measured and theirdependence on the stellar atmosphere parameters (surface gravity,effective temperature and metal content) is analyzed. In agreement withwhat is found in previous studies, the Ca-II triplet strength showsbiparametrical behavior with surface gravity and metal abundance. The IRMg-I line strength is also biparametric, depending mainly on metalabundance and effective temperature. Principal component analysistechniques allow the prediction of the metal abundance and surfacegravity as a function of three observables: the IR Ca-II tripletstrength, the strength of the IR Mg-I line and the (R-I) color.
|Supergiants and the Galactic metallicity gradient. II - Spectroscopic abundances for 64 distant F- to M-type supergiants|
The metallicity gradient in the Galactic disk from in situ stars withvisual magnitude ranging from 6 to 10 is analyzed. Atmosphericparameters and detailed chemical abundances for 64 Population Isupergiants of spectral types F through M and luminosity classes Iathrough II have been determined. The derived Fe/H ratios ranging from-0.5 to + 0.7 show a mean value of +0.13 with an estimated uncertaintyof + or - 0.2. A subset of 25 supergiants fainter than 7th magnitudelying in the direction of the Galactic center shows a Fe/H mean of +0.18+ or - 0.04, while a similar sample of 15 faint supergiants lying in thedirection of the Galactic anticenter shows a lower Fe/H mean of +0.07 +or - 0.06. For a sample of bright supergiants analyzed by Luck andLambert (1985), the mean abundance pattern for all 64 stars showed thefollowing: deficient C and O along with enhancement of N, indicatingmixing of CNO-cycled material to the stellar surfaces; an apparent Srenhancement attributed to departures from LTE; and an essentially solarpattern of other chemical elements.
|A search for lithium-rich giant stars|
Lithium abundances or upper limits have been determined for 644 brightG-K giant stars selected from the DDO photometric catalog. Two of thesegiants possess surface lithium abundances approaching the 'cosmic' valueof the interstellar medium and young main-sequence stars, and eight moregiants have Li contents far in excess of standard predictions. At leastsome of these Li-rich giants are shown to be evolved to the stage ofhaving convectively mixed envelopes, either from the direct evidence oflow surface carbon isotope ratios, or from the indirect evidence oftheir H-R diagram positions. Suggestions are given for the uniqueconditions that might have allowed these stars to produce or accrete newlithium for their surface layers, or simply to preserve from destructiontheir initial lithium contents. The lithium abundance of the remainingstars demonstrates that giants only very rarely meet the expectations ofstandard first dredge-up theories; the average extra Li destructionrequired is about 1.5 dex. The evolutionary states of these giants andtheir average masses are discussed briefly, and the Li distribution ofthe giants is compared to predictions of Galactic chemical evolution.
|Consequences of a chromospheric temperature rise on the formation of the H-alpha line in late-type supergiants|
Computations of the H-alpha line profiles were performed in a non-LTEmoving chromosphere with temperature rise to simulate the observedH-alpha characteristics in G and K supergiants. The comoving frameradiative transfer code was modified to incorporate explicitly theeffects of hydrogen ionization. The sensitivity of H-alpha profiles to avariety of temperature structures, velocity gradients, and chromosphericextents and densities is examined and illustrated. Comparison of theobserved profiles to computed ones gives total hydrogen densities in therange between 10 to the 9th and 10 to the 11th/cu cm at the base of theline forming region. Integrated chromospheric optical depths in therange of 50-5000 and expansion velocities in the range of 0.25-2 timesthe maximum random (microturbent and thermal) velocity are found. Themass loss rate is inferred to be in the range between 10 to the -7th and10 to the -9th solar masses/year.
