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# HD 173417

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 Rotation- and temperature-dependence of stellar latitudinal differential rotationMore than 600 high resolution spectra of stars with spectral type F andlater were obtained in order to search for signatures of differentialrotation in line profiles. In 147 stars the rotation law could bemeasured, with 28 of them found to be differentially rotating.Comparison to rotation laws in stars of spectral type A reveals thatdifferential rotation sets in at the convection boundary in theHR-diagram; no star that is significantly hotter than the convectionboundary exhibits the signatures of differential rotation. Four lateA-/early F-type stars close to the convection boundary and at v sin{i}≈ 100 km s-1 show extraordinarily strong absolute shear atshort rotation periods around one day. It is suggested that this is dueto their small convection zone depth and that it is connected to anarrow range in surface velocity; the four stars are very similar inTeff and v sin{i}. Detection frequencies of differentialrotation α = ΔΩ/Ω > 0 were analyzed in starswith varying temperature and rotation velocity. Measurable differentialrotation is more frequent in late-type stars and slow rotators. Thestrength of absolute shear, ΔΩ, and differential rotationα are examined as functions of the stellar effective temperatureand rotation period. The highest values of ΔΩ are found atrotation periods between two and three days. In slower rotators, thestrongest absolute shear at a given rotation rateΔΩmax is given approximately byΔΩmax ∝ P-1, i.e.,αmax ≈ const. In faster rotators, bothαmax and ΔΩmax diminish lessrapidly. A comparison with differential rotation measurements in starsof later spectral type shows that F-stars exhibit stronger shear thancooler stars do and the upper boundary in absolute shear ΔΩwith temperature is consistent with the temperature-scaling law found inDoppler Imaging measurements. Lifting the Iron Curtain: Toward an Understanding of the Iron Stars XX Oph and AS 325We present new optical, near-infrared, and archival ultravioletobservations of XX Ophiuchi and AS 325, two proposed iron'' stars.These unusual stars have optical spectra dominated by emission linesarising from hydrogen, as well as ionized metals such as iron, chromium,and titanium. Both stars have been classified as iron'' stars, and anumber of exotic models have been presented for their origin. Using 2years of moderately high resolution optical spectroscopy, the first highsignal-to-noise ratio K-band spectroscopy of these sources (whichreveals stellar photospheric absorption lines), and new near-infraredinterferometric observations, we confirm that both systems are composedof two stars, likely binaries, containing a hot Be star with an evolvedlate-type secondary. The hydrogen emission features arise in the hotwind from the Be star, while the corresponding P-Cygni absorption linesare produced from dense material in the expanding, radiation-driven windaround each system. The optical Fe II emission lines are pumped byultraviolet Fe II absorption lines through fluorescence. Contrary tosome claims in the literature, the spectral features of XX Oph and AS325 are quite similar, evidence that they are comparable systems. Weexamine the variability of the spectral morphology and radial velocitymotions of both sources. We also study the variability of XX Oph duringa major photometric event and find that the spectral nature of thesystem varies during the event. A comparison of the velocity of theabsorption-line components in our new spectra with those in theliterature show that the structure of the stellar wind from XX Oph haschanged since the system was observed in 1951. Empirically Constrained Color-Temperature Relations. II. uvbyA new grid of theoretical color indices for the Strömgren uvbyphotometric system has been derived from MARCS model atmospheres and SSGsynthetic spectra for cool dwarf and giant stars having-3.0<=[Fe/H]<=+0.5 and 3000<=Teff<=8000 K. Atwarmer temperatures (i.e., 8000-2.0. To overcome thisproblem, the theoretical indices at intermediate and high metallicitieshave been corrected using a set of color calibrations based on fieldstars having well-determined distances from Hipparcos, accurateTeff estimates from the infrared flux method, andspectroscopic [Fe/H] values. In contrast with Paper I, star clustersplayed only a minor role in this analysis in that they provided asupplementary constraint on the color corrections for cool dwarf starswith Teff<=5500 K. They were mainly used to test thecolor-Teff relations and, encouragingly, isochrones thatemploy the transformations derived in this study are able to reproducethe observed CMDs (involving u-v, v-b, and b-y colors) for a number ofopen and globular clusters (including M67, the Hyades, and 47 Tuc)rather well. Moreover, our