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T Vulpeculae: Maximum Times Covering 120 Years Show a Slight, Continuous Period Decrease
I give 221 maximum times of the well known classical cepheid TVulpeculae covering the years 1885 until 2003. A slight, continuousperiod decrease has been reported and can be demonstrated in the dataset.

Elemental Abundance Ratios in Stars of the Outer Galactic Disk. III. Cepheids
We present metallicities, [Fe/H], and elemental abundance ratios,[X/Fe], for a sample of 24 Cepheids in the outer Galactic disk based onhigh-resolution echelle spectra. The sample members have galactocentricdistances covering 12 kpc<=RGC<=17.2 kpc, making themthe most distant Galactic Cepheids upon which detailed abundanceanalyses have been performed. We find subsolar ratios of [Fe/H] andoverabundances of [α/Fe], [La/Fe], and [Eu/Fe] in the programstars. All abundance ratios exhibit a dispersion that exceeds themeasurement uncertainties. As seen in our previous studies of old openclusters and field giants, enhanced ratios of [α/Fe] and [Eu/Fe]reveal that recent star formation has taken place in the outer disk withType II supernovae preferentially contributing ejecta to theinterstellar medium and with Type Ia supernovae playing only a minorrole. The enhancements for La suggest that asymptotic giant branch starshave contributed to the chemical evolution of the outer Galactic disk.Some of the young Cepheids are more metal-poor than the older openclusters and field stars at comparable galactocentric distances. Thisdemonstrates that the outer disk is not the end result of the isolatedevolution of an ensemble of gas and stars. We showed previously that theolder open clusters and field stars reached a basement metallicity atabout 10-11 kpc. The younger Cepheids reach the same metallicity but atlarger galactocentric distances, roughly 14 kpc. This suggests that theGalactic disk has been growing with time, as predicted from numericalsimulations. The outer disk Cepheids appear to exhibit a bimodaldistribution for [Fe/H] and [α/Fe]. Most of the Cepheids continuethe trends with galactocentric distance exhibited by S. M. Andrievsky'slarger Cepheid sample, and we refer to these stars as the ``GalacticCepheids.'' A minority of the Cepheids show considerably lower [Fe/H]and higher [α/Fe], and we refer to these stars as the ``MergerCepheids.'' One signature of a merger event would be compositiondifferences between the Galactic and Merger Cepheids. The Cepheidssatisfy this requirement, and we speculate that the distinctcompositions suggest that the Merger Cepheids may have formed under theinfluence of significant merger or accretion events. The short lifetimesof the Cepheids reveal that the merger event may be ongoing, with theMonoceros Ring and Canis Major galaxy being possible merger candidates.This paper makes use of observations obtained at the National OpticalAstronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association ofUniversities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under contract fromthe National Science Foundation. We also employ data products from theTwo Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University ofMassachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center,California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

Extended envelopes around Galactic Cepheids. I. ℓ Carinae from near and mid-infrared interferometry with the VLTI
We present the results of long-baseline interferometric observations ofthe bright southern Cepheid ℓ Carinae in the infrared N (8-13 μm)and K (2.0-2.4 μm) bands, using the MIDI and VINCI instruments of theVLT Interferometer. We resolve in the N band a large circumstellarenvelope (CSE) that we model with a Gaussian of 3 Rstar(≈500 Rȯ ≈ 2-3 AU) half width at half maximum. Thesignature of this envelope is also detected in our K band data as adeviation from a single limb darkened disk visibility function. Thesuperimposition of a Gaussian CSE on the limb darkened disk model of theCepheid star results in a significantly better fit of our VINCI data.The extracted CSE parameters in the K band are a half width at halfmaximum of 2 Rstar, comparable to the N band model, and atotal brightness of 4% of the stellar photosphere. A possibility is thatthis CSE is linked to the relatively large mass loss rate of ℓ Car.Though its physical nature cannot be determined from our data, wediscuss an analogy with the molecular envelopes of RV Tauri, redsupergiants and Miras.

Zur Beobachtung und Auswertung von Cepheiden-Lichtkurven.
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Welchen Lichtwechsel kann ein Beobachter bei Cepheiden erwarten?
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Radial Velocities of Galactic Cepheids
We report 490 radial velocities for 16 Galactic Cepheid variables. Thetypical uncertainty of a single velocity is +/-0.40 km s-1.Comparison with published velocities shows excellent agreement. Two ofthe Cepheids (Z Lac, S Sge) are known binaries and exhibit orbitalvelocity changes in our observing interval.

