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|A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars|
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i 100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.
|Herbig Ae/Be Stars in nearby OB Associations|
We have carried out a study of the early-type stars in nearby OBassociations spanning an age range of ~3-16 Myr, with the aim ofdetermining the fraction of stars that belong to the Herbig Ae/Be class.We studied the B, A, and F stars in the nearby (<=500 pc) OBassociations Upper Scorpius, Perseus OB2, Lacerta OB1, and Orion OB1,with membership determined from Hipparcos data. We also included in ourstudy the early-type stars in the Trumpler 37 cluster, part of the CepOB2 association. We obtained spectra for 440 Hipparcos stars in theseassociations, from which we determined accurate spectral types, visualextinctions, effective temperatures, luminosities and masses, usingHipparcos photometry. Using colors corrected for reddening, we find thatthe Herbig Ae/Be stars and the classical Be (CBe) stars occupy clearlydifferent regions in the JHK diagram. Thus, we use the location on theJHK diagram, as well as the presence of emission lines and of strong 12μm flux relative to the visual, to identify the Herbig Ae/Be stars inthe associations. We find that the Herbig Ae/Be stars constitute a smallfraction of the early-type stellar population even in the youngerassociations. Comparing the data from associations with different agesand assuming that the near-infrared excess in the Herbig Ae/Be starsarises from optically thick dusty inner disks, we determined theevolution of the inner disk frequency with age. We find that the innerdisk frequency in the age range 3-10 Myr in intermediate-mass stars islower than that in the low-mass stars (<1 Msolar) inparticular, it is a factor of ~10 lower at ~3 Myr. This indicates thatthe timescales for disk evolution are much shorter in theintermediate-mass stars, which could be a consequence of more efficientmechanisms of inner disk dispersal (viscous evolution, dust growth, andsettling toward the midplane).
|B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?|
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.
|The VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars: Observations in the Galactic clusters NGC 3293, NGC 4755 and NGC 6611|
We introduce a new survey of massive stars in the Galaxy and theMagellanic Clouds using the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph(FLAMES) instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Here we presentobservations of 269 Galactic stars with the FLAMES-Giraffe Spectrograph(R ≃ 25 000), in fields centered on the open clusters NGC 3293,NGC 4755 and NGC 6611. These data are supplemented by a further 50targets observed with the Fibre-Fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph(FEROS, R = 48 000). Following a description of our scientificmotivations and target selection criteria, the data reduction methodsare described; of critical importance the FLAMES reduction pipeline isfound to yield spectra that are in excellent agreement with lessautomated methods. Spectral classifications and radial velocitymeasurements are presented for each star, with particular attention paidto morphological peculiarities and evidence of binarity. Theseobservations represent a significant increase in the known spectralcontent of NGC 3293 and NGC 4755, and will serve as standards againstwhich our subsequent FLAMES observations in the Magellanic Clouds willbe compared.
|Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - III. An analysis of helium lines in spectra of 102 stars|
Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of He I lines in spectraof 102 B stars is implemented in order to derive the helium abundanceHe/H, the microturbulent parameter Vt and the projectedrotation velocity v sini. A simultaneous determination of He/H andVt for the stars is effected by analysing equivalent widthsof the 4471- and 4922-Å lines primarily as indicators of He/H andthe 4713-, 5016-, 5876- and 6678-Å lines primarily as indicatorsof Vt. The rotation velocities v sini are found from profilesof the same lines. It is shown that, when Vt > 7 kms-1, the Vt(He I) values determined from He Ilines are systematically overestimated as compared with theVt(OII, NII) values derived from OII and NII lines. Thisdiscrepancy is especially appreciable for hot evolved B giants withVt(He I) = 16-23 km s-1 and may indicate a failureof classical model atmospheres to represent the strong He I lines forthese stars.Two programme stars, HR 1512 and 7651, are found to be helium-weakstars. The remaining 100 stars are divided into three groups accordingto their masses M. The microturbulent parameter Vt(He I) islow for all stars of group A (M= 4.1-6.9 Msolar) and for allstars with the relative ages t/tMS < 0.8 of group B (M=7.0-11.2 Msolar). Their Vt(He I) values are withinthe 0 to 5 km s-1 range, as a rule; the