interpretations of such data are verysimilar, if not identical, with those given in Paper I from aconsideration of BV(RI)C observations for the sameclusters-which provides a compelling argument in support of thecolor-Teff relations that are reported in both studies. Inthe present investigation, we have also analyzed the observedStrömgren photometry for the classic Population II subdwarfs,compared our final'' (b-y)-Teff relationship with thosederived empirically in a number of recent studies and examined in somedetail the dependence of the m1 index on [Fe/H].Based, in part, on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope,operated jointly on the island of La Palma by Denmark, Finland, Iceland,Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de losMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Based, in part, on observations obtained with the Danish 1.54 mtelescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 10 New γ Doradus and δ Scuti StarsWe present high-resolution spectroscopy and precision photometry of fivenew γ Doradus and five new δ Scuti variables. The five newγ Doradus variables substantially increase the number of confirmedstars of this class. All 10 stars fall in the spectral class rangeF0-F2, but they are cleanly separated into two groups by theirluminosity and photometric periods. However, the period gap between theγ Doradus and δ Scuti stars is becoming very narrow since weconfirm that HD 155154 is a γ Doradus star with the shortestperiods reported to date (the shortest of its four periods is ~0.312days). We do not find any evidence in our sample for stars exhibitingboth δ Scuti- and γ Doradus-type pulsations. Techniques for Automated High-Precision Photometry of Sun-like StarsTennessee State University operates several Automatic PhotoelectricTelescopes (APTs) located at Fairborn Observatory in the PatagoniaMountains of southern Arizona. The APTs are dedicated to photometricmonitoring programs that would be difficult and expensive to accomplishwithout the advantages provided by automation. I describe the operationof two of the telescopes (0.75 and 0.80 m APTs) and the quality-controltechniques that result in their routine acquisition of single-stardifferential photometry with a precision of 0.001 mag for singleobservations and 0.0001-0.0002 mag for seasonal means. I show that aprimary obstacle to photometry at this level of precision is intrinsicvariability in the comparison stars. Finally, I illustrate thecapabilities of the APTs with sample results from a program to measureluminosity cycles in Sun-like stars and a related effort to search forextrasolar planets around these stars. The effective temperature scale of giant stars (F0-K5). I. The effective temperature determination by means of the IRFMWe have applied the InfraRed Flux Method (IRFM) to a sample ofapproximately 500 giant stars in order to derive their effectivetemperatures with an internal mean accuracy of about 1.5% and a maximumuncertainty in the zero point of the order of 0.9%. For the applicationof the IRFM, we have used a homogeneous grid of theoretical modelatmosphere flux distributions developed by \cite[Kurucz (1993)]{K93}.The atmospheric parameters of the stars roughly cover the ranges: 3500 K<= T_eff <= 8000 K; -3.0 <= [Fe/H] <= +0.5; 0.5 <= log(g) <= 3.5. The monochromatic infrared fluxes at the continuum arebased on recent photometry with errors that satisfy the accuracyrequirements of the work. We have derived the bolometric correction ofgiant stars by using a new calibration which takes the effect ofmetallicity into account. Direct spectroscopic determinations ofmetallicity have been adopted where available, although estimates basedon photometric calibrations have been considered for some stars lackingspectroscopic ones. The adopted infrared absolute flux calibration,based on direct optical measurements of stellar angular diameters, putsthe effective temperatures determined in this work in the same scale asthose obtained by direct methods. We have derived up to fourtemperatures, TJ, TH, TK and T_{L'},for each star using the monochromatic fluxes at different infraredwavelengths in the photometric bands J, H, K and L'. They show goodconsistency over 4000 K, and there is no appreciable trend withwavelength, metallicity and/or temperature. We provide a detaileddescription of the steps followed for the application of the IRFM, aswell as the sources of error and their effect on final temperatures. Wealso provide a comparison of the results with previous work. Broad-band JHK(L') photometry of a sample of giants with 0.5 > [Fe/H] > -3We present the results of a three-year campaign of broad-band photometryin the near-infrared J, H, K and L' bands for a sample of approximately250 giant stars carried out at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife,Spain). Transformations of the Telescopio Carlos Sanchez