SKY-MAP.ORG
 Home Getting Started To Survive in the Universe News@Sky Astro Photo The Collection Forum Blog New! FAQ Press Login

# HD 133880

Contents

### Images

DSS Images   Other Images

### Related articles

 An X-Ray Search for Compact Central Sources in Supernova Remnants. II. Six Large-Diameter SNRsWe present the second in a series of studies in which we have searchedfor undiscovered neutron stars in supernova remnants (SNRs). This paperdeals with the six largest SNRs in our sample, too large for Chandra orXMM-Newton to cover in a single pointing. These SNRs are nearby, withtypical distances of <1 kpc. We therefore used the ROSAT BrightSource Catalog and past observations in the literature to identify X-raypoint sources in and near the SNRs. Out of 54 sources, we wereimmediately able to identify optical/IR counterparts to 41 from existingdata. We obtained Chandra snapshot images of the remaining 13 sources.Of these, 10 were point sources with readily identified counterparts,two were extended, and one was not detected in the Chandra observationbut is likely a flare star. One of the extended sources may be a pulsarwind nebula, but if so it is probably not associated with the nearbySNR. We are then left with no identified neutron stars in these six SNRsdown to luminosity limits of ~1032 ergs s-1. Theselimits are generally less than the luminosities of typical neutron starsof the same ages, but are compatible with some lower luminosity sourcessuch as the neutron stars in the SNRs CTA 1 and IC 443. Remarkable non-dipolar magnetic field of the Bp star HD 137509The southern magnetic Bp star HD 137509 exhibits complex rotationalmodulation of the longitudinal field and other magnetic observables.Interpretation of this magnetic variability in the framework of thelow-order multipolar field models suggests a very strong quadrupolarcomponent to dominate the surface field topology of HD 137509. I haveexamined the high-quality VLT/UVES spectra of HD 137509 and discoveredresolved Zeeman split components in some of the spectral lines. Theinferred mean surface field modulus, < B >=29 kG, agrees with themultipolar model predictions. This confirms the presence of an extremelystrong non-dipolar magnetic field in HD 137509 and establishes this staras the object with the second-largest field among magnetic chemicallypeculiar stars. Testing the companion hypothesis for the origin of the X-ray emission from intermediate-mass main-sequence starsContext: .The X-ray emission from B-type main-sequence stars is alongstanding mystery in stellar coronal research. Since there is notheory at hand that explains intrinsic X-ray emission fromintermediate-mass main-sequence stars, the observations have often beeninterpreted in terms of (unknown) late-type magnetically activecompanion stars. Aims: .Resolving the hypothesized companionsrequires high spatial resolution observations in the infrared and inX-rays. We use Chandra imaging observations to spatially resolve asample of main-sequence B-type stars with recently discovered companionsat arcsecond separation. Methods: .Our strategy is to search forX-ray emission at the position of both the B-type primary and the faintcompanion. Results: .We find that all spatially resolvedcompanions are X-ray emitters, but seven out of eleven intermediate-massstars are also X-ray sources. If this emission is interpreted in termsof additional sub-arcsecond or spectroscopic companions, this implies ahigh multiplicity of B-type stars. Firm results on B star multiplicitypending, the alternative, that B stars produce intrinsic X-rays, cannotbe discarded. An appropriate scenario would be a magnetically confinedwind, as suggested for the X-ray emission of the magnetic Ap star IQAur. However, the only Ap star in the Chandra sample is not detected inX-rays, and therefore does not support this picture. Decay of Planetary Debris DisksWe report new Spitzer 24 μm photometry of 76 main-sequence A-typestars. We combine these results with previously reported Spitzer 24μm data and 24 and 25 μm photometry from the Infrared SpaceObservatory and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. The result is a sampleof 266 stars with mass close to 2.5 Msolar, all detected toat least the ~7 σ level relative to their photospheric emission.We culled ages for the entire sample from the literature and/orestimated them using the H-R diagram and isochrones; they range from 5to 850 Myr. We identified excess thermal emission using an internallyderived K-24 (or 25) μm photospheric color and then compared allstars in the sample to that color. Because we have excluded stars withstrong emission lines or extended emission (associated with nearbyinterstellar gas), these excesses are likely to be