|A high-resolution spectroscopy survey of β Cephei pulsations in bright stars|
We present a study of absorption line-profile variations in early-B typenear-main-sequence stars without emission lines. We have surveyed atotal of 171 bright stars using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOTSA),William Herschel Telescope (ING) and Coudé Auxiliary Telescope(ESO). Our sample contains 75% of all O9.5-B2.5 III-V non-emission-linestars brighter than 5.5 mag. We obtained high signal-to-noise,high-resolution spectra of the SiIII λ4560 triplet - for 125stars of our sample we obtained more than one spectrum - and examinedthese for pulsational-like line-profile variations and/or structure. Weconclude that about half of our sample stars show evidence forline-profile variations (LPV). We find evidence for LPV in about 65% ofour sample stars brighter than V=5.5. For stars with rotationalbroadening V sin i 100 km s-1, we find evidence for LPVin about 75% of the cases. We argue that it is likely that these LPV areof pulsational origin, and that hence more than half of thesolar-neighbourhood O9.5-B2.5 III-V stars is pulsating in modes that canbe detected with high-resolution spectroscopy. We detected LPV in 64stars previously unknown to be pulsators, and label these stars as newβ Cep candidates. We conclude that there is no obvious differencein incidence of (pulsational) LPV for early-B type near-main-sequencestars in binaries or in OB associations, with respect to single fieldstars.
|Catalog of Galactic β Cephei Stars|
We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic β Cepheistars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview ofobservational characteristics of all known β Cephei stars, coveringinformation until 2004 June. Ninety-three stars could be confirmed to beβ Cephei stars. We use data from more than 250 papers publishedover the last nearly 100 years, and we provide over 45 notes onindividual stars. For some stars we reanalyzed published data orconducted our own analyses. Sixty-one stars were rejected from the finalβ Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be β Cepheistars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmedβ Cephei stars is also presented.We analyze the β Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributionsof their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radialvelocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm thatthe majority of the β Cephei stars are multiperiodic pulsators. Weshow that, besides two exceptions, the β Cephei stars with highpulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. Those higher amplitude starshave angular rotational velocities in the same range as thehigh-amplitude δ Scuti stars (Prot>~3 days).We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93β Cephei stars are main-sequence objects. We discuss theobservational boundaries of β Cephei pulsation and the physicalparameters of the stars. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modesare near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show thatthe mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 Msolar. Wepoint out that the theoretical instability strip of the β Cepheistars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt toexplain this observation.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5|
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222
|The 74th Special Name-list of Variable Stars|
We present the Name-list introducing GCVS names for 3153 variable starsdiscovered by the Hipparcos mission.
|Radial velocities of six early type evolved stars.|
|UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous Stars|
A database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data.
|Helium peculiar stars in the red spectral region|
Based upon 33 A/mm dispersion spectroscopic material we examine ifequivalent widths of H and He lines can be used for the detection of newhelium-peculiar stars. The answer is affirmative and we present some newcandidates discovered this way. We have also investigated if the use ofdifferent helium lines than those of the (3) D series (4026, 4471)modifies the assignments of helium peculiar stars. This is not the case,since the use of lambda 6678 ((1) D) and lambda 7065 (3S) gives the sameresults. Based on observations obtained at the Haute ProvenceObservatory (CNRS)
|The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle|
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.
|Rotational Velocity Determinations for 164 Be and B Stars|
Rotational velocities, v sin i, have been obtained for 96 Be and 68normal B stars by measurements of the FWHM of the He I lambda-4471 line(for spectral types B0-B4.5) and Mg II lambda-4481 (for types B5-B9.5).The consistency of various published sources is examined. (SECTION:Stars)
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|An atlas of the infrared spectral region. I. The early type stars (O-G0).|
The Atlas illustrates the behavior of early type stars (O, B, A and Ftype) in the near infrared 8375-8770A region at a resolution of aboutone A. Intensity tracings of 76 stars are presented. Of these 51 starscover the spectral range O to G0 and luminosity classes V, III, Ib andIa. The influence of the rotational velocity is also illustrated as wellas the spectra of 19 stars with spectral peculiarities. The completeAtlas is also available under catalog number 3183 from the CDSStrasbourg and other data centers.
|Radial velocities of six early-type evolved stars|
Measurements of radial velocities of six early-type evolved stars ofluminosity class III-I are presented. Although the sample consists ofstars with suspected variable radial velocity, our data do not indicatethe variability.
|An IUE survey of interstellar H I LY alpha absorption. 1: Column densities|
We measure Galactic interstellar neutral hydrogen column densities byanalyzing archival interstellar Ly alpha absorption line data toward 554B2 and hotter stars observed at high resolution with the IUE satellite.This study more than doubles the number of lines of sight with measuresof N(H I) based on Ly alpha. We have included the scattered lightbackground correction algorithm of Bianchi and Bohlin in our datareduction. We use the correlation between the Balmer discontinuity(c1) index and the stellar Ly alpha absorption in order toassess the effects of stellar Ly alpha contamination. Approximately 40%of the B stars with measured (c1) index, exhibit seriousstellar Ly alpha contamination. One table contains the derived values ofthe interstellar N(H I) for 393 stars with at most small amounts ofstellar contamination. Another lists the observed values of total N(H I)for 161 stars with suspected stellar Ly alpha contamination and/oruncertain stellar parameters.