Phase-dependent Variation of the Fundamental Parameters of Cepheids. III. Periods between 3 and 6 Days
We present the results of a detailed multiphase spectroscopic analysisof six classical Cepheids with pulsation periods between 3 and 6 days.For each star we have derived phased values of effective temperature,surface gravity, microturbulent velocity, and elemental abundances. Weshow that the elemental abundance results for these Cepheids areconsistent for all pulsational phases.

Mean Angular Diameters and Angular Diameter Amplitudes of Bright Cepheids
We predict mean angular diameters and amplitudes of angular diametervariations for all monoperiodic PopulationI Cepheids brighter than=8.0 mag. The catalog is intended to aid selecting mostpromising Cepheid targets for future interferometric observations.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

Period-luminosity relations for Galactic Cepheid variables with independent distance measurements
In this paper, we derive the period-luminosity (PL) relation forGalactic Cepheids with recent independent distance measurements fromopen cluster, Barnes-Evans surface brightness, interferometry and HubbleSpace Telescope astrometry techniques. Our PL relation confirms theresults from recent works, which showed that the Galactic Cepheidsfollow a different PL relation to their Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)counterparts. Our results also show that the slope of the Galactic PLrelation is inconsistent with the LMC slope with more than 95 per centconfidence level. We apply this Galactic PL relation to find thedistance to NGC 4258. Our result of μo= 29.49 +/- 0.06 mag(random error) agrees at the ~1.4σ level with the geometricaldistance of μgeo= 29.28 +/- 0.15 mag from water masermeasurements.

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Three Years of Photometry of the Delta Cepheid T Vulpecula
Three years of UBV photoelectric photometry are presented for the DeltaCepheid, T Vulpecula. The observations were made by the Phoenix-10automatic photoelectric telescope at the Fairborn Observatory insouthern Arizona. T Vul was observed on over 100 different nights duringthis three-year period. Determination of times of maxima is proceedingusing the "master curve" technique suggested by David G. Turner (SaintMary's University, Halifax). We are thankful for the assistance of LouisJ. Boyd (Fairborn Observatory) for telescope operations, Michael A.Seeds (Franklin and Marshall College) for telescope management andinitial automated data reduction, and Russell M. Genet (OrionObservatory) and James R. Mueller (California Polytechnic StateUniversity) for technical advice. We acknowledge financial support bythe Orion Observatory (observation funds) and the Department ofMathematics, California Polytechnic State University (conference andtravel funds).

Improvement of the CORS method for Cepheids radii determination based on Strömgren photometry
In this paper we present a modified version of the CORS method based ona new calibration of the Surface Brightness function in theStrömgren photometric system. The method has been tested by meansof synthetic light and radial velocity curves derived from nonlinearpulsation models. Detailed simulations have been performed to take intoaccount the quality of real observed curves as well as possible shiftsbetween photometric and radial velocity data. The method has been thenapplied to a sample of Galactic Cepheids with Strömgren photometryand radial velocity data to derive the radii and a new PR relation. As aresult we find log R = (1.19 ± 0.09) + (0.74 ± 0.11) logP (rms = 0.07). The comparison between our result and previous estimatesin the literature is satisfactory. Better results are expected from theadoption of improved model atmosphere grids.

The metallicity dependence of the Cepheid PL-relation
A sample of 37 Galactic, 10 LMC and 6 SMC cepheids is compiled for whichindividual metallicity estimates exist and BVIK photometry in almost allcases. The Galactic cepheids all have an individual distance estimateavailable. For the MC objects different sources of photometry arecombined to obtain improved periods and mean magnitudes. Amulti-parameter Period-Luminosity relation is fitted to the data whichalso solves for the distance to the LMC and SMC. When all three galaxiesare considered, without metallicity effect, a significant quadratic termin log P is found, as previously observed and also predicted in sometheoretical calculations. For the present sample it is empiricallydetermined that for log P < 1.65 linear PL-relations may be adopted,but this restricts the sample to only 4 LMC and 1 SMC cepheid.Considering the Galactic sample a metallicity effect is found in thezero point in the VIWK PL-relation (-0.6 ± 0.4 or -0.8 ±0.3 mag/dex depending on the in- or exclusion of one object), in thesense that metal-rich cepheids are brighter. The small significance ismostly due to the fact that the Galactic sample spans a narrowmetallicity range. The error is to a significant part due to the errorin the metallicity determinations and not to the error in the fit.Including the 5 MC cepheids broadens the observed metallicity range anda metallity effect of about -0.27 ± 0.08 mag/dex in the zeropoint is found in VIWK, in agreement with some previous empiricalestimates, but now derived using direct metallicity determinations forthe cepheids themselves.