generated by debrisdisks. Younger stars in the sample exhibit excess thermal emission morefrequently and with higher fractional excess than do the older stars.However, as many as 50% of the younger stars do not show excessemission. The decline in the magnitude of excess emission, for thosestars that show it, has a roughly t0/time dependence, witht0~150 Myr. If anything, stars in binary systems (includingAlgol-type stars) and λ Boo stars show less excess emission thanthe other members of the sample. Our results indicate that (1) there issubstantial variety among debris disks, including that a significantnumber of stars emerge from the protoplanetary stage of evolution withlittle remaining disk in the 10-60 AU region and (2) in addition, it islikely that much of the dust we detect is generated episodically bycollisions of large planetesimals during the planet accretion end game,and that individual events often dominate the radiometric properties ofa debris system. This latter behavior agrees generally with what we knowabout the evolution of the solar system, and also with theoreticalmodels of planetary system formation. The primordial binary population. I. A near-infrared adaptive optics search for close visual companions to A star members of Scorpius OB2We present the results of a near-infrared adaptive optics survey withthe aim to detect close companions to Hipparcos members in the threesubgroups of the nearby OB association Sco OB2: Upper Scorpius (US),Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL) and Lower Centaurus Crux (LCC). We havetargeted 199 A-type and late B-type stars in the KS band, anda subset also in the J and H band. We find 151 stellar components otherthan the target stars. A brightness criterion is used to separate thesecomponents into 77 background stars and 74 candidate physical companionstars. Out of these 74 candidate companions, 41 have not been reportedbefore (14 in US; 13 in UCL; 14 in LCC). The angular separation betweenprimaries and observed companion stars ranges from 0.22'' to 12.4''. Atthe mean distance of Sco OB2 (130 pc) this corresponds to a projectedseparation of 28.6 AU to 1612 AU. Absolute magnitudes are derived forall primaries and observed companions using the parallax andinterstellar extinction for each star individually. For each object wederive the mass from KS, assuming an age of 5 Myr for the USsubgroup, and 20 Myr for the UCL and LCC subgroups. Companion starmasses range from 0.10 Mȯ to 3.0 Mȯ. Themass ratio distribution follows f(q) = q-Γ withΓ=0.33, which excludes random pairing. No close (ρ ≤3.75'') companion stars or background stars are found in the magnituderange 12 mag≤ KS ≤ 14 mag. The lack of stars withthese properties cannot be explained by low-number statistics, and mayimply a lower limit on the companion mass of  0.1Mȯ. Close stellar components with KS >14mag are observed. If these components are very low-mass companion stars,a gap in the companion mass distribution might be present. The smallnumber of close low-mass companion stars could support theembryo-ejection formation scenario for brown dwarfs. Our findings arecompared with and complementary to visual, spectroscopic, andastrometric data on binarity in Sco OB2. We find an overall companionstar fraction of 0.52 in this association. This is a lower limit sincethe data from the observations and from literature are hampered byobservational biases and selection effects. This paper is the first steptoward our goal to derive the primordial binary population in Sco OB2.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.orgBased on observations collected with the ADONIS instrument at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (65.H-0568(A) and67.D-0220(A)). A three-dimensional model for the radio emission of magnetic chemically peculiar starsIn this paper we present a three-dimensional numerical model for theradio emission of Magnetic Chemically Peculiar stars, on the hypothesisthat energetic electrons emit by the gyrosynchrotron mechanism. For thisclass of radio stars, characterized by a mainly dipolar magnetic fieldwhose axis is tilted with respect to the rotational axis, the geometryof the magnetosphere and its deformation due to the stellar rotation aredetermined. The radio emitting region is determined by the physicalconditions of the magnetosphere and of the stellar wind. Free-freeabsorption by the thermal plasma trapped in the inner magnetosphere isalso considered. Several free parameters are involved in the model, suchas the size of the emitting region, the energy spectrum and the numberdensity of the emitting electrons, and the characteristics of the plasmain the inner magnetosphere. By solving the equation of radiativetransfer, along a path