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# 47 Ari (47 Arietis)

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 The Puzzle of the Metallic Line StarsIn the puzzle of the metallic line (Am) stars, there still seem to bemissing pieces. While the normal'' A stars have elemental abundancesclose to solar, the classical Am stars show stronger absorption linesfor most heavy elements in their spectra. Elements with ionizationpotentials that nearly agree with those of hydrogen or helium havereduced abundances. The Ca II and Sc II lines are especially weak. TheAm stars have no ultraviolet emission lines. They are binaries that,with very few exceptions, have rotational velocities vsini lower than100 km s-1. Of the main-sequence A stars, 20% to 30% are Amstars. Here we rediscuss previous suggestions that tried to explain thepeculiar line strengths in the Am star spectra. In particular, wecompare the well-studied properties of Hyades A and Am stars in order toidentify reasons that can or cannot explain the differences. We findthat accretion of interstellar material by A stars with distortedmagnetic fields, which are weaker than those in peculiar A (Ap) stars,has the best chance of explaining the main characteristics of thepeculiar heavy-element abundances in Am star photospheres.Charge-exchange reactions also seem to be important. A Catalog of Temperatures and Red Cousins Photometry for the HyadesUsing Hyades photometry published by Mendoza and other authors,Pinsonneault et al. have recently concluded that Cousins V-I photometrypublished by Taylor & Joner is not on the Cousins system. Extensivetests of the Taylor-Joner photometry and other pertinent results aretherefore performed in this paper. It is found that in part, thePinsonneault et al. conclusion rests on (1) a systematic error inMendoza's (R-I)J photometry and (2) a small error in anapproximate Johnson-to-Cousins transformation published by Bessell. Forthe Taylor-Joner values of (V-R)C, it is found that there arepossible (though not definite) differences of several mmag with otherresults. However, the Taylor-Joner values of (R-I)C data aresupported at the 1 mmag level. Using the (R-I)C data andother published results, an (R-I)C catalog is assembled for146 Hyades stars with spectral types earlier than about K5. For singlestars with multiple contributing data, the rms errors of the catalogentries are less than 4.4 mmag. Temperatures on the Di Benedettoangular-diameter scale are also given in the catalog and are used tohelp update published analyses of high-dispersion values of [Fe/H] forthe Hyades. The best current mean Hyades value of [Fe/H] is found to be+0.103+/-0.008 dex and is essentially unchanged from its previous value.In addition to these numerical results, recommendations are made aboutimproving attitudes and practices that are pertinent to issues likethose raised by Pinsonneault et al. Pre-main sequence star Proper Motion CatalogueWe measured the proper motions of 1250 pre-main sequence (PMS) stars andof 104 PMS candidates spread over all-sky major star-forming regions.This work is the continuation of a previous effort where we obtainedproper motions for 213 PMS stars located in the major southernstar-forming regions. These stars are now included in this present workwith refined astrometry. The major upgrade presented here is theextension of proper motion measurements to other northern and southernstar-forming regions including the well-studied Orion and Taurus-Aurigaregions for objects as faint as V≤16.5. We improve the precision ofthe proper motions which benefited from the inclusion of newobservational material. In the PMS proper motion catalogue presentedhere, we provide for each star the mean position and proper motion aswell as important photometric information when available. We providealso the most common identifier. The rms of proper motions vary from 2to 5 mas/yr depending on the available sources of ancient positions anddepending also on the embedding and binarity of the source. With thiswork, we present the first all-sky catalogue of proper motions of PMSstars. The Distances to Open Clusters as Derived from Main-Sequence Fitting. II. Construction of Empirically Calibrated IsochronesWe continue our series of papers on open cluster distances by comparingmulticolor photometry of single stars in the Hyades with theoreticalisochrones constructed with various color-temperature relations. Afterverifying that the isochrone effective temperatures agree well withspectroscopically determined values, we argue that mismatches betweenthe photometry and the theoretical colors likely arise from systematicerrors in the color-temperature relations. We then describe a method forempirically correcting the isochrones to match the photometry anddiscuss the dependence of the isochrone luminosity on metallicity.This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All SkySurvey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts