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|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Helium and Carbon Abundances in Late-B and Early-A Supergiants|
The abundances of carbon and helium were determined for representativelate-B and early-A supergiants based on the C I lines (9078, 9089, 9095,9112) in the near-IR, C II lines (4267, 6151), and the He I 6678 line,in an aim to investigate the nature of the envelope-mixing in theseevolved stars based on the anomaly (if any) of these elements combinedwith that of N and O published before. It turned out that N tends toincrease with a decrease in C, showing a tendency of conserving the sumof C+N nuclei, which suggests that the anomaly of C and N may bereasonably interpreted as being due to mixing of the CN-processedmaterial. However, this increase/decrease in N/C, indicative ofdredge-up of the H-burning product, is not accompanied by anyHe-enrichment. Even surprisingly, the observed tendency is just theopposite, i.e., [He/H] appears to decrease progressively in accordancewith a lowering of [C/H]. Instead of regarding this apparentcharacteristics as being real, we tentatively speculate that someactivity-related line-weakening mechanism (e.g., irradiance of X-rays)might act on the formation of He I lines, the extent of which isindirectly related to the efficiency of envelope mixing via stellarrotation.
|A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 Stars|
Ultraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories.
|Radial velocities. Measurements of 2800 B2-F5 stars for HIPPARCOS|
Radial velocities have been determined for a sample of 2930 B2-F5 stars,95% observed by the Hipparcos satellite in the north hemisphere and 80%without reliable radial velocity up to now. Observations were obtainedat the Observatoire de Haute Provence with a dispersion of 80Ä,mm(-1) with the aim of studying stellar and galactic dynamics.Radial velocities have been measured by correlation with templates ofthe same spectral class. The mean obtained precision is 3.0 km s(-1)with three observations. A new MK spectral classification is estimatedfor all stars. Based on observations made at the Haute ProvenceObservatory, France and on data from The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA.Tables 4, 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.htm
|Galactic B-supergiants: A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis to estimate atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions|
A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of moderate resolution (R ~ 5 000)spectra of 46 Galactic B-type supergiants is presented. Standardtechniques are adopted, viz. plane-parallel geometry and radiative andhydrostatic equilibrium. Spectroscopic atmospheric parameters (T_eff,log g & v_turb) and chemical abundances (He, C, N, O, Mg & Si)are estimated, both as a test of the validity of such an approach and inan attempt to provide consistent results for supergiants covering asignificant range of spectral types. The values of the estimatedatmospheric parameters and their dependence on the physics adopted inthe model atmospheres calculations are discussed. The absolute metalabundances are compared to those of main sequence B-type stars and, ingeneral, their chemical compositions appear to be similar. Theabundances for He, C, N & O are considered in some detail and arediscussed in the context of possible evolutionary histories for thisstellar sample. Specifically, it is found that the supergiant sample canbe subdivided into a number of evolutionarily distinct groups. The lowermass objects are predominantly chemically near-normal i.e. theirphotospheres show little or no evidence for chemical processing, whereasthe higher mass supergiants have CNO ratios which are indicative of CNand possibly NO-cycle burning. An attempt is made to quantify thedifference in nitrogen and carbon abundances between the high and lowmass targets but this is hampered by theoretical uncertainties. Thepossibilities that the most highly processed supergiants may have eitherlarger rotational velocities or have undergone mass transfer within abinary system are discussed.
|Oxygen Abundances in Late-B through F Supergiants|
A spectral-synthesis analysis was performed for twenty-six late-Bthrough F supergiants (including Cepheids) in order to determine theirphotospheric oxygen abundances from the O I 6156--8 feature, whiletaking into account the non-LTE effect, which is progressivelyT_eff-dependent from < 0.1 dex for F-type supergiants to ~ 0.4 dexfor late-B ones in terms of the non-LTE abundance correction. Theresulting oxygen abundances show a moderate underabundance relative tothe Sun ([O/H] ~ -0.3) along with a remarkably small scatter (within +/-0.1 dex) over this wide temperature range. Considering the recentevidence that the solar oxygen abundance is mildly enhanced by 0.2--0.3dex relative to that of the galactic gas which forms young stars, weconclude that the original O-composition in the atmosphere of thesesupergiants had suffered almost no appreciable alteration during theirpast evolutionary history, even though signs of significant mixing ofCN-cycle or NeNa-cycle products are evident. This excludes thepossibility of any global-mixing mechanism, such that producing asignificant reduction of oxygen due to a deep dredge-up of considerableON-processed material, whatever the details of the envelope-mixingprocess for these relatively massive stars may be.
|UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous Stars|
A database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data.
|Long-term visual spectrophotometric behaviour of Be stars|
The long-term spectrophotometric variations of 49 Be stars are studiedusing the U and V magnitudes of the UBV system, the total Balmerdiscontinuity D and the visible gradient Phi _rb. BCD spectrophotometricand photometric data in five different photometric systems, obtained inmost cases since 1950 and reduced to the BCD system, were used. The(U,D), (V,D), (Phi _rb,D) and (Phi _rb,V) correlations obtained differfrom star to star and they can be single or double-valued. They differclearly for Be phases or Be-shell phases. Be stars with small Vsin ishowing the ``spectrophotometric shell behaviour'': D > D_*, werefound. This finding implies either that strongly flattened models ofcircumstellar envelopes are in doubt for these stars, or that not all Bestars are rapid rotators. Comparison of observed variations with thosepredicted for model Be stars with spherical circumstellar envelopes ofvariable densities and dimensions implies that spectrophotometricpatterns of Be phases are due to circumstellar envelopes in low opacityregimes, while those of spectrophotometric shell phases are due tocircumstellar envelopes in high opacity regimes. In a given star, theenvelope regions responsible for the observed variations of D and Phi_rbin spectrophotometric shell phases seem to be smaller and denser thanthose producing the observed variations of these parameters inspectrophotometric Be phases. The high positive RV found in strong shellphases might favor the formation of compact circumstellar layers nearthe star. Figure 6 is only available in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).|
The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51.
|On the Abundances of Nitrogen and Sulfur in Late-B through F Supergiants Atmospheres|
An extensive non-LTE analysis of NI and SI lines at the spectral regionaround lambda ~ 8700Angstroms was performed for late-B through Fsupergiants in order to determine the photospheric abundances of N and Sin such massive evolved stars. It was revealed that the abundances ofnitrogen in these stars show a rather large diversity ( ~ +/- 0.4 dex)around the mean of [N/H] =~ 0.3 relative to the Sun, being roughlydivided into three groups: (i) markedly large overabundances amountingto 0.6--0.7 dex, (ii) mild N-excesses of 0.3--0.4 dex, and (iii)near-solar (or slightly subsolar) [N/H]-values. The abundances of sulfurfor F-supergiants were found to be nearly homogeneous and not muchdifferent from the solar composition ([S/H] ~ -0.2), while those for theA-type generally show a tendency of S-excess (up to +0.8 dex)systematically increasing with T_eff. There also appears a trend ofmass-dependence as well as a possibility of mutual correlation regardingthe values of [N/H] and [S/H] in those A-supergiants. It was confirmedthat the extent of the N-excess in A--F supergiants tends to depend onthat of sodium as [N/H] =~ [Na/H].
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Galactic B-supergiants. II - Line strengths in the visible: Evidence for evolutionary effects?|
Following the discovery by Lennon et al. (1992) of anomalously weakcarbon lines in the Galactic B-supergiants, a search was conducted forthe signatures of CNO processed material in the atmospheres of thesestars. It was found that the NII line strengths around spectral type B2correlate with luminosity, but exhibit a clear anticorrelation with theCII lines. It is suggested that this trend may be evidence for CNOprocessed material contaminating the atmospheres of the most luminousstars. The CNO processing signature was found to be most pronounced inthe more luminous supergiants, in qualitative agreement with stellarevolution calculations (provided that such stars have passed through aprevious red-supergiant phase of evolution).
|Hot post-asymptotic giant branch stars at high galactic latitudes|
Model atmosphere analyses are presented for high-resolution spectra offour stars at high Galactic latitudes. Although their derivedatmospheric parameters are consistent with their previous classificationas early B-type stars, their chemical compositions are significantlydifferent from those expected for Population I objects. However both thechemical compositions and atmospheric parameters appear to be consistentwith a post-asymptotic giant branch evolutionary status.