systeminto/from several currently used infrared systems are extended to theredward part of the colour axis. The linearity of our photometric systemin the range -3 mag [Fe/H] >-3. Data of comparable quality previouslypublished have been added to the sample in order to increase thereliability of the relations to be obtained. We also provide mean IRcolours for giant stars according to spectral type.ables 1, 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form via the CDS(anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright late-type giants and supergiantsWe present X-ray data for all late-type (A, F, G, K, M) giants andsupergiants (luminosity classes I to III-IV) listed in the Bright StarCatalogue that have been detected in the ROSAT all-sky survey.Altogether, our catalogue contains 450 entries of X-ray emitting evolvedlate-type stars, which corresponds to an average detection rate of about11.7 percent. The selection of the sample stars, the data analysis, thecriteria for an accepted match between star and X-ray source, and thedetermination of X-ray fluxes are described. Catalogue only available atCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. The correction in right ascension of 508 stars determinated with PMO photoelectric transit instrument.Not Available ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. I - A survey for duplicity among the bright starsA survey of a sample of 672 stars from the Yale Bright Star Catalog(Hoffleit, 1982) has been carried out using speckle interferometry onthe 3.6-cm Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in order to establish thebinary star frequency within the sample. This effort was motivated bythe need for a more observationally determined basis for predicting thefrequency of failure of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) fine-guidancesensors to achieve guide-star lock due to duplicity. This survey of 426dwarfs and 246 evolved stars yielded measurements of 52 newly discoveredbinaries and 60 previously known binary systems. It is shown that thefrequency of close visual binaries in the separation range 0.04-0.25arcsec is 11 percent, or nearly 3.5 times that previously known. Catalogue of the energy distribution data in spectra of stars in the uniform spectrophotometric system.Not Available Balmer-line equivalent widths in main sequence B-F stars, and comparison with model atmospheresEquivalent widths of the Balmer H-alpha, H-beta, and H-gamma lines weremeasured for 175 main-sequence B-F stars and compared with curvescalculated from various model stellar atmospheres. When averaged overeach spectral subtype, the equivalent widths are well represented by thestandard models; this confirms the previous finding of Glushneva andDoroshenko (1980) that the models are fully consistent with theobservations. A Search for Maia VariablesNot Available Photoelectric K-line indices for 165 B, A and F stars.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1978A&AS...34..441P&db_key=AST Absolute luminosity calibration of F starsLuminosity calibrations are performed for a restricted sample of 706F-type field stars of all luminosity classes and a similarly restrictedsample of 251 main-sequence F stars. The samples are restricted withrespect to values of photometric and metallicity indices, propermotions, radial velocities, and apparent magnitudes. Both linear andsecond-order relations between absolute magnitude and the photometricindices beta, /c1/ or (b-y), /c1/ are considered.These relations are calibrated by the statistical parallax method basedon the principle of maximum likelihood. The possible effect ofinterstellar absorption on the calibration results is investigated alongwith an effect of a photometric correction to the absolute magnitudes.The results obtained are compared with those of Crawford (1975) as wellas with the trigonometric parallaxes. The coefficients of thecalibration relations are derived from the trigonometric parallaxes, andpoor agreement is indicated. It is concluded that the trigonometricparallaxes must be used very carefully and only for nearby stars. MK Spectral Types for Some Bright F StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1974PASP...86...70C&db_key=AST K-Line Photometry of Southern a StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971ApJS...23..421H&db_key=AST Space distribution and kinematics of local early F stars.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1970AJ.....75...35R&db_key=AST Short-Period Variability of b, a, and F Stars. III. a Survey of Delta Scuti Variable StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1969ApJS...19...79B&db_key=AST K-Line Photometry of a StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1969ApJS...18...47H&db_key=AST Stars with large proper motions in the astrographic zones +32° and +33° (List II)Not Available
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