parallel to the line of sight, the radiobrightness distribution and the total flux density as a function ofstellar rotation are computed. As the model is applied to simulate theobserved 5 GHz lightcurves of HD 37479 andHD 37017, several possible magnetosphereconfigurations are found. After simulations at other frequencies, inspite of the large number of parameters involved in the modeling, twosolutions in the case of HD 37479 and only onesolution in the case of HD 37017 match the observedspectral indices. The results of our simulations agree with themagnetically confined wind-shock model in a rotating magnetosphere. TheX-ray emission from the inner magnetosphere is also computed, and foundto be consistent with the observations.Appendices A and B are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Astral magnetic fields-as observed in starforming nurseries, in stars, and in the Solar systemCherchez le champ magnétique'' is trendy in astronomy. Themagnetic field takes the hourglass shape in gravitationally contractingyoung stellar objects, helically wraps up the jets of protostars, guidesparticles in stellar coronae, explodes in stellar flares, causes unrestin pulsar quakes and creates planetary aurorae. In stars and pulsars,dipolar dynamo magnetic fields play a dominant rôle in the gasdynamics. In planetary disks, the field is toroidal or archimedeanspiral. Remanent magnetism is found in meteorites and asteroids. Theastral magnetic fields can reach 1018 G in magnetars,dwarfing anything we can do on Earth in stable conditions(107 G) or in pulsed conditions (1010 G).Magnetism plays a physical rôle in starforming clouds and itsconcomittent structures, from stellar nurseries to protostars, down toplanets and asteroids. Starting with star-forming clouds (~10 pc=32light-years=31×1016 m), this reviews coversprotostellar systems (~1 cpc), circumstellar space (~1 mpc), masers,interplanetary space (~1 μpc), pulsars, stars, planets (~1 npc),asteroids (~30 km; ~1 ppc), and meteorites (~0.3 m; ~10 apc). Late B-type stars and their candidate companions resolved with ChandraWe present the first results from a series of Chandra observationscarried out with the aim to examine the origin of X-ray emission inmain-sequence late B-type stars. X-ray detections of late-B and earlyA-type stars have remained a mystery as none of the two major theoriesfor stellar X-ray emission applies in this spectral range: while O- andearly B-type stars drive strong winds that are subject to instabilities,late-type stars produce X-rays as a result of magnetic dynamo action.Since any dynamo works only in the presence of a convective zone,early-type stars are not magnetically active. We use high spatialresolution X-ray observations to enlighten the prevalent speculationthat previously unknown late-type or low-mass companion stars are thesites of the X-ray emission, instead of the B-type primaries. Here wepresent the results for HD 1685, HD 113703, HD 123445, HD 133880, and HD169978. Adaptive optics observations have recently revealed at least onefaint object near each of these B-type stars (at separation of1-6''). Four of the new infrared objects show infrared colorsand magnitudes typical for low-mass pre-main sequence stars, and arelikely true companions to the ~ 10-50 Myr old B-type stars. Thesemultiple systems are now resolved for the first time in X-ray light. Weuncover that four of the new companions are X-ray emitters, and thefifth one is likely to be a weak X-ray source below the detection limit.Three of the B-type primaries are X-ray dark down to the detection limitof Lx ~ 1028 erg/s. But we do detect X-rayemission from the position of HD 1685 A and HD 169978 A. The latter oneindeed is a spectroscopic binary. The characteristics of all X-raysources are compatible with those of typical young late-type stars: hardX-ray spectrum (kT > 0.5 keV) and high X-ray luminosity (logLx ~ 29...30 erg/s). Spectroscopic observations in theinfrared will solve the question whether the one remaining X-raydetected B-star in our sample, HD 1685 A, also has an even closercompanion or whether this is an intrinsic X-ray emitter.This work made use of observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO program No. 67.C-0261(B)). Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type starsThis paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Formation scenarios for the young stellar associations between galactic longitudes l = 280degr - 360degrWe investigate the spatial distribution, the space velocities and agedistribution of the pre-main sequence (PMS) stars belonging toOphiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions (SFRs), and of theyoung early-type star members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association.These young stellar associations extend over the galactic longituderange from 280degr to 360degr , and are at a distance interval ofaround 100 and 200 pc. This study is based on a compilation ofdistances, proper motions and radial velocities from the literature forthe kinematic properties, and of basic stellar data for the constructionof Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Although there was no well-known OBassociation in Chamaeleon, the distances and the proper motions of agroup of 21 B- and A-type stars, taken from the Hipparcos Catalogue,lead us to propose that they form a young association. We show that theyoung early-type stars of the OB associations and the PMS stars of theSFRs follow a similar spatial distribution, i.e., there is no separationbetween the low and the high-mass young stars. We find no difference inthe kinematics nor in the ages of these two populations studied.Considering not only the stars selected by kinematic criteria but thewhole sample of young early-type stars, the scattering of their propermotions is similar to that of the PMS stars and all the young starsexhibit a common direction of motion. The space velocities of theHipparcos PMS stars of each SFR are compatible with the mean values ofthe OB associations. The PMS stars in each SFR span a wide range of ages(from 1 to 20 Myr). The ages of the OB subgroups are 8-10 Myr for UpperScorpius (US), and 16-20 Myr for Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL) and forLower Centaurus Crux (LCC). Thus, our results do not confirm that UCL isolder than the LCC association. Based on these results and theuncertainties associated with the age determination, we cannot say thatthere is indeed a difference in the age of the two populations. Weanalyze the different scenarios for the triggering of large-scalestar-formation that have been proposed up to now, and argue that mostprobably we are observing a spiral arm that passes close to the Sun. Thealignment of young stars and molecular clouds and the average velocityof the stars in the opposite direction to the Galactic rotation agreewith the expected behavior of star formation in nearby spiral arms.Tables 1 to 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/913 The magnetic B and A stars - their cause and cureNot Available On the behavior of the Cii 4267.261, 6578.052 and 6582.882 Å lines in chemically peculiar and standard starsWith the aim of investigating the possible particular behavior of carbonin a sample of chemically peculiar stars of the main sequence withoutturning to modeling, we performed spectroscopic observations of threeimportant and usually prominent single ionized carbon lines: 4267.261,6578.052 and 6582.882 Å. In addition, we observed a large numberof standard stars in order to define a kind of normality strip, usefulfor comparing the observed trend for the peculiar stars. We paidparticular attention to the problem of the determination of fundamentalatmospheric parameters, especially for the chemically peculiar stars forwhich the abundance anomalies change the flux distribution in such a waythat the classical photometric methods to infer effective temperaturesand gravities parameter cannot be applied. Regarding CP stars, we founda normal carbon abundance in Hg-Mn, Si (with some exceptions) and Hestrong stars. He weak stars are normal too, but with a large spread outof the data around the mean value. A more complicated behavior has beennoted in the group of SrCrEu stars: four out of seven show a strongoverabundance, being the others normal. Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 The ASCA Medium Sensitivity Survey (the GIS Catalog Project): Source CatalogWe present the first X-ray source catalog of the ASCA Medium SensitivitySurvey (AMSS, or the GIS catalog project), constructed from data atGalactic latitudes b>10deg observed between 1993 May and 1996December. The catalog utilizes 368 combined fields and contains 1343sources with the detection significance above 5 σ either in thesurvey bands of 0.7-7 keV, 2-10 keV, or 0.7-2 keV, including targetsources. For each source, the ASCA source name, position, a 90% errorradius, count rates in the three bands, detection significances, fluxes,and a hardness ratio are provided. With extensive simulations, wecarefully evaluate the data quality of the catalog. Results fromcross-correlation with other existing catalogs are briefly summarized. Search for low-mass PMS companions around X-ray selected late B starsWe have observed 49 X-ray-detected bright late B-type dwarfs to searchfor close low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) companions using the EuropeanSouthern Observatory's ADONIS (Adaptive Optics Near Infrared System)instrument. We announce the discovery of 21 new companions in 9binaries, 5 triple, 4 quadruple system and 1 system consisting of fivestars. The detected new companions have K magnitudes between 6.5m and17.3m and angular separations ranging from 0.12 arcsec to 14.1 arcsec(18-2358 AU). Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO programme No.~62.I-0477, and Swiss70~cm photometric telescope). Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). OB association members in the ACT and TRC cataloguesThe Hipparcos Catalogue contains members of nearby OB associationsbrighter than 12th magnitude in V. However, membership lists arecomplete only to magnitude V=7.3. In this paper we discuss whetherproper motions listed in the Astrographic Catalogue+Tycho' referencecatalogue (ACT) and the Tycho Reference Catalogue (TRC), which arecomplete to V~10.5mag, can be used to find additional associationmembers. Proper motions in the ACT/TRC have an average accuracy of~3masyr-1. We search for ACT/TRC stars which have propermotions consistent with the spatial velocity of the Hipparcos members ofthe nearby OB associations already identified by de Zeeuw et al. Thesestars are first selected using a convergent-point method, and thensubjected to further constraints on the proper-motion distribution,magnitude and colour to narrow down the final number of candidatemembers. Monte Carlo simulations show that the proper-motiondistribution, magnitude, and colour constraints remove ~97per cent ofthe field stars, while at the same time retain more than 90per cent ofthe cluster stars. The procedure has been applied to five nearbyassociations: the three subgroups of Sco OB2, plus Per OB3 and Cep OB6.In all cases except Cep OB6, we find evidence for new associationmembers fainter than the completeness limit of the Hipparcos Catalogue.However, narrow-band photometry and/or radial velocities are needed topinpoint the cluster members, and to study their physicalcharacteristics. Doppler-Zeeman Mapping of the Rapidly Rotating Magnetic CP Star HD37776We present the results of our analysis of magnetic-field configurationand abundance anomalies on the surface of the rapidly rotating,chemically peculiar helium-strong variable B2 V star HD37776 withunresolved Zeeman components of spectral lines. Simultaneous inversionof the observed Stokes I and V profiles, which realizes the method ofDoppler-Zeeman mapping (Vasilchenko et al. 1996), has been applied forthe first time. Spectroscopic observations were carried out with theMain stellar spectrograph of the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatorytelescope equipped with a Zeeman analyzer and a CCD array, which allowedspectra in right- and left-hand circularly polarized light to be takensimultaneously at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N > 200 (Romanyuk et al.1999). The profile width of winged spectral lines (reaching 5 A) isdetermined by Zeeman line splitting; however, the observed Zeemancomponents are blurred and unresolved because of the rapid stellarrotation. When solving the inverse problem, we sought for themagnetic-field configuration in the form of a combination of arbitrarilyoriented dipole, quadrupole, and octupole placed at the stellar center.The observed Stokes I and V profiles for eight spectral lines of He,OII, AlIII, SiIII, and FeIII averaged over the visible stellar surfacewere used as input data. We constructed a model of the magnetic fieldfrom the condition of coincidence of magnetic maps obtained fromdifferent lines of different chemical elements and from the condition ofa minimum profile residual. This model is a combination of centeredcoaxial dipole and quadrupole with the dominant quadrupole component at30 deg < i < 50 deg, beta = 40 deg, and a maximum surface fieldstrength H_s = 60 kG. A comparison of our abundance maps with the fieldconfiguration shows that the He concentration is at a maximum in theregions of maximum radial field, while the maximum concentrations of O,Al, Si, and Fe coincide with the regions of maximum tangential field. Coherent radio emission from the magnetic chemically peculiar star CU VirginisRadio observations of the magnetic chemically peculiar star CUVir, carried out with the VLA in three different days, showthat the radio emission at 20 cm is characterized by a strongenhancement at particular rotational phases. This radio emission isfound to be right hand polarized with a degree of polarization close to100%. As common for this class of stars, the magnetic axis ofCU Vir is oblique with respect to the rotationalaxis. By comparing the 20 cm radio light curve with the effectivemagnetic field available from the literature, a coincidence of the mainpeaks of the radio emission with the