A Revised Calibration of the MV-W(O I 7774) Relationship using Hipparcos Data: Its Application to Cepheids and Evolved Stars
A new calibration of the MV-W(O I 7774) relationship hasbeen calculated using better reddening and distance estimates for asample of 27 calibrator stars of spectral types A to G, based onaccurate parallaxes and proper motions from the Hipparcos and Tychocatalogues. The present calibration predicts absolute magnitude withaccuracies of +/-0.38mag for a sample covering a large range ofMV, from -9.5 to +0.35 mag. The color term included in aprevious paper has been dropped since its inclusion does not lead to anysignificant improvement in the calibration. The variation of the O I7774 feature in the classical cepheid SS Sct has been studied. Wecalculated a phase-dependent correction to random phase OI featurestrengths in Cepheids, such that it predicts mean absolute magnitudesusing the above calibration. After applying such a correction, we couldincrease the list of calibrators to 58 by adding MV and O Itriplet strength data for 31 classical Cepheids. The standard error ofthe calibration using the composite sample was comparable to thatobtained from the primary 27 calibrators, showing that it is possible tocalculate mean Cepheid luminosities from random phase observations ofthe O I 7774 feature. We use our derived calibrations to estimateMV for a set of evolved objects to be able to locate theirpositions in the HR diagram.

Consistent distances from Baade-Wesselink analyses of Cepheids and RR Lyraes
By using the same algorithm in the Baade-Wesselink analyses of GalacticRR Lyrae and Cepheid variables, it is shown that, within 0.03-mag1σ statistical error, they yield the same distance modulus for theLarge Magellanic Cloud. By fixing the zero-point of thecolour-temperature calibration to those of the current infrared fluxmethods and using updated period-luminosity-colour relations, we get anaverage value of 18.55 for the true distance modulus of the LMC.

Cepheid Variables in the AAVSO International Database
There are 205,500 visual observations for 148 Cepheids as well as 182photoelectric observations for 7 Cepheids in the AAVSO InternationalDatabase. These data were reduced with Hertzprung's method and 2,010times of maximum brightness were obtained. O-C diagrams for 21well-observed Cepheids are presented and results obtained are comparedwith existing data.

A Bayesian Analysis of the Cepheid Distance Scale
We develop and describe a Bayesian statistical analysis to solve thesurface brightness equations for Cepheid distances and stellarproperties. Our analysis provides a mathematically rigorous andobjective solution to the problem, including immunity from Lutz-Kelkerbias. We discuss the choice of priors, show the construction of thelikelihood distribution, and give sampling algorithms in a Markov chainMonte Carlo approach for efficiently and completely sampling theposterior probability distribution. Our analysis averages over theprobabilities associated with several models rather than attempting topick the ``best model'' from several possible models. Using a sample of13 Cepheids we demonstrate the method. We discuss diagnostics of theanalysis and the effects of the astrophysical choices going into themodel. We show that we can objectively model the order of Fourierpolynomial fits to the light and velocity data. By comparison withtheoretical models of Bono et al. we find that EU Tau and SZ Tau areovertone pulsators, most likely without convective overshoot. Theperiod-radius and period-luminosity relations we obtain are shown to becompatible with those in the recent literature. Specifically, we findlog()=(0.693+/-0.037)[log(P)-1.2]+(2.042+/-0.047) andv>=-(2.690+/-0.169)[log(P)-1.2]-(4.699+/-0.216).

Sodium enrichment of the stellar atmospheres. II. Galactic Cepheids
The present paper is a continuation of our study of the sodium abundancein supergiant atmospheres (Andrievsky et al. 2002a). We present theresults on the NLTE abundance determination in Cepheids, and the derivedrelation between the sodium overabundance and their masses.

The Spectra of Type II Cepheids. II. The Hα Line in Intermediate-Period Stars
We present 98 Hα profiles for 21 pulsating variable stars withperiods from 3 to 8 days. The strength, depth, and shape of Hαvary throughout the cycles of the stars in a way consistent with thetemperature changes. Otherwise, they are quite uniform among all thestars, with a single exception. In FM Del, Hα is weaker and has asmaller central depth than in the other stars. This and the wavelengthshifts of the core are attributed to incipient emission. Thedifferential velocity of Hα relative to the metal lines is lessthan 25 km s-1 for all the stars except QY Cyg, FM Del, andEF Tau. We suggest that this indicates that only these stars are type IICepheids despite the large distances of some of the others from theGalactic plane.Based in part on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the AstrophysicalResearch Consortium.