|Galactic B-supergiants. I - an atlas of O9-B9 supergiant spectra from 3950 A to 4950 A|
CCD spectra are presented for supergiants of spectral types O9-B9 andluminosity subclasses Ia and Ib. They cover the wavelength region fromapproximately 3950 A to 4950 A at a resolution of 0.8 A, and normallyhave a signal-to-noise in excess of 150 at 4600 A. The spectra arediscussed in respect to their classification. A number of stars showclear evidence of the 'filling in' of hydrogen lines by emission fromthe stellar wind, while HD 190603, a B1.5 Ia(+) hypergiant, exhibits anH-beta P-Cygni type line-profile. Also reported is the finding of a newnitrogen weak star, HD 13866, in the Per OB1 association which isclassified here as BC2 Ib.
|Absolute magnitudes of B emission line stars - Correlation between the luminosity excess and the effective temperature|
A new determination of the visual absolute magnitude of Be stars iscarried out. For this, a new calibration of visual absolute magnitudesof B stars of luminosity classes, V, IV, and III is first obtained froma sample of 215 stars. The absolute luminosity excess in the visual isdetermined for a sample of 49 Be stars. It is found that this excess iscorrelated with the effective temperature of the underlying stars. Awell defined correlation between this excess and the emission in thefirst two Balmer lines is established. From these results, using asimple model of circumstellar envelope, it is inferred that the zones ofthe circumstellar envelope contributing to the emission in the continuumand in the lines have to be rather small. It is also deduced that theemission measure of the envelope is correlated with the temperature ofthe central star and that the irregular photometric variations of Bestars are an envelope-opacity phenomenon.
|A list of MK standard stars|
|H-alpha as a tracer of mass loss from OB stars|
This paper investigates the use of the H-alpha emission from stellarwinds of OB stars to determine the stellar mass-loss rate. The power inH-alpha emitted by the wind can be parameterized in terms of thetemperature and the density field of the wind. A simple expression isderived which relates the observed H-alpha luminosity to the stellarmass-loss rate, the stellar radius, the velocity law, and the stellareffective temperature. This expression is calibrated for the influenceof the velocity law using a sample of Galactic OB stars with UVmass-loss rates. Consequently, the results depend on the validity of theUV rates. The derived velocity law for O stars turns out to be inagreement with the radiation-pressure-driven wind theory. There isevidence for a dependence of the velocity-law gradient on spectral type.The results for B stars, however, are more uncertain due to thedependence on the adopted mass accretion rate/L relation. Application ofthe calibrated H-alpha luminosity/mass-loss rate relation to a sample of149 galactic OB stars shows that mass accretion rate can be reliablydetermined from H-alpha. Due to the moderate amount of observing timerequired to derive mass accretion rate from H-alpha, this method may beapplied successfully to investigate mass-loss effects in extra-Galacticstars.
|Interdependence of the 4430 A diffuse interstellar band, polarization, and ultraviolet extinction|
Central intensities of the 4430-A diffuse interstellar band (DIB) areobtained from reticon spectra of 128 early-type stars, and stars in thePerseus OB1 association are found to have higher ratios of polarizationand weaker 4430-A intensities than do the stars in Cepheus OB3. Thecorrelation noted for OB1 between the A(4430) residuals and E(15-18) canbe explained if the 4430-A DIB arises in a thin grain mantle and the2200-A feature arises in the grain core. The absence of a 4430-A DIB inhigh-Galactic-latitude clouds would then be due to a lack of mantle. TheDIB ratio 5780/5797 A is found to resemble the behavior of the(4430-A)/E(B-V) ratio for seven stars from a range of Galacticlatitudes, confirming the existence of three previously identifiedfamilies of DIBs.