mean value isVt= 1.7 km s-1. Only evolved giants of group B,which are close to the termination of the main-sequence (MS)evolutionary phase (t/tMS > 0.8), show Vt(He I)up to 11 km s-1. The helium abundance He/H is correlated withthe relative age t/tMS in both groups; the averaged He/Henhancement during the MS phase is 26 per cent. For group C, containingthe most massive stars (M= 12.4-18.8 Msolar), theVt(He I) values display a correlation with t/tMS,varying from 4 to 23 km s-1. The He/H determination for hotevolved B giants of the group with Vt(He I) > 15 kms-1 depends on a choice between the Vt(He I) andVt(OII, NII) scales. The mean He/H enrichment by 67 per centduring the MS phase is found, if the abundances He/H are based on theVt(OII, NII) scale; however, two evolved giants withespecially high v sini, HR 7446 and 7993, show the He/H enhancement byabout a factor of 2.5. When using the same Vt scale, we founda trend of He/H with projected rotational velocities v sini a largedispersion for v sini > 150 km s-1 can result fromdifferences in masses M.A comparison with the stellar model computations with rotationallyinduced mixing shows that the observed helium enrichment during the MSphase can be explained by rotation with initial velocities 250-400 kms-1. The He/H distribution on M and v sini based on theVt(OII, NII) scale seems to be in better agreement with thetheory than one based on the Vt(He I) scale. The mean valueHe/H = 0.10 derived for stars in the zero age main sequence (ZAMS)vicinity can be adopted as the typical initial helium abundance forearly B stars in the solar neighbourhood.
|The Lack of Blue Supergiants in NGC 7419, a Red Supergiant-rich Galactic Open Cluster with Rapidly Rotating Stars|
According to previous studies based on photometry alone, NGC 7419reveals a surprisingly low ratio of blue to red supergiants: only oneblue supergiant (BSG) along with a record number of five red supergiants(RSGs). However, for a cluster like NGC 7419 with solar metallicity, oneexpects twice as many BSGs as RSGs. To verify the small ratio of BSGs toRSGs, we have obtained spectroscopic observations of the seven mostluminous blue member stars using the 1.6 m telescope of the MountMégantic Observatory. (The RSGs have already been studiedspectroscopically.) To classify the stars, we have developed a systemespecially adapted for these heavily reddened stars in a spectral regionfrom 8400 to 8920 Å, near the hydrogen Paschen series limit. Thisclassification system is based on standard stars of known MK spectraltype extending over O9-B5 and all luminosity classes and is linkedthrough a grid of synthetic spectra to the atmospheric physicalparameters Teff and logg. We also include Be stars. Among theseven blue stars observed in NGC 7419, four have red spectra that aredominated by absorption lines and three by emission lines. The spectraltypes for the former are B2.5 II-III, B2.5 III, B0 III, and B4 III (e),while those for the latter are Be, B1 III-Ve, and Be, respectively. Theaverage heliocentric radial velocity of these stars is -66+/-6 kms-1, compatible with the value of -74+/-9 km s-1measured for the five RSG members. A distance of 1.7+/-0.4 kpc for thiscluster was estimated using the blue-star spectral types, in agreementwith the value of 2.3+/-0.3 kpc found by Beauchamp and coworkers, basedon isochrone fitting in the color-magnitude diagram. With no BSG starsdetected spectroscopically, we confirm the low number, in this caseabsence, of BSGs in this cluster. The high fraction of Be stars detectedby us and others among the bright blue member stars could be explainedby an average rotational velocity for the stars in NGC 7419, which issignificantly higher than in other clusters of similar age andmetallicity. Since higher stellar rotation rates shorten the BSG phase,we suggest that this explains why the evolved stars in NGC 7419 havebecome RSGs. Thus, NGC 7419 is an exceptional case, since high stellarrotation normally tends to occur at lower metallicity.
|Radial velocities of early-type stars in the Perseus OB2 association|
We present radial velocities for 29 B- and A-type stars in the field ofthe nearby association Perseus OB2. The velocities are derived fromspectra obtained with AURELIE, via cross correlation with radialvelocity standards matched as closely as possible in spectral type. Theresulting accuracy is ~ 2-3 km s-1. We use thesemeasurements, together with published values for a few other early-typestars, to study membership of the association. The mean radial velocity(and measured velocity dispersion) of Per OB2 is 23.5 +/- 3.9 kms-1, and lies ~ 15 km s-1 away from the meanvelocity of the local disk field stars. We identify a number ofinterlopers in the list of possible late-B- and A-type members which wasbased on Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions, and discuss thecolour-magnitude diagram of the association.Based on observations made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS),France.
|Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - II. Basic parameters of 107 stars|
Effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities logg andinterstellar extinctions AV are found for 107 B stars.Distances d of the stars, which are based on the derivedTeff, logg and AV values, show good agreement withthose obtained from the Hipparcos parallaxes. Comparing theTeff and logg values with evolutionary computations, we infermasses, radii, luminosities, ages and relative ages of the stars.Empirical relations between the Teff and logg parameters, onthe one hand, and the photometric indices Q, [c1] and β,on the other hand, are constructed; these relations give a fast methodfor the Teff and logg estimation of early and medium B stars.Inclusion of the infrared J, H and K colours into the Teff,logg and AV determination shows that (i) the Teffand logg parameters are altered only slightly; (ii) the AVvalue is rather sensitive to these colours, so an accuracy better than0.05mag in the JHK data is necessary for precise AVevaluation.
|Interferometric Observations of the H II Region Around xi Per|
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Interstellar CO towards X Persei (HD 24534) - II. Two-component model|
The observations made by the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS)aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of molecular CO in absorbing gastowards X Persei are reported. The two-component statistical equilibriummodel incorporating radiative excitation of CO by line emission at thesame velocity that originates in nearby molecular clouds has been usedto reproduce high-resolution GHRS spectra. Earlier analysis indicatesthat the cloud has a complex structure and at least a two-componentmodel should be used to obtain accurate results. The spectra obtainedfrom the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) were used tocomplement GHRS data and constrain the space of possible solutions. Thenew oscillator strengths recommended by Eidelsberg et al. for A-X bandshave been used. The results show that one of the components may beattributed to the Perseus OB2 molecular cloud, and the other componentto an extension of the Taurus dark cloud. The total CO column densityN(CO)=(1.0+/-0.2)×1016cm-2 has beendetermined. According to the results about 85per cent of the observed CObelongs to an extension of the Taurus dark cloud. The CO radiation thatoriginates in nearby molecular clouds may be the dominant excitationmechanism of the observed CO. The early results of 13CO lineanalysis indicate a 13CO/12CO ratio of about 40.
|Surface abundances of light elements for a large sample of early B-type stars - I. Spectral observations of 123 stars; measurements of hydrogen and helium lines; infrared photometry|
High-resolution spectral observations of 123 B0-B5 stars in the mainsequence evolutionary phase were obtained at two observatories, namelythe McDonald Observatory (McDO) and the Crimean AstrophysicalObservatory (CrAO). Accurate equivalent widths W of two Balmer lines,Hβ and Hγ, and ten Hei lines were obtained for all the stars,as well as of the Heiiλ4686 line for the hottest ones. A carefulanalysis of the measured equivalent widths was performed. It is shownthat there is a very good agreement between the W values derived fromthe McDO and CrAO spectra for 14 common stars. A comparison withpublished data leads to the conclusion that the W values measuredearlier by some authors for strong Hei lines are very likely to beunderestimated. Infrared photometric observations in the J, H, and Kbands were performed for 70 programme stars. All these data will be usedin other papers: in particular for the Teff and loggdetermination and for the He, C, N and O abundance analyses.