New Period-Luminosity and Period-Color relations of classical Cepheids: I. Cepheids in the Galaxy
321 Galactic fundamental-mode Cepheids with good B, V, and (in mostcases) I photometry by Berdnikov et al. (\cite{Berdnikov:etal:00}) andwith homogenized color excesses E(B-V) based on Fernie et al.(\cite{Fernie:etal:95}) are used to determine their period-color (P-C)relation in the range 0.4~ 1.4). The latter effect is enhanced by asuggestive break of the P-L relation of LMC and SMC at log P = 1.0towards still shallower values as shown in a forthcoming paper.Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/423

Cepheiden: was wird beobachtet - was nicht ?
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Fundamental Parameters of Cepheids. V. Additional Photometry and Radial Velocity Data for Southern Cepheids
I present photometric and radial velocity data for Galactic Cepheids,most of them being in the southern hemisphere. There are 1250 Genevaseven-color photometric measurements for 62 Cepheids, the averageuncertainty per measurement is better than 0.01 mag. A total of 832velocity measurements have been obtained with the CORAVEL radialvelocity spectrograph for 46 Cepheids. The average accuracy of theradial velocity data is 0.38 km s-1. There are 33 stars withboth photometry and radial velocity data. I discuss the possiblebinarity or period change that these new data reveal. I also presentreddenings for all Cepheids with photometry. The data are availableelectronically. Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla.

The Distance Scale for Classical Cepheid Variables
New radii, derived from a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink (BW)method that is tied to published KHG narrowband spectrophotometry, arepresented for 13 bright Cepheids. The data yield a best-fittingperiod-radius relation given bylog=1.071(+/-0.025)+0.747(+/-0.028)logP0. In combination with other high-quality radiusestimates recently published by Laney & Stobie, the new data yield aperiod-radius relation described bylog=1.064(+/-0.0006)+0.750(+/-0.006)logP0, which simplifies to ~P3/4.The relationship is used to test the scale of Cepheid luminositiesinferred from cluster zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) fitting, for whichwe present an updated list of calibrating Cepheids located in stellargroups. The cluster ZAMS-fitting distance scale tied to a Pleiadesdistance modulus of 5.56 is found to agree closely with the distancescale defined by Hipparcos parallaxes of cluster Cepheids and alsoyields Cepheid luminosities that are a good match to those inferred fromthe period-radius relation. The mean difference between absolute visualmagnitudes based on cluster ZAMS fitting,C, and those inferred for 23 clusterCepheids from radius and effective temperature estimates,BW, in the sense of C-BW is+0.019+/-0.029 s.e. There is no evidence to indicate the need for amajor revision to the Cepheid cluster distance scale. The absolutemagnitude differences are examined using available [Fe/H] data for thecluster Cepheid sample to test the metallicity dependence of theperiod-luminosity relation. Large scatter and a small range ofmetallicities hinder a reliable estimate of the exact relationship,although the data are fairly consistent with predictions from stellarevolutionary models. The derived dependence isΔMV(C-BW)=+0.06(+/-0.03)-0.43(+/-0.54)[ Fe/H].

On the Absolute Calibration of the Cepheid Distance Scale Using Hipparcos Parallaxes
The fundamental Hipparcos parallaxes (HIPP) of 219 Cepheids are used forthe absolute calibration of the Galactic distance scale sampled by amodern Baade-Wesselink (BW) distance indicator, which reliably accountsfor pulsation and thermal properties of Cepheid variable stars. Notablywe map thermal properties into the Johnson-Cousins color (V-I). The BWrealization is found to be much less affected than previously adoptedoptical luminosity laws by intrinsic scatter and systematic errors inrepresenting individual Cepheid distances and thus is best suited for acalibration of the galactic distance scale using the fundamentalHipparcos parallaxes (HIPP). Comparisons between the actual Hipparcoscalibration and three independent ground-based calibrations of the sameBW distance scale show very close agreement at the 0.04 mag level, i.e.,at the 1 σ level of the absolute accuracy claimed for BWrealizations, although the Hipparcos calibration is affected by anuncertainty of +/-0.10 mag due to propagation of parallax errors alone.Comparisons include the zero-age main-sequence calibration by Cepheidsin clusters (Pleiades distance modulus at 5.57 mag), the calibration bypulsation parallaxes of Cepheids, and the calibration by updated modelcalculations of synthetic stellar spectra of Cepheids. Notably, theresulting galactic distance scale is found to be ~0.1 mag shorter thanthe value obtained in the original calibration of Feast & Catchpole.The implications of the actual calibration on the Cepheid-based distanceto the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the extragalactic distance scaleare briefly discussed. A true distance modulus of 18.59+/-0.04 mag ispresently achieved. Evidence from Hipparcos-based calibrations bydifferent methods strongly supports the actual upward revision of0.09+/-0.04 mag for the LMC distance of 18.50 mag adopted in the HubbleSpace Telescope Key Project program, corresponding to no more than a 5%decrease in the value of the Hubble constant.

CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom.

Using Cepheids to determine the galactic abundance gradient. I. The solar neighbourhood
A number of studies of abundance gradients in the galactic disk havebeen performed in recent years. The results obtained are ratherdisparate: from no detectable gradient to a rather significant slope ofabout -0.1 dex kpc-1. The present study concerns theabundance gradient based on the spectroscopic analysis of a sample ofclassical Cepheids. These stars enable one to obtain reliable abundancesof a variety of chemical elements. Additionally, they have welldetermined distances which allow an accurate determination of abundancedistributions in the galactic disc. Using 236 high resolution spectra of77 galactic Cepheids, the radial elemental distribution in the galacticdisc between galactocentric distances in the range 6-11 kpc has beeninvestigated. Gradients for 25 chemical elements (from carbon togadolinium) are derived. The following results were obtained in thisstudy. Almost all investigated elements show rather flat abundancedistributions in the middle part of galactic disc. Typical values foriron-group elements lie within an interval from ~-0.02 to ~-0.04 dexkpc-1 (in particular, for iron we obtainedd[Fe/H]/dRG =-0.029 dex kpc-1). Similar gradientswere also obtained for O, Mg, Al, Si, and Ca. For sulphur we have founda steeper gradient (-0.05 dex kpc-1). For elements from Zr toGd we obtained (within the error bars) a near to zero gradient value.This result is reported for the first time. Those elements whoseabundance is not expected to be altered during the early stellarevolution (e.g. the iron-group elements) show at the solargalactocentric distance [El/H] values which are essentially solar.Therefore, there is no apparent reason to consider our Sun as ametal-rich star. The gradient values obtained in the present studyindicate that the radial abundance distribution within 6-11 kpc is quitehomogeneous, and this result favors a galactic model including a barstructure which may induce radial flows in the disc, and thus may beresponsible for abundance homogenization. Based on spectra collected atMcDonald - USA, SAORAS - Russia, KPNO - USA, CTIO - Chile, MSO -Australia, OHP - France. Full Table 1 is only available in electronicform at http://www.edpsciences.org Table A1 (Appendix) is only, andTable 2 also, available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/32

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Stars with the Largest Hipparcos Photometric Amplitudes
A list of the 2027 stars that have the largest photometric amplitudes inHipparcos Photometry shows that most variable stars are all Miras. Thepercentage of variable types change as a function of amplitude. Thiscompilation should also be of value to photometrists looking forrelatively unstudied, but large amplitude stars.

The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. II. Basic Parameters of Program Stars and the Role of Microturbulence
Paper I of this series presented precise MK spectral types for 372 lateA-, F-, and early G-type stars with the aim of understanding the natureof luminosity classification on the MK spectral classification systemfor this range of spectral types. In this paper, a multidimensionaldownhill simplex technique is introduced to determine the basicparameters of the program stars from fits of synthetic spectra andfluxes with observed spectra and fluxes from Strömgren uvbyphotometry. This exercise yields useful calibrations of the MK spectralclassification system but, most importantly, gives insight into thephysical nature of luminosity classification on the MK spectralclassification system. In particular, we find that in this range ofspectral types, microturbulence appears to be at least as important asgravity in determining the MK luminosity type.

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观测天体数据

星座:狐狸座
右阿森松:20h51m28.20s
赤纬:+28°15'02.0"
视星:5.77
距离:512.821 天文距离
右阿森松适当运动:4
赤纬适当运动:-4.7
B-T magnitude:6.464
V-T magnitude:5.744

目录:
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HD 1989HD 198726
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 2183-2726-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1125-17244170
BSC 1991HR 7988
HIPHIP 102949

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