magnetic nulls has been found. Thishappens when the magnetic axis lies in the plane of the sky. We suggestthat the high degree of polarization, together with the high directivityof the radiation, can be explained in terms of coherent radio emission.The data have been interpreted on the basis of the Electron CyclotronMaser Emission from electrons accelerated in current sheets out of theAlfvén radius toward the stellar surface and eventually reflectedoutward by magnetic mirroring. Hβ photometry of southern CP2 stars: is the uvbybeta luminosity calibration also valid for peculiar stars?We present Hβ photometry of 233 southern CP2 stars (covering themagnetic Ap stars according to the definition by Preston 1974) brighterthan V < 8.5 mag from the list of Bidelman & MacConnell (1973).Absolute magnitudes derived from this photometry together with alreadyexisting uvby photometry is confronted with Hipparcos results availablefor a common subset of 152 stars. In order to compare peculiar withnormal stars, we identified a sample of 1147 normal B to F-type starsusing their published uvbybeta and Hipparcos data. For our analysis wedivide both samples into three temperature as well as two Hipparcosparallax accuracy groups. The error distribution of both samples provedto be statistically comparable. As a result the absolute magnitudes forthe B-type CP2 stars show up to be significantly too bright by anaverage of 0.5 mag using the actual photometric calibration. On theother hand, the photometric absolute magnitudes for cool A to F-type CP2stars are up to three magnitudes fainter as compared to Hipparcos. Basedon observations at ESO-La Silla and with the Hipparcos satellite A HIPPARCOS Census of the Nearby OB AssociationsA comprehensive census of the stellar content of the OB associationswithin 1 kpc from the Sun is presented, based on Hipparcos positions,proper motions, and parallaxes. It is a key part of a long-term projectto study the formation, structure, and evolution of nearby young stellargroups and related star-forming regions. OB associations are unboundmoving groups,'' which can be detected kinematically because of theirsmall internal velocity dispersion. The nearby associations have a largeextent on the sky, which traditionally has limited astrometricmembership determination to bright stars (V<~6 mag), with spectraltypes earlier than ~B5. The Hipparcos measurements allow a majorimprovement in this situation. Moving groups are identified in theHipparcos Catalog by combining de Bruijne's refurbished convergent pointmethod with the `Spaghetti method'' of Hoogerwerf & Aguilar.Astrometric members are listed for 12 young stellar groups, out to adistance of ~650 pc. These are the three subgroups Upper Scorpius, UpperCentaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux of Sco OB2, as well as VelOB2, Tr 10, Col 121, Per OB2, alpha Persei (Per OB3), Cas-Tau, Lac OB1,Cep OB2, and a new group in Cepheus, designated as Cep OB6. Theselection procedure corrects the list of previously known astrometricand photometric B- and A-type members in these groups and identifiesmany new members, including a significant number of F stars, as well asevolved stars, e.g., the Wolf-Rayet stars gamma^2 Vel (WR 11) in Vel OB2and EZ CMa (WR 6) in Col 121, and the classical Cepheid delta Cep in CepOB6. Membership probabilities are given for all selected stars. MonteCarlo simulations are used to estimate the expected number of interloperfield stars. In the nearest associations, notably in Sco OB2, thelater-type members include T Tauri objects and other stars in the finalpre-main-sequence phase. This provides a firm link between the classicalhigh-mass stellar content and ongoing low-mass star formation. Detailedstudies of these 12 groups, and their relation to the surroundinginterstellar medium, will be presented elsewhere. Astrometric evidencefor moving groups in the fields of R CrA, CMa OB1, Mon OB1, Ori OB1, CamOB1, Cep OB3, Cep OB4, Cyg OB4, Cyg OB7, and Sct OB2, is inconclusive.OB associations do exist in many of these regions, but they are eitherat distances beyond ~500 pc where the Hipparcos parallaxes are oflimited use, or they have unfavorable kinematics, so that the groupproper motion does not distinguish it from the field stars in theGalactic disk. The mean distances of the well-established groups aresystematically smaller than the pre-Hipparcos photometric estimates.While part of this may be caused by the improved membership lists, arecalibration of the upper main sequence in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram may be called for. The mean motions display a systematicpattern, which is discussed in relation to the Gould Belt. Six of the 12detected moving groups do not appear in