|On the Expansion of Stellar Association Per OB2|
|A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB Associations|
A comprehensive census of the stellar content of the OB associationswithin 1 kpc from the Sun is presented, based on Hipparcos positions,proper motions, and parallaxes. It is a key part of a long-term projectto study the formation, structure, and evolution of nearby young stellargroups and related star-forming regions. OB associations are unbound``moving groups,'' which can be detected kinematically because of theirsmall internal velocity dispersion. The nearby associations have a largeextent on the sky, which traditionally has limited astrometricmembership determination to bright stars (V<~6 mag), with spectraltypes earlier than ~B5. The Hipparcos measurements allow a majorimprovement in this situation. Moving groups are identified in theHipparcos Catalog by combining de Bruijne's refurbished convergent pointmethod with the ``Spaghetti method'' of Hoogerwerf & Aguilar.Astrometric members are listed for 12 young stellar groups, out to adistance of ~650 pc. These are the three subgroups Upper Scorpius, UpperCentaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux of Sco OB2, as well as VelOB2, Tr 10, Col 121, Per OB2, alpha Persei (Per OB3), Cas-Tau, Lac OB1,Cep OB2, and a new group in Cepheus, designated as Cep OB6. Theselection procedure corrects the list of previously known astrometricand photometric B- and A-type members in these groups and identifiesmany new members, including a significant number of F stars, as well asevolved stars, e.g., the Wolf-Rayet stars gamma^2 Vel (WR 11) in Vel OB2and EZ CMa (WR 6) in Col 121, and the classical Cepheid delta Cep in CepOB6. Membership probabilities are given for all selected stars. MonteCarlo simulations are used to estimate the expected number of interloperfield stars. In the nearest associations, notably in Sco OB2, thelater-type members include T Tauri objects and other stars in the finalpre-main-sequence phase. This provides a firm link between the classicalhigh-mass stellar content and ongoing low-mass star formation. Detailedstudies of these 12 groups, and their relation to the surroundinginterstellar medium, will be presented elsewhere. Astrometric evidencefor moving groups in the fields of R CrA, CMa OB1, Mon OB1, Ori OB1, CamOB1, Cep OB3, Cep OB4, Cyg OB4, Cyg OB7, and Sct OB2, is inconclusive.OB associations do exist in many of these regions, but they are eitherat distances beyond ~500 pc where the Hipparcos parallaxes are oflimited use, or they have unfavorable kinematics, so that the groupproper motion does not distinguish it from the field stars in theGalactic disk. The mean distances of the well-established groups aresystematically smaller than the pre-Hipparcos photometric estimates.While part of this may be caused by the improved membership lists, arecalibration of the upper main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram may be called for. The mean motions display a systematicpattern, which is discussed in relation to the Gould Belt. Six of the 12detected moving groups do not appear in the classical list of nearby OBassociations. This is sometimes caused by the absence of O stars, but inother cases a previously known open cluster turns out to be (part of) anextended OB association. The number of unbound young stellar groups inthe solar neighborhood may be significantly larger than thoughtpreviously.
|Long-term visual spectrophotometric behaviour of Be stars|
The long-term spectrophotometric variations of 49 Be stars are studiedusing the U and V magnitudes of the UBV system, the total Balmerdiscontinuity D and the visible gradient Phi _rb. BCD spectrophotometricand photometric data in five different photometric systems, obtained inmost cases since 1950 and reduced to the BCD system, were used. The(U,D), (V,D), (Phi _rb,D) and (Phi _rb,V) correlations obtained differfrom star to star and they can be single or double-valued. They differclearly for Be phases or Be-shell phases. Be stars with small Vsin ishowing the ``spectrophotometric shell behaviour'': D > D_*, werefound. This finding implies either that strongly flattened models ofcircumstellar envelopes are in doubt for these stars, or that not all Bestars are rapid rotators. Comparison of observed variations with thosepredicted for model Be stars with spherical circumstellar envelopes ofvariable densities and dimensions implies that spectrophotometricpatterns of Be phases are due to circumstellar envelopes in low opacityregimes, while those of spectrophotometric shell phases are due tocircumstellar envelopes in high opacity regimes. In a given star, theenvelope regions responsible for the observed variations of D and Phi_rbin spectrophotometric shell phases seem to be smaller and denser thanthose producing the observed variations of these parameters inspectrophotometric Be phases. The high positive RV found in strong shellphases might favor the formation of compact circumstellar layers nearthe star. Figure 6 is only available in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle|
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.
|Multi-color Polarimetry of the Dust Disk Candidate BD+31 degrees 643|
The tentative detection of a dust disk around the main-sequence star BD+31 deg643 was recently announced by Kalas & Jewitt and representsonly the second such object ever to be imaged. Here, we presentmultiband visual polarimetry of this object. Our single-aperturepolarimetry also strongly suggests the presence of a disk. We find thatthe poles of the disk are oriented parallel to the polarization of themajority of background sources in the region and, hence, probably to themagnetic field in the cloud, as would be expected from star formationtheory. The polarization observed toward BD +31 deg643 can be modeled asa combination of Rayleigh scattering from material in the polar regionsof the disk and a term due to the disk itself.
|A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition|
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|The photoelectric astrolabe catalogue of Yunnan Observatory (YPAC).|
The positions of 53 FK5, 70 FK5 Extension and 486 GC stars are given forthe equator and equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch ofeach star. They are determined with the photoelectric astrolabe ofYunnan Observatory. The internal mean errors in right ascension anddeclination are +/- 0.046" and +/- 0.059", respectively. The meanobservation epoch is 1989.51.