|An IUE survey of interstellar H I LY alpha absorption. 2: Interpretations|
We present an analysis of interstellar neutral hydrogen column densitiesobtained from archival Ly alpha absorption line data toward the completesample of B2 and hotter stars observed at high spectral resolution withthe IUE satellite. The full sample includes 554 stars and more thandoubles the number of lines of sight previously observed. Many of the B2and B1.5 stars exhibit contamination from stellar Ly alpha absorption,and were excluded from the subsequent analysis. The final working sampleincludes 393 stars. We present statistical averages for a number ofquantities derived for the sample. The stars range in distance from 0.12to 11 kpc with an average distance of 2.1 kpc. Values for averagesight-line density range from 0.017 to 8.62 atoms cm-3, withan overall average of 0.23 atoms cm-3. Neutral hydrogen anddust are well correlated, with N(H I)/E(B - V) = 4.93 x 1021cm-2 mag-1, and N(H I)/E(Bump) = 2.17 x1021 cm-2 mag-1. There is an increasein the H I to dust ratios for the densest sight lines. Evidently, the HI to dust ratios in dense clouds are higher than in the lower densitymedium between the clouds and in interarm directions. The effect isprobably an indication of dust modification in the dense clouds. The H Ito dust ratios are approx. 17% smaller for the sight lines to O starscompared to the ratios found toward B stars. We have identified sightlines with anomalously large and small values of N(H I)/E(B - V) and H(HI)/E(Bump). Some of these sight lines are well-known examples ofpeculiar extinction (i.e., HD 147933 and HD 37061 (NU Ori)). Others areless well known and may provide important new examples of regions withhighly modified dust. The number of stars with anomalously low H I todust ratios is disproportionately larger than the number of stars withanomalously high H I to dust ratios. The distribution of the gas awayform the Galactic plane for the sample of objects is complex. For thesubset of 375 stars whose lines of sight have a statistically lowprobablility of intersecting a large cloud, the distribution may beroughly approximated by an exponential density distribution, with amidplane density of 0.366 atoms cm-3, a scale height of 195pc, and a random logarithmic scattering parameter sigma p of0.159 dex.
|Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. I. The study of MK standards.|
Up to now the spectral classifications of the cool components ofcomposite spectra obtained in the 3800-4800A wavelength region have beenvery disparate. These disparities are due to the fact that the spectraof the evolved cool component are strongly veiled by that of the hotterdwarf component, which makes a classification very difficult. We proposeto study these systems in the near infrared (8380-8780A). In thisspectral domain the magnitude difference between the spectra of thecomponents is in general sufficiently large so that one observespractically only the spectrum of the cool component. In this first paperwe provide, for a sample of MK standards, the relations between theequivalent width (Wlambda_ ) of certain lines and thespectral classifications. For the cool G, K and M type stars, the linesconsidered are those of the calcium triplet (Ca II 8498, 8542 and 8662),of iron (Fe I 8621 and 8688), of titanium (Ti I 8426 and 8435) and ofthe blend λ8468. The use of certain line intensity ratiospermits, after eliminating partially the luminosity effects, a firstapproach to the spectral type. For the hotter stars of types O, B, A andF we study the behavior of the hydrogen lines (P12 and P14), the calciumlines (Ca II 8498 and 8542) as well as those of the oxygen (O I 8446).The latter line presents a very characteristic profile for stars of lowrotation and therefore in Am stars, which are frequently found among thecomposite spectrum binaries. Among the cooler stars of our sample, only6% present real anomalies with respect to the MK classifications. Thisresult is very encouraging for undertaking the classification of asample of composite spectra. The spectra were taken at the Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP) with the CARELEC spectrograph at the 193 cmtelescope, with a dispersion of 33 A/mm.
|A study of Be stars in the wavelength region around Paschen 7|
This paper presents a study of the wavelength region 9840 - 10200centered upon P 7 in 74 Be type stars (B0-A0). We find a correlation ofthe P 7 emission with spectral type, the emission being strongest inearly types and disappearing toward A0. All emission lines are doublepeaked. Besides P 7 also several Fe II lines appear in emission, thestrongest being λ 9997. A strong positive correlation existsbetween all emissions and we conclude that Fe II is in emission wheneverP 7 is in emission. P 7 and λ 9997 also show a strong similarityin the details of the line structure. By comparison to stellar radii,the radii of emission-line regions are small and are similar for P 7 andthe Fe II emission lines.
|The behavior of some red and infrared helium lines|
We analyze the behavior of six lines of neutral helium and one line ofionized helium located in the 6500-10150 A wavelength region. Acomparison was made, whenever possible, of our observations and themodel calculations of Auer & Mihalas (1972, 1973). In two out ofthree cases the agreement is satisfactory with calculations for nonlocalthermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) and no overlap with H lines. We reportthe detection and provide measurements of two more helium absorptionlines, lambda(8779) and lambda(8584) not reported previously in theliterature.