andthe Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute ofTechnology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administrationand the National Science Foundation. The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 Improved Astrometry and Photometry for the Luyten Catalog. II. Faint Stars and the Revised CatalogWe complete construction of a catalog containing improved astrometry andnew optical/infrared photometry for the vast majority of NLTT starslying in the overlap of regions covered by POSS I and by the secondincremental Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) release, approximately 44%of the sky. The epoch 2000 positions are typically accurate to 130 mas,the proper motions to 5.5 mas yr-1, and the V-J colors to0.25 mag. Relative proper motions of binary components are measured to 3mas yr-1. The false-identification rate is ~1% for11<~V<~18 and substantially less at brighter magnitudes. Theseimprovements permit the construction of a reduced proper-motion diagramthat, for the first time, allows one to classify NLTT stars intomain-sequence (MS) stars, subdwarfs (SDs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We inturn use this diagram to analyze the properties of both our catalog andthe NLTT catalog on which it is based. In sharp contrast to popularbelief, we find that NLTT incompleteness in the plane is almostcompletely concentrated in MS stars, and that SDs and WDs are detectedalmost uniformly over the sky δ>-33deg. Our catalogwill therefore provide a powerful tool to probe these populationsstatistically, as well as to reliably identify individual SDs and WDs. The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sourcesWe present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters. On the link between rotation, chromospheric activity and Li abundance in subgiant starsThe connection rotation-CaII emission flux-lithium abundance is analyzedfor a sample of bona fide subgiant stars, with evolutionary statusdetermined from HIPPARCOS trigonometric parallax measurements and fromthe Toulouse-Geneva code. The distribution of rotation and CaII emissionflux as a function of effective temperature shows a discontinuitylocated around the same spectral type, F8IV. Blueward of this spectraltype, subgiants have a large spread of values of rotation and CaII flux,whereas stars redward of F8IV show essentially low rotation and low CaIIflux. The strength of these declines depends on stellar mass. Theabundance of lithium also shows a sudden decrease. For subgiants withmass lower than about 1.2 Msun the decrease is located laterthan that in rotation and CaII flux, whereas for masses higher than 1.2Msun the decrease in lithium abundance is located around thespectral type F8IV. The discrepancy between the location of thediscontinuities of rotation and CaII emission flux and log n(Li) forstars with masses lower than 1.2 Msun seems to reflect thesensitivity of these phenomena to the mass of the convective envelope.The drop in rotation, which results mostly from a magnetic braking,requires an increase in the mass of the convective envelope less thanthat required for the decrease in log n(Li). The location of thediscontinuity in log n(Li) for stars with masses higher than 1.2Msun, in the same region of the discontinuities in rotationand CaII emission flux, may also be explained by the behavior of thedeepening of the convective envelope. The more massive the star is, theearlier is the increase of the convective envelope. In contrast to therelationship between rotation and CaII flux, which is fairly linear, therelationship between lithium abundance and rotation shows no cleartendency toward linear behavior. Similarly, no clear linear trend isobserved in the relationship between lithium abundance and CaII flux. Inspite of these facts, subgiants with high lithium content also have highrotation and high CaII emission flux. Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. II. The epoch 2001 [Fe/H] catalogThis paper describes the derivation of an updated statistical catalog ofmetallicities. The stars for which those metallicities apply are ofspectral types F, G, and K, and are on or near the main sequence. Theinput data for the catalog are values of [Fe/H] published before 2002February and derived from lines of weak and moderate strength. Theanalyses used to derive the data have been based on one-dimensional LTEmodel atmospheres. Initial adjustments which are applied to the datainclude corrections to a uniform temperature scale which is given in acompanion paper (see Taylor \cite{t02}). After correction, the data aresubjected to a statistical analysis. For each of 941 stars considered,the results of that analysis include a mean value of [Fe/H], an rmserror, an associated number of degrees of freedom, and one or moreidentification numbers for source papers. The catalog of these resultssupersedes an earlier version given by Taylor (\cite{t94b}).Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/731 Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. I. The epoch 2001 temperature catalogThis paper is one of a pair in which temperatures and metallicitycatalogs for class IV-V stars are considered. The temperature catalogdescribed here is derived from a calibration based on stellar angulardiameters. If published calibrations of this kind are compared by usingcolor-index transformations, temperature-dependent differences among thecalibrations are commonly found. However, such differences are minimizedif attention is restricted to calibrations based on Johnson V-K. Acalibration of this sort from Di Benedetto (\cite{dib98}) is thereforetested and adopted. That calibration is then applied to spectroscopicand photometric data, with the latter predominating. Cousins R-Iphotometry receives special attention because of its high precision andlow metallicity sensitivity. Testing of temperatures derived from thecalibration suggests that their accuracy and precision are satisfactory,though further testing will be warranted as new results appear. Thesetemperatures appear in the catalog as values of theta equiv5040/T(effective). Most of these entries are accompanied by measured orderived values of Cousins R-I. Entries are given for 951 stars.Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/721 Photometric Investigation of the MBM 12 Molecular Cloud Area in Aries. II. Cloud DistancePhotoelectric magnitudes and color indices in the Vilnius seven-colorsystem for 152 stars are used to investigate the interstellar extinctionin the area of the Aries molecular cloud MBM 12, coinciding with theL1454 and L1457 dust clouds. Spectral types, absolute magnitudes, colorexcesses, interstellar extinctions and distances of the stars aredetermined. The plot of interstellar extinction A_V versus distanceshows that the dust cloud is situated at a distance of 325 pc, at 180 pcfrom the Galactic plane, and its true diameter is about 11 pc. Theinterstellar extinction law in the area is found to be normal, typicalfor the diffuse dust. Ten peculiar or unresolved binary stars and someheavily reddened stars are detected. Photometric Investigation of the MBM 12 Molecular Cloud Area in Aries. I. Photoelectric PhotometryThe results of photoelectric photometry in the Vilnius seven-colorsystem are given for 152 stars down to 12.2 mag in the area of themolecular cloud MBM 12 and the dust clouds L1454 and L1457 in Aries. Theresults of photometric classification of stars are also given. Theinvestigation of interstellar extinction in the area is described in thenext paper. What Is Happening at Spectral Type F5 in Hyades F Stars?Aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms heating thechromospheres, transition regions, and coronae of cool stars, we studyultraviolet, low-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph spectra of Hyades main-sequence F stars. We studythe B-V dependence(s) of the chromospheric and transition layer emissionline fluxes and their dependences on rotational velocities. We find thatthe transition layer emission line fluxes and also those of strongchromospheric lines decrease steeply between B-V=0.42 and 0.45, i.e., atspectral type F5, for which the rotational velocities also decreasesteeply. The magnitude of the line-flux decrease increases for lines ofions with increasing degree of ionization. This shows that the line-fluxdecrease is not due to a change in the surface filling factor but ratherdue to a change of the relative importance of different heatingmechanisms. For early F stars with B-V<0.42 we find for thetransition layer emission lines increasing fluxes for increasing vsini,indicating magnetohydrodynamic heating. The vsini dependence isstrongest for the high-ionization lines. On the other hand, the lowchromospheric lines show no dependence on vsini, indicating acousticshock heating for these layers. This also contributes to the heating ofthe transition layers. The Mg II and Ca II lines show decreasing fluxesfor increasing vsini, as long as vsini is less than ~40 kms-1. The coronal X-ray emission also decreases for increasingvsini, except for vsini larger than ~100 km s-1. We have atpresent no explanation for this behavior. For late F stars thechromospheric lines show vsini dependences similar to those observed forearly F stars, again indicating acoustic heating for these layers. Wewere unable to determine the vsini dependence of the transition layerlines because of too few single star targets. The decrease of emissionline fluxes at the spectral type F5, with steeply decreasing vsini,indicates, however, a decreasing contribution of magnetohydrodynamicheating for the late F stars. The X-ray emission for the late F starsincreases for increasing vsini, indicating magnetohydrodynamic heatingfor the coronae of the late F stars, different from the early F stars.