|Two partially overlapping clouds of different optical properties in the Perseus OB2 association.|
The paper considers the properties of H I clouds seen in front of thetwo "arms" of the giant CO complex observed in Perseus (Per OB2association - see Fig. 1). The clouds observed towards both "arms" showstriking differences in the pattern of interstellar absorptions: theshapes of the extinction curves derived from vacuum-UV photometric andspectroscopic data, the strength ratio of the two major diffuseinterstellar bands: 5780 and 5797 and, probably in the strengths ofmolecular features. The diffuse band ratio which varies across the PerOB2 association suggests, together with the varying widths of sodiumlines, that two, partially overlapping clouds, differing strongly in theoptical properties, are situated towards the aggregate. Only towards oneof the "arms" we observe the absorption features of simple, interstellarmolecules such as CN or CH. The results suggest that at least theperipheral layers of giant molecular clouds, giving birth to OBassociations, are not well-mixed, containing thus H I clouds ofdifferent provenience. The hypothesis that giant clouds are formed bygathering diffuse interstellar clouds gets support.
|The threshold for stellar winds in hot main-sequence stars|
The profiles of ultraviolet resonance lines of C IV were surveyed in asample of 29 cluster and association members in the spectral type rangeO9-B2 III-V, together with a few field stars of interest. Thetemperatures and gravities of the stars were taken from the modelatmosphere analysis by Grigsby, Morrison, & Anderson (1992), and theluminosities were estimated on the basis of cluster and associationdistances from the recent literature. A parameter Pw wasdefined in order to describe the degree and assymetry of the C IVprofile. This parameter, together with total C IV equivalent width, wasfound to be well correlated with stellar luminosity and temperature. Afew anomalous stars were noted: tau Sco, HD 66665, HD 13621, and the ONstars HD12323 and HD 201345. The results suggest a sudden onset ofobservable mass loss at T(effective) = 27,500 +/- 500 K, log (L/solarluminosity) = 4.4 +/- 0.12, in agreement with the previous study byPrinja (1989). At T(effective) = 28,000 K and log g = 4, our non-LTEmodel atmospheres show an enhancement in the ground-state population ofC(+3) in their topmost layer, which could be responsible for initiationof the winds via radiation pressure on the C(+3) ions, or for the onsetof visibility of C(+3) ions in the wind because of an increase in theoptical depth in the C IV lines in the outermost layers.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|AG Persei: Absolute dimensions and membership of Perseus OB2|
Accurate physical parameters for the B-type eclipsing binary AG Per (HD25833; B4 V, V = 6.7, P = 2.03 days) have been determined for a completere-analysis of available light curves and recent spectrscopic elements(Popper & Hill 1991). The components have masses of 5.36 +/- 0.16and 4.90 +/- 0.13 solar mass and radii of 2.99 +/- 0.07 and 2.60 +/-0.07 solar radii, respectively, and they are among the least evolved Bstars with well-determined dimensions. Effective temperatures of 18 200+/- 800 K and 17b 400 +/- 800 K are derived. The orbit is slightlyeccentric (e = 0.0710 +/- 0.0010) and shows apsidal motion with awell-established period of U = 75.6 +/- 0.6 yr. Comparison with stellarevolution models based on the latest opacity library by Rogers &Iglesias (1992) and including a moderate amount of convectiveovershooting (Claret & Gimenez 1992) shows AG Per to be young; anage of about 4-6 107 yr is derived from the scale independentmasses and radii. AG Per is too little evolved to provide anyconstraints on the amount of convective overshooting. The mean densityconcentration coefficient determined from the apsidal motion parameters,log k2 = -2.14 +/- 0.04, agrees well with that computed forthe models, provided a relativistic correction based on the generalrelativity theory is included. In its present formulation andcalibration the alternative non-symmetric gravitational theory proposedby Moffat (1989) is not supported. AG Per is generally accepted as amember of Per OB2. We find a distance of 355 +/- 30 pc for the binary,compared to 330-420 pc given by various authors for the association. Newstellar models and calibrations indicate a photometric age of about1-1.5 107 yr for Per OB2, larger than previously obtained butstill well below that of AG Per (4-6 107 yr. This weakens thestatus of AG as a member. New observations of (potential Per OB2members, including fainter stars, are clearly needed.