|Concentrations in the local association. III - Late-type bright giants, ages and abundances|
Late-type, bright giants and supergiants in southern and northernconcentrations and in the general field, the ages of the stars fromstellar models, and the abundances, based on intermediate bandphotometric indices, are investigated. It is found that the brightgiants and supergiants of types F to K among association members in theconcentrations and in the general field are overabundant in metals, withP(Fe/H) approximately equal to 0.25. These bright giants, and theearly-type association members brighter than about M(V) = -1 mag (mode Bstars), are determined to be younger than 5-6 x 10 to the 7th yr. Thefainter (mode A) main-sequence members of the association are shown tobe near 2 x 10 to the 8th yr with P(Fe/H) approximately equal to 0.
|New UBVRI photometry for 900 supergiants|
A description is presented of the results obtained in connection with asystematic program of supergiant photometry on the Johnson UBVRI system.During the eight years after the start of the program, almost 1000 starshave been observed, about 400 three or more times each. The originalselection of stars used the spectral type catalog of Jaschek et al.(1964) to choose supergiants. Since observations were possible from bothChile and Canada, no declination limits were imposed, and no particularselection criteria were imposed other than to eliminate carbon stars.These are so red as to require enormous extrapolations of thetransformation equations.
|The reddening, metal abundance, and luminosity of high-luminosity G-type stars|
The abundance parameters of the sample of 100 G-type bright giants andsupergiants whose photometry is presently discussed indicate Fe/H valuesof between about + 0.6 dex and the solar value, using a preliminarycalibration of the photometric indices. The few long period Cepheidsthat are not heavily blanketed F-type stars give reddening values thatare in agreement with current results from other methods of analysis.Supergiants show no clear gradients in the galactic distribution ofabundances, and those nearest the sun range from an Fe/H of about + 0.3dex, for members of the Pleiades Group, to near solar abundance. A smallsample of Large Magellanic Cloud supergiants shows nearly the same rangein metal abundance as the galactic stars, and gives a modulus for thisCloud of 18.3 + or - 0.20 mag.
|Nineteen new spectroscopic binaries and the rate of binary stars among F-M supergiants|
Nineteen spectroscopic binaries (SBs) have been discovered in radialvelocity measurements made with the CORAVEL spectrophotometer on 181northern F-M supergiants. The rate of detected SBs among northern F-Msupergiants is 21 percent, without any dependence on spectral orluminosity class. The study of the binary F-M supergiants with knownorbital elements indicates that all the systems with a period smallerthan the critical value P(circ) have a nearly circular orbit. The valueof P(circ) depends on the luminosity class, being 400-600 d for class Iband 2000-7000 d for class Ia. This circularization of the orbits may bedue to the transfer of angular momentum during the phase of binary massexchange.
|Supergiants and the galactic metallicity gradient. I - 27 late-type supergiants in the inner-arm regions|
From an analysis of high-dispersion Kitt Peak echelle data, atmosphericparameters and chemical abundances have been derived for 27 supergiantsof spectral type F through M. Since the stars studied lie within about 1kpc of the sun, their abundances will form the local reference point forextensions of this study to larger distances. The derived Fe/H abundanceratios range from minus 0.6 to plus 0.1 dex, show a mean value of -0.15dex, and have an internal uncertainty of plus or minus 0.2 dex.
|Standard Stars for Hα Photometry|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1981A&AS...44..337S&db_key=AST
|On some extreme metal-deficient giants|
Attention is given to the temperatures, metallicities, and colorexcesses of five giants with extreme metal deficiency. Observations withthe Vilnius photometric system, after correction for interstellarreddening, yield the following Fe/H abundance ratios: -3.0 for BD -18deg 5550 and HD 4306; -2.8 for CD -25 deg 13871 and HD 115444; and -2.6for HD 126587. Their effective temperatures are found to be within4800-4950 K.
|Finding list and spectral classifications for southern luminous stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976AJ.....81..225M&db_key=AST
|Five-channel photometry of cepheids and supergiants in the southern Milky Way.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976A&AS...24..413P&db_key=AST
|The space distribution and kinematics of supergiants|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970AJ.....75..602H&db_key=AST