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated,under NASA contract NAS5-26555. A Spectroscopic and Photometric Survey of Stars in the Field of L1457: A New Distance DeterminationWe present a spectroscopic and photometric survey of a sample of fieldstars in the region of the molecular cloud L1457. High-qualitycoudé feed spectra, together with five-band photometry in theSloan Digital Sky Survey system and near-infrared archival data from theTwo Micron All Sky Survey, are used to derive color excesses anddistances for the stars. Based on these data, a new distance estimate of360+/-30 pc is derived for the cloud, supporting recent results by K. L.Luhman. The data further indicate that the north-south velocity gradientseen in the millimeter-wave CO data is mirrored in a distance gradient,with the northern part of the cloud being closer to us. A second, lessopaque, layer of extinction is detected at ~80 pc. This distance isconsistent with the earlier distance estimates to the cloud, based on NaI absorption. We identify this layer with the wall of the hot LocalBubble. Hence, the dense cloud is not, as previously thought, associatedwith the Local Bubble. HIPPARCOS age-metallicity relation of the solar neighbourhood disc starsWe derive age-metallicity relations (AMRs) and orbital parameters forthe 1658 solar neighbourhood stars to which accurate distances aremeasured by the HIPPARCOS satellite. The sample stars comprise 1382 thindisc stars, 229 thick disc stars, and 47 halo stars according to theirorbital parameters. We find a considerable scatter for thin disc AMRalong the one-zone Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) model. Orbits andmetallicities of thin disc stars show now clear relation each other. Thescatter along the AMR exists even if the stars with the same orbits areselected. We examine simple extension of one-zone GCE models whichaccount for inhomogeneity in the effective yield and inhomogeneous starformation rate in the Galaxy. Both extensions of the one-zone GCE modelcannot account for the scatter in age - [Fe/H] - [Ca/Fe] relationsimultaneously. We conclude, therefore, that the scatter along the thindisc AMR is an essential feature in the formation and evolution of theGalaxy. The AMR for thick disc stars shows that the star formationterminated 8 Gyr ago in the thick disc. As already reported by Grattonet al. (\cite{Gratton_et.al.2000}) and Prochaska et al.(\cite{Prochaska_et.al.2000}), thick disc stars are more Ca-rich thanthin disc stars with the same [Fe/H]. We find that thick disc stars showa vertical abundance gradient. These three facts, the AMR, verticalgradient, and [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation, support monolithic collapseand/or accretion of satellite dwarf galaxies as likely thick discformation scenarios. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5)or via http:/ /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/394/927 Determination of accurate stellar radial-velocity measuresWavelength measurements in stellar spectra cannot readily be interpretedas true stellar motion on the sub-km s-1 accuracy level dueto the presence of many other effects, such as gravitational redshiftand stellar convection, which also produce line shifts. Following arecommendation by the IAU, the result of an accurate spectroscopicradial-velocity observation should therefore be given as thebarycentric radial-velocity measure'', i.e. the absolute spectralshift as measured by an observer at zero gravitational potential locatedat the solar-system barycentre. Standard procedures for reducingaccurate radial-velocity observations should be reviewed to take intoaccount this recommendation. We describe a procedure to determineaccurate barycentric radial-velocity measures of bright stars, based ondigital cross-correlation of spectra obtained with the ELODIEspectrometer (Observatoire de Haute-Provence) with a synthetic templateof Fe I lines. The absolute zero point of the radial-velocity measuresis linked to the wavelength scale of the Kurucz (1984) Solar Flux Atlasvia ELODIE observations of the Moon. Results are given for the Sun and42 stars, most of them members of the Hyades and Ursa Major clusters.The median internal standard error is 27 m s-1. The externalerror is estimated at around 120 m s-1, mainly reflecting theuncertainty in the wavelength scale of the Solar Flux Atlas. For the Sunwe find a radial-velocity measure of +257+/- 11 m s-1referring to the full-disk spectrum of the selected Fe I lines. Based onobservations made at Observatoire de Haute-Provence Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associationsRadial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.125.8) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446 Late-type members of young stellar kinematic groups - I. Single starsThis is the first paper of a series aimed at studying the properties oflate-type members of young stellar kinematic groups. We concentrate ourstudy on classical young moving groups such as the Local Association(Pleiades moving group, 