|The behavior of some red and infrared helium lines|
We analyze the behavior of six lines of neutral helium and one line ofionized helium located in the 6500-10150 A wavelength region. Acomparison was made, whenever possible, of our observations and themodel calculations of Auer & Mihalas (1972, 1973). In two out ofthree cases the agreement is satisfactory with calculations for nonlocalthermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) and no overlap with H lines. We reportthe detection and provide measurements of two more helium absorptionlines, lambda(8779) and lambda(8584) not reported previously in theliterature.
|The distribution of interstellar dust in the solar neighborhood|
We surveyed the IRAS data base at the positions of the 1808 O6-B9.5stars in The Bright Star Catalog for extended objects with excessemission at 60 microns, indicating the presence of interstellar dust atthe location of the star. Within 400 pc the filling factor of theinterstellar medium, for dust clouds with a density greater than 0.5/cucm is 14.6 + or - 2.4%. Above a density of 1.0/cu cm, the densitydistribution function appears to follow a power law index - 1.25. Whenthe dust clouds are mapped onto the galactic plane, the sun appears tobe located in a low-density region of the interstellar medium of widthabout 60 pc extending at least 500 pc in the direction of longitudes 80deg - 260 deg, a feature we call the 'local trough'.
|Interstellar extinction in the direction of the open cluster IC 348 and the Per OB2 association|
The relationship between interstellar extinction and distance in thedirection of dark clouds in the areas around the open cluster IC 348 andthe association Per OB2 is determined using the results of photoelectricphotometry of 189 stars in the Vilnius photometric system. Two absorbinglayers are found. The nearest layer, covering the whole area around IC348, shows the mean extinction A(V) of about 0.7 mag. It begins at thedistance of 160 pc and probably is an extension of the Taurus darkclouds to the northwest. The second absorbing layer has the form of achain of dark condensations named L1468, L1470, and L1471 and is at 260pc distance. This layer has a higher density, its mean extinction beingabout 2.0 mag. The cluster IC 348 is at about the same distance and isphysically related to the dark cloud L1470. The distance of the Per OB2association is found to be 340 pc and the mean extinction of its membersis 0.95 mag. A model of the spatial distribution of the Perseus andTaurus dark clouds based on photometric distance determinations in thisand previous papers is proposed. Six stars in the IC 348 area aresuspected to have emission in the H-alpha line.
|Non-LTE, line-blanketed model atmospheres for late O- and early B-type stars|
The use of non-LTE line-blanketed model atmospheres to analyze thespectra of hot stars is reported. The stars analyzed are members ofclusters and associations, have spectral types in the range O9-B2 andluminosity classes in the range III-IV, have slow to moderate rotation,and are photometrically constant. Sampled line opacities of iron-groupelements were incorporated in the radiative transfer solution; solarabundances were assumed. Good to excellent agreement is obtained betweenthe computed profiles and essentially all the line profiles used to fixthe model, and reliable stellar parameters are derived. The synthetic MII 5581 equivalent widths agree well with the observed ones at the lowend of the temperature range studied, but, above 25,000 K, the syntheticline is generally stronger than the observed line. The behavior of theobserved equivalent widths of N II, N III, C II and C III lines as afunction of Teff is studied. Most of the lines show much scatter, withno consistent trend that could indicate abundance differences from starto star.
|Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances in early B-type stars|
A survey of the C, N, and O abundances in a sample of early B-type starswhich was undertaken to test the hypothesis of Liubimkov (1984) thatCN-cycled material is mixed to the surfaces of these stars during theircore hydrogen-burning phase. Equivalent widths of generally weak linesare obtained using high-signal-to-noise Reticon spectra of 39 stars infour spectral regions. Effective temperatures and gravities for thesestars are derived. Projected rotational velocities are measured using across-correlation technique. Abundances are derived using LTE methodsand non-LTE equivalent width calculations. He, C, N, and O abundances ofthe nonsupergiant stars in the sample are found to be very close to thevalues found for the Orion Nebula, with the notable exception of a fewstars which show enhanced N, a signature of CN-cycled material. Nocompelling evidence for a systematic increase in N abundance withevolutonary age was found; thus Liubimkov's claim that mixing occursgenerally in main-sequence B stars cannot be confirmed.
|Catalogue of Hydrogen Line Spectral Profiles of 236 B-Stars A-Stars and F-Stars|
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|Proper motion RA:||3.6|
|Proper motion Dec:||-2.5|
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