|The Mv-W(H-gamma) calibration for O6 to A3 supergiants|
The Mv-W(H-gamma) calibration of main-sequence stars of Millward andWalker (1985) is evaluated by observing bright supergiants in clusters.Fifty-two spectra of 39 O, B, and A supergiants combined with 19 higherdispersion spectra of 18 stars are studied. Wing profiles were generatedby fitting a two-component, absorption-coefficient model to the H-gammaprofiles. The calculated Mv data are compared to photometric values. Itis observed that there is a difference in the present calibration andthe Millward and Walker calibration due to the manner in which the wingprofiles are defined; however, the nonlinear relation between thespectral types and W(H-gamma) found by Millward and Walker is confirmed.
|Observations of interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A|
Observations of the interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A for800 O and B stars in Neckel's (1967) catalog are being carried out, and482 spectra obtained up to September 1983 have been reduced. It isconfirmed that the strength of the interstellar diffuse absorption bandat 4430 A does not simply relate to the abundance of interstellar grainson the line of sight. The relation between the color excess E(B-V) andthe equivalent width of the band to the direction of l = 130-140 deg andb = -5 to +5 deg shows that some parameter(s) other than E(B-V) is (are)needed to understand the cause of this band.
|Catalog of O-B stars observed with Tokyo Meridian Circle|
A catalog of the O-B stars, selected from 'Blaauw-Parenago' list andRubin's catalog, has been compiled on the FK4 system by the observationsmade with Gautier 8-inch Meridian Circle at the Tokyo AstronomicalObservatory during the period, 1971 to 1979. It contains 1059 stars andwas compiled for the future establishment of high precision propermotions of O-B stars.
|New UBVRI photometry for 900 supergiants|
A description is presented of the results obtained in connection with asystematic program of supergiant photometry on the Johnson UBVRI system.During the eight years after the start of the program, almost 1000 starshave been observed, about 400 three or more times each. The originalselection of stars used the spectral type catalog of Jaschek et al.(1964) to choose supergiants. Since observations were possible from bothChile and Canada, no declination limits were imposed, and no particularselection criteria were imposed other than to eliminate carbon stars.These are so red as to require enormous extrapolations of thetransformation equations.
|A study of B-type supergiants with the uvby,beta photometric system|
The applicability of the uvby,beta photometric system to theclassification and study of B-type supergiants (BTS) is investigatedusing published data on 157 BTS and observations of 17 BTS made with the36-in. reflector at McDonald Observatory. The results are presented intabular form and analyzed to produce preliminary calibrations ofluminosity class vs. beta index and of absolute magnitude (Mv) vs. beta(or delta Mv vs. delta beta) for four associations of stars. Theeffectiveness of various color indices as temperature indicators isdiscussed. It is shown that there is good correspondence between MK anduvby,beta classifications of B-type main-sequence stars, giants, andBTS, confirming the usefulness of the uvby,beta system in furtherresearch on BTS.
|A survey of interstellar neutral potassium. I - Abundances and physical conditions in clouds toward 188 early-type stars|
Observations of interstellar absorption in the resonance doublet 7664,7698 A of neutral potassium toward 188 early-type stars at a spectralresolution of 8 km/s are reported. The 7664 A line is successfullyseparated from nearly coincident telluric O2 absorption for all but afew of the 165 stars for which K I absorption is detected, makingpossible an abundance analysis by the doublet ratio method. Therelationships between the potassium abundances and other atomicabundances, the abundance of molecular hydrogen, and interstellarreddening are investigated.
|Spectral classification of middle-type supergiants in the photographic infrared|
A semiquantitative spectral classification scheme for middle-typesupergiant stars is presented which is wholly dependent on data in thenear infrared. The method involves the measurement of central depths asindicators of the strengths of the Paschen hydrogen lines 12 through 16,the Ca II infrared triplet and the 7774-A blend of O I, and was testedon slit spectrograms of previously classified stars of spectral types B8through G2. Results for the 142 stars considered are found to agree wellwith the MK spectral types determined previously, particularly inspectral types A5 through G0 and luminosity classes Ia through II.
|Final catalogue of 229 photometric standards in UBV system near the selected areas 1-115|
|Studies of luminous stars in nearby galaxies. I. Supergiants and O stars in the Milky Way.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1978ApJS...38..309H&db_key=AST
|Spectral classification from the ultraviolet line features of S2/68 spectra. III - Early A-type stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1978A&AS...33...15C&db_key=AST