20-150Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (35Myr), UrsaMajor group (Sirius supercluster, 300Myr), and Hyades supercluster(600Myr), as well as on recently identified groups such as the Castormoving group (200Myr). In this paper we compile a preliminary list ofsingle late-type possible members of some of these young stellarkinematic groups. Stars are selected from previously established membersof stellar kinematic groups based on photometric and kinematicproperties as well as from candidates based on other criteria such astheir level of chromospheric activity, rotation rate and lithiumabundance. Precise measurements of proper motions and parallaxes takenfrom the Hipparcos Catalogue, as well as from the Tycho-2 Catalogue, andpublished radial velocity measurements are used to calculate theGalactic space motions (U, V, W) and to apply Eggen's kinematic criteriain order to determine the membership of the selected stars to thedifferent groups. Additional criteria using age-dating methods forlate-type stars will be applied in forthcoming papers of this series. Afurther study of the list of stars compiled here could lead to a betterunderstanding of the chromospheric activity and their age evolution, aswell as of the star formation history in the solar neighbourhood. Inaddition, these stars are also potential search targets for directimaging detection of substellar companions. On the MBM 12 Young AssociationI present a comprehensive study of the MBM 12 young association (MBM12A). By combining infrared (IR) photometry from the Two-Micron All-SkySurvey (2MASS) survey with new optical imaging and spectroscopy, I haveperformed a census of the MBM 12A membership that is complete to 0.03Msolar (H~15) for a 1.75d×1.4d field encompassing theMBM 12 cloud. I find five new members with masses of 0.1-0.4Msolar and a few additional candidates that have not beenobserved spectroscopically. From an analysis of optical and IRphotometry for stars in the direction of MBM 12, I identify M dwarfs inthe foreground and background of the cloud. By comparing the magnitudesof these stars to those of local field dwarfs, I arrive at a distancemodulus 7.2+/-0.5 (275 pc) to the MBM 12 cloud; it is not the nearestmolecular cloud and is not inside the local bubble of hot ionized gas ashad been implied by previous distance estimates of 50-100 pc. I havealso used Li strengths and H-R diagrams to constrain the absolute andrelative ages of MBM 12A and other young populations; these dataindicate ages of 2+3-1 Myr for MBM 12A and ~10 Myrfor the TW Hya and η Cha associations. MBM 12A may be a slightlyevolved version of the aggregates of young stars within the Taurus darkclouds (~1 Myr) near the age of the IC 348 cluster (~2 Myr). A Hipparcos study of the Hyades open cluster. Improved colour-absolute magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russell diagramsHipparcos parallaxes fix distances to individual stars in the Hyadescluster with an accuracy of ~ 6 percent. We use the Hipparcos propermotions, which have a larger relative precision than the trigonometricparallaxes, to derive ~ 3 times more precise distance estimates, byassuming that all members share the same space motion. An investigationof the available kinematic data confirms that the Hyades velocity fielddoes not contain significant structure in the form of rotation and/orshear, but is fully consistent with a common space motion plus a(one-dimensional) internal velocity dispersion of ~ 0.30 kms-1. The improved parallaxes as a set are statisticallyconsistent with the Hipparcos parallaxes. The maximum expectedsystematic error in the proper motion-based parallaxes for stars in theouter regions of the cluster (i.e., beyond ~ 2 tidal radii ~ 20 pc) isla 0.30 mas. The new parallaxes confirm that the Hipparcos measurementsare correlated on small angular scales, consistent with the limitsspecified in the Hipparcos Catalogue, though with significantly smalleramplitudes'' than claimed by Narayanan & Gould. We use the Tycho-2long time-baseline astrometric catalogue to derive a set of independentproper motion-based parallaxes for the Hipparcos members. The newparallaxes provide a uniquely sharp view of the three-dimensionalstructure of the Hyades. The colour-absolute magnitude diagram of thecluster based on the new parallaxes shows a well-defined main sequencewith two gaps''/turn-offs''. These features provide the first directobservational support of Böhm-Vitense's prediction that (the onsetof) surface convection in stars significantly affects their (B-V)colours. We present and discuss the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram (log L versus log T_eff) for an objectively defined set of 88high-fidelity members of the cluster as well as the delta Scuti startheta 2 Tau, the giants delta 1, theta1, epsilon , and gamma Tau, and the white dwarfs V471 Tau andHD 27483 (all of which are also members). The precision with which thenew parallaxes place individual Hyades