the classical list of nearby OBassociations. This is sometimes caused by the absence of O stars, but inother cases a previously known open cluster turns out to be (part of) anextended OB association. The number of unbound young stellar groups inthe solar neighborhood may be significantly larger than thoughtpreviously. On the near infrared variability of chemically peculiar starsSome CP stars have recently been discovered by Catalano et al. to bevariable also in the near infrared, although with smaller amplitudesthan in the visible. Hence an observational campaign was started inwhich the infrared light variability of a number of CP2 and CP4 starshas been investigated at the ESO-La Silla Observatory in the bands J, H,and K. As a general result, infrared variations show the same behaviorin all three filters but amplitudes are smaller than in the visible. On the HIPPARCOS photometry of chemically peculiar B, A, and F starsThe Hipparcos photometry of the Chemically Peculiar main sequence B, A,and F stars is examined for variability. Some non-magnetic CP stars,Mercury-Manganese and metallic-line stars, which according to canonicalwisdom should not be variable, may be variable and are identified forfurther study. Some potentially important magnetic CP stars are noted.Tables 1, 2, and 3 are available only in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The observed periods of AP and BP starsA catalogue of all the periods up to now proposed for the variations ofCP2, CP3, and CP4 stars is presented. The main identifiers (HD and HR),the proper name, the variable-star name, and the spectral type andpeculiarity are given for each star as far as the coordinates at 2000.0and the visual magnitude. The nature of the observed variations (light,spectrum, magnetic field, etc.) is presented in a codified way. Thecatalogue is arranged in three tables: the bulk of the data, i.e. thosereferring to CP2, CP3, and CP4 stars, are given in Table 1, while thedata concerning He-strong stars are given in Table 2 and those foreclipsing or ellipsoidal variables are collected in Table 3. Notes arealso provided at the end of each table, mainly about duplicities. Thecatalogue contains data on 364 CP stars and is updated to 1996, October31. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS,Strasbourg, France. Do SI stars undergo any rotational braking?The old question of rotational braking of Ap Si stars is revisited onthe empirical side, taking advantage of the recent Hipparcos results.Field stars with various evolutionary states are considered, and it isshown that the loose correlation between their rotational period andtheir surface gravity is entirely compatible with conservation ofangular momentum. No evidence is found for any loss of angular momentumon the Main Sequence, which confirms earlier results based on lessreliable estimates of surface gravity. The importance of reliable,fundamental T_eff determinations of Bp and Ap stars is emphasized. Basedon data from the ESA Hipparcos satellite The variations of the BP star HD 137509.A refined value P=(4.4916+/-0.0002) d is derived for the rotation periodof the Bp star HD 137509, from the simultaneous consideration ofphotometric data recorded in the Geneva system and of measurements ofthe mean longitudinal magnetic field and of the crossover. Thevariations of the magnetic field (one of the most intense fields knownin an Ap or Bp star) show the signature of a strong quadrupolarcomponent. This remarkable property is reflected in the brightness andline equivalent width variations. The discovery of a frequency quintuplet and distorted dipole mode in the rapidly oscillating AP star HD 6532We have analysed 77 h of new, multisite observations of HD 6532 obtainedin 1994, along with 20 h of observations from 1984 and 90 h from 1985. Afrequency quintuplet with frequency separations equal to exactly therotation frequency, and two harmonic frequencies, give a completesolution. The amplitude spectrum of the residuals shows white noise withits highest peaks of amplitude 0.1 mmag. We interpret the frequencyquintuplet in terms of a distorted oblique dipole mode, which we modelwith a spherical harmonic series that is primarily dipolar with smallradial and quadrupole contributions. This model does not fully describethe rotational modulation of pulsation amplitude and phase, which leadsus to suggest that a completely decentred dipole model needsdevelopment. HD 6532 is only the second roAp star, after HR 3831, with apolarity-reversing pulsation mode which has been studied in sufficientdetail to characterize the geometry of the mode. The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars. The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST
Submit a new article