|The onset of quasi-periodic variations in Be stars|
We present some evidence of the quasi-periodic long-term variations(QPLV) in the violet-to-red ratio of double-peaked emission lines (V/Rvariation and/or in the radial velocities of shell absorption lines forsome Be stars. Although the V/R variations are rather prevailingphenomena among Be stars, the QPLV is remarkable by the followingcharacteristics: (1) The QPLV appears as a sudden onset of repeated V/Rvariations after a long (10 years), almost stable period, and itpersists for a few or several periods in ten or more years. (2) Theperiod and amplitude of V/R variations change from cycle to cycle andfrom star to star. The variations of radial velocities (RV) of shellabsorption lines are usually nearly parallel with the V/R variations.(3) The QPLV appears usually in early type Be stars with largerotational velocities, regardless whether the stars are normal Be orshell stars, and whether they are close-binaries or single stars.
|Three known and twenty-two new variable stars of early spectral type|
Photoelectric photometry is reported of three known and 22 newvariables, all brighter than V = 7.5 mag. The three known ones are: theellipsoidal variable 42 (V467) Per, the Beta Cep-type star HR 6684 =V2052 Oph, and the eclipsing variable HR 8854 = V649 Cas. The newvariable stars are listed. They include two Beta Cep candidates, oneeclipsing and three ellipsoidal variables, a 'mid-B' variable, anAlpha(2) CVn variable, and two Lambda Eri stars. The twelve remainingnew variables could not be classified because of insufficient data. TheLambda Eri variables found in the present investigation, together withsome examples from the literature, indicate that rotational modulationoccurs not only in Be, but also in normal B stars.
|Corrections to the right ascension to be applied to the apparent places of 1217 stars given in "The Chinese Astronomical Almanach" for the year 1984 to 1992.|
|Atlas of extinction curves derived from ultraviolet spectra of the TD-1 satellite|
The collection of 166 extinction curves derived from the publishedlow-resolution spectra acquired with the aid of the spectrometer onboard the TD-1 satellite is presented. The observed variety ofextinction laws is apparently due to the varied physical parameters ofinterstellar clouds; for example, the bright stars, included in thesample of TD-1 material, are very likely to be obscured by single clouds(interstellar or circumstellar). The system of standards constructedwith the aid of a special procedure allowing the possible effects ofspectral mismatch to be avoided and making possible the derivation ofextinction curves even in cases of very small E(B-V)S, was applied. Thecurves are presented in the form of plots, normalized to E(B-V) = 1.
|Physical data of the fundamental stars.|
|Close binaries observed polarimetrically|
|Terminal velocities of the winds from rapidly rotating OB stars|
This paper presents measurements of terminal velocities of OB starswhich are rapid rotators, based on archival high-dispersion IUE spectraof the C IV resonance doublet. The terminal velocities of the mostrapidly rotating stars appear to be systematically lower than those ofthe less rapidly rotating stars (at least for the cooler stars),although the number of very rapid rotators is only three. The modifiedline-radiation driven wind model of Friend and Abbott, which takes intoaccount the finite size of the star as well as its rotation, predictsthat the terminal velocity should drop with increasing rotationalvelocity. However, when a smaller but very homogeneous subset of thedata is used (BO giants only), the correlation between terminal velocityand rotational velocity disappears.
|Radial Systems of Dark Globules - Part One|
|Two catalogues of FK4 right-ascension corrections and their application|
The results of observations conducted as part of the regular timeservice with transit instruments at the Borowiec and BratislavaObservatories were used to work out catalogs of right-ascensioncorrections of the FK4 stars, included in the observational programs.The characteristics of both catalogs are presented in the paper.Comparisons between the catalogs as well as their comparison with thecompilation catalog produced on the basis of observations performed withastrolabes are given. The results of applying these right-ascensioncorrections to the re-reduction of universal time are also presented.
|The interstellar 217 NM band - A third catalogue of equivalent widths|
A catalog of equivalent widths of the 217 nm interstellar absorptionband as well as other parameters characterizing the extinction curve inthe ultraviolet has been compiled for 790 O and B stars. A relativelytight correlation between the equivalent width of the 217 nm band andE(B-V) indicates that the absorber of this band is connected with thepopulation of larger interstellar grains responsible for the visualextinction. The parameter characterizing the amount of extinction in thefar UV is only weakly correlated with E(B-V), a result in accord withthe assumption that a second population of very small grains causes therapid increase of the far-UV extinction.
|Observations of interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A|
Observations of the interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A for800 O and B stars in Neckel's (1967) catalog are being carried out, and482 spectra obtained up to September 1983 have been reduced. It isconfirmed that the strength of the interstellar diffuse absorption bandat 4430 A does not simply relate to the abundance of interstellar grainson the line of sight. The relation between the color excess E(B-V) andthe equivalent width of the band to the direction of l = 130-140 deg andb = -5 to +5 deg shows that some parameter(s) other than E(B-V) is (are)needed to understand the cause of this band.