in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram is limited by (systematic) uncertainties related to thetransformations from observed colours and absolute magnitudes toeffective temperatures and luminosities. The new parallaxes providestringent constraints on the calibration of such transformations whencombined with detailed theoretical stellar evolutionary modelling,tailored to the chemical composition and age of the Hyades, over thelarge stellar mass range of the cluster probed by Hipparcos. The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 On the Variability of G0-G9 StarsWe investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of G0-G9 stars. Mostare not particularly variable over the 3 year observing period, but maybe over a longer time. Stars for which further study is desirable areidentified. The distance to the nearest star-forming clouds: MBM12 and MBM20We present high-resolution spectra (R ~ 49,000) of stars that haveparallax measurements from the Hipparcos satellite and are projectedalong the line of sight to the two nearest known star forming clouds tothe Sun: MBM12 and MBM20. The spectra were obtained with the FOCESEchelle Spectrograph at the 2.2 meter telescope in Calar Alto, Spain andthe wavelength range was chosen to include the interstellar Na I D linesat lambda 5889.950 Ä and lambda 5895.924 Ä. Since the starsare at a range of distances, we use their spectra along with theirparallaxes from Hipparcos to determine the distance to the moleculargas. The stars in front of the cloud do not show interstellar Na I Dabsorption features while the stars behind the cloud do showinterstellar absorption features. We find that both clouds are somewhatmore distant than previously estimated. The revised distance to MBM12 is58+/-5 pc < d < 90+/-12 pc and the distance to MBM20 is 112+/-15pc < d < 161+/-21 pc. New discovery of weak-line T Tauri stars in high-Galactic latitude molecular cloudsStar formation efficiency in translucent molecular clouds has long beenan unresolved and key issue in the field of low-mass star formation. Inthis paper, we report on the results of our survey for low-mass starformation in high-Galactic latitude molecular clouds, especially thoseof the translucent category, based on the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Nine newweak-line T Tauri star candidates have been discovered at high-Galacticlatitudes, among which, 6 are seen against - thus possibly associatedwith - the translucent molecular clouds, MBM 16, MBM 19 and MBM 55.Further study on the Li-rich X-ray active sources is necessary to shedmore light on star formation in translucent molecular clouds. ROSAT PSPC observations of T Tauri stars in MBM12 PSPC observations of T Tauri stars in MBM12We present the ROSAT PSPC pointed and ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS)observations and the results of our low and high spectral resolutionoptical follow-up observations of the T Tauri stars (TTS) and X-rayselected T Tauri star candidates in the region of the high galacticlatitude dark cloud MBM12 (L1453-L1454, L1457, L1458). Previousobservations have revealed 3 classical'' T Tauri stars and 1weak-line'' T Tauri star along the line of sight to the cloud. Becauseof the proximity of the cloud to the sun, all of the previously knownTTS along this line of sight were detected in the 25 ks ROSAT PSPCpointed observation of the cloud. We conducted follow-up opticalspectroscopy at the 2.2-meter telescope at Calar Alto to look forsignatures of youth in additional X-ray selected T Tauri starcandidates. These observations allowed us to confirm the existence of 4additional TTS associated with the cloud and at least 2 young mainsequence stars that are not associated with the cloud and place an upperlimit on the age of the TTS in MBM12 ~ 10 Myr. The distance to MBM12 hasbeen revised from the previous estimate of 65+/-5 pc to 65+/-35 pc basedon results of the Hipparcos satellite. At this distance MBM12 is thenearest known molecular cloud to the sun with recent star formation. Weestimate a star-formation efficiency for the cloud of 2-24%. We havealso identified a reddened G9 star behind the cloud with A_v ~ 8.4-8.9mag. Therefore, there are at least two lines of sight through the cloudthat show larger extinctions (A_v > 5 mag) than previously thoughtfor this cloud. This higher extinction explains why MBM12 is capable ofstar-formation while most other high-latitude clouds are not. Table~4 isonly available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.} Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included). A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Chemical abundances of A and F-type stars: the Hyades open clusterAbundances of 11 chemical elements have been determined for 29 F and 19A dwarfs (normal'' and chemically peculiar with apparent rotationalvelocities ranging from 11 to 237 km.s^{-1}) members of the Hyadescluster using Takeda's (1995) iterative procedure well suited for fastrotators. High quality spectra of high to moderate resolution have beensynthesized to derive the apparent rotational velocities, microturbulentvelocities and abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba.For the F stars, the found abundances are compared to the predictions ofTurcotte et al.'s (1998) evolutionary models for the age of the Hyades.We fail to find the expected underabundances for light elements nor theoverabundances for the iron-peak elements for stars having effectivetemperatures greater than 6500 K. This suggests that diffusion alonecannot account for the derived abundances: other transport processeswhich counteract diffusion are probably at play. For the A stars,abundances of Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni and Ba are anticorrelated(correlated for O) with the apparent equatorial velocities forve\sin i higher than ~ 100 km.s^{-1}. Below this value, wefind no correlation in agreement with the predictions of Charbonneau& Michaud (1991) except possibly for the abundance of Ni which mightbe anticorrelated with ve\sin i. The fastest rotators(ve\sin i >= 150 km.s^{-1}) are strongly depletted in Mg,Si, Ca, Fe, Ni and Ba (between -0.3 dex and -0.94 dex) while their Oabundance is normal. Based on observations collected at Observatoire deHaute Provence (France) X-ray emission from A0-F6 spectral type starsWe use the ROSAT public data archive to study the X-ray emission of asample of supposedly single A0-F6 spectral type stars from the BrightStar Catalogue. We detected X-ray emission from 19 A- and 33 F-typestars. However, our results are not sufficient to associate withcertainty the X-ray emission to the A-type stars themselves, since theusual argument that it may originate from a binary companion cannot beexcluded. A spectral analysis was conducted for 14 sources (3 A and 11F), finding that for 12 of them a two temperature thermal plasma modelis needed to reproduce the observed spectra. The two temperatures arecentered at 0.13 and 0.54 keV, respectively. The values found for thehigher temperature are lower than that ones of X-ray selected singlelate-type stars. The X-ray luminosities are in the range LX ~10(28}-10({30)) erg s(-1) , with a distribution similar to that ofactive late-type stars. No correlation is found between LXand B-V color, V sin i and Lbol, while a positive correlationis found between the X-ray luminosity and the hardness ratio. Progress on Establishing the Spatial Distribution of Material Responsible for the 1 4 keV Soft X-Ray Diffuse Background Local and Halo ComponentsIn this paper we present a new look at the distribution of emissionresponsible for the soft X-ray diffuse background (SXRB) using ROSATall-sky survey data. This is prompted by the demonstration of theexistence of extensive \frac {1}{4} keV emission in the Galactic halothat was not considered in the most successful previous model, in whichthe bulk of the observed \frac {1}{4} keV X-rays originated in a LocalHot Bubble (LHB) that surrounds the Sun. The basic distribution can berepresented by two angularly varying Galactic components (the LHB and anX-ray halo) and an isotropic extragalactic component. In addition, thereare the distinct enhancements of supernova remnants, superbubbles, andclusters of galaxies. Using the negative correlation between the SXRBand DIRBE-corrected IRAS 100 mu m intensity, we find a LHB that issimilar to previous models, although it is possibly more limited inextent. The emission of the LHB varies by a factor of ~3.3 withdirection and produces ROSAT \frac {1}{4} keV intensities between ~250and ~820 x 10-6 counts s-1 arcmin-2 (typically brighter at higherGalactic latitudes), with inferred emission measures of ~0.0018 to0.0058 cm-6 pc (assuming thermal ionization equilibrium). Thedistribution of the emission temperature of the LHB is peaked at 106.07K with a range of +/-12% at FWHM. While this variation is small and isperhaps due to systematic uncertainties in the analysis, there is asuggestion of a cooler region in the anticenter direction consistentwith previous studies. We derive halo plus extragalactic intensitiesthat vary from ~400 to >~3000 x 10-6 counts s-1 arcmin-2 outside theabsorbing gas of the Galactic disk. As the low end of the range iscomparable to what is expected for the extragalactic background, thisimplies that the halo emission varies considerably over the sky, withinferred emission measures ranging from near zero to >0.02 cm-6 pc.The distribution of emission temperatures in the halo, again derivedfrom thermal equilibrium emission models, peaks near 106.02 K and variesover +/-20% at FWHM.

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 星座: 白羊座 右阿森松: 02h58m05.20s 赤纬: +20Â°40'07.0" 视星: 5.8 距离: 31.837 天文距离 右阿森松适当运动: 234.7 赤纬适当运动: -32 B-T magnitude: 6.284 V-T magnitude: 5.836

 适当名称 47 Arietis   (Edit) Flamsteed 47 Ari HD 1989 HD 18404 TYCHO-2 2000 TYC 1230-1425-1 USNO-A2.0 USNO-A2 1050-00793312 BSC 1991 HR 878 HIP HIP 13834 → 要求更多目录从vizier