|B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?|
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Far-Ultraviolet Stellar Photometry: Fields Centered on rho Ophiuchi and the Galactic Center|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..104..101S&db_key=AST
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Far-ultraviolet stellar photometry: Fields in Sagittarius and Scorpius|
Far-ultraviolet photometry for 741 objects in a field in Sagittariuscentered near M8 and 541 objects in a field centered near sigma Scorpiiis presented. These data were extracted from electographic imagesobtained with two cameras during a shuttle flight in 1991 April/May. Thecameras provided band passes with lambdaeff = 1375 A andlambdaeff = 1781 A. Synthetic colors show that these bandsare sensitive to effective temperature for hot stars. Our measurementswere placed on a quantitative far-ultraviolet magnitude scale byconvolving the spectra of stars observed by IUE with our cameras'spectral response functions. Fifty-eight percent of the ultravioletobjects were identified with visible stars using the SIMBAD databasewhile another 40% of the objects are blends of early type stars tooclose together to separate with our resolution. Our photometry iscompared with that from the TD-1, OAO 2, and ANS satellites and the S201(Apollo 16) far-ultraviolet camera and found to agree at the level of afew tenths of a magnitude. Unlike previous studies, almost half of theidentified visual counterparts to the ultraviolet objects are early Bstars. A plot of distance modulus against ultraviolet color excessreveals a significant population of stars with strong ultravioletexcess.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Radio H I and IRAS studies of interstellar material in the field of M22|
H I profiles are presented of the interstellar gas in the direction ofthe globular cluster M22, towards field stars for which opticalabsorption spectra are available and in other selected directions. Theseradio observations reveal the presence in H I of both low- andhigh-velocity gas components identified previously from opticalspectroscopy of background cluster stars. They also provide directdeterminations of the column densities for the nearby, low-velocity gaswhich appears to be associated with the Riegel and Crutcher cold cloudand for the high-velocity gas, which probably has an origin in theSagittarius arm. The structure of the gas towards the nearby star HD174632 is discussed using the H I profiles and the absorption linespectra of Crawford. IRAS images of dust emission for a field centerednear M22 are consistent with an origin associated with the low-velocitygas. The images also reveal filamentary structures which implycorresponding variations in the H I column density of up to some 20percent.
|An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars|
About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are usedto measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars fallingin the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-fourdetected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it isestimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to theX-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition tosummarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant opticaldata, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process andanalyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completenessand IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-rayemission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quitecommon in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless ofluminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes lesscommon, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.
|The nearby interstellar material in the general direction towards M22|
High-resolution optical spectra of interstellar absorption lines areused to examine reddening variations across the globular cluster M22which are produced by the nearby low-velocity gas. Fifteen cluster starstogether with three stars within 1.3 deg of the cluster were observed inthe Na D lines and in some case also the K I (7699 A) line. Optical andultraviolet spectra of closer stars which lie within several degrees ofM22 confirm that a rapid increase in gas-column density occurs at adistance of approximately 100 pc, but the material is considerably moreextensive in thickness than has been suggested previously. Although thecurrent schematic models for the Loop I and local bubbles describe in ageneral way some of the observed features of this local interstellarmaterial, they cannot account directly for the properties and thicknessof the gas determined in the present study.
|Spatial structure of the interstellar gas toward the globular cluster M22|
High-resolution spectra of Na I interstellar lines are presented for 14stars in the globular cluster M22. The interstellar gas foreground tothe cluster at distance about 2.6 kpc occurs essentially in two velocityranges. There is a low-velocity component which is quite uniform acrossthe cluster. This gas feature is likely to be a part of the extensiveand nearby H I cloud first mapped in the radio region. There is also gasat higher velocities detected between +25 and 60 km/s which is observedwith both a single- and a multi-component structure. Significant profilevariations for this gas occur on a scale less than 1 arcmin. Thelocation of this gas is not known but it may be associated with theSagittarius arm. Spectra of the K I interstellar line for a nearby starroughly 1.3 deg from the cluster and for two cluster members provideuseful estimates for the column densities of the gas components.
|Early type high-velocity stars in the solar neighborhood. IV - Four-color and H-beta photometry|
Results are presented from photometric obaservations in the Stromgrenuvby four-color and H-beta systems of early-type high-velocity stars inthe solar neighborhood. Several types of photometrically peculiar starsare selected on the basis of their Stromgren indices and areprovisionally identified as peculiar A stars, field horizontal-branchstars, metal-poor stars near the Population II and old-disk turnoffs,metal-poor blue stragglers, or metallic-line A stars. Numerousphotometrically normal stars were also found.
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.
|The S201 far-ultraviolet imaging survey. III - A field in Sagittarius|
Far-ultraviolet imagery of a 20 deg diameter field in Sagittarius,centered near (1950) R.A. 18 h 34 m, decl. -30 deg 25 arcmin, wasobtained by the S201 far-ultraviolet camera during the Apollo 16mission. In a 10-minute exposure covering the 1250-1600 A wavelengthrange, 1034 star images are detectable, with a limiting ultravioletmagnitude of about 10. Most of these objects are identified withearly-type stars listed in the Smithsonian Astrophysical ObservatoryStar Catalog, the Catalog of Stellar Identifications, or both, but 203objects remain unidentified or are identified with late-type stars. Thephotometric measurements appear to be in reasonable agreement with thoseof the International Ultraviolet Explorer for stars in common, and withexpectations for A0 stars. A detailed photometric study was made of theMessier 8 region, and it is concluded that dust-scattered starlightcontributes about half of the total radiation observed from the centralregion of M8.
|Is star formation bimodal ? II. The nearest early-type stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977PASP...89..187E&db_key=AST
|Photometry of AM stars|
|Spectral classification from the ultraviolet line features of S2/68 spectra. II - Late B-type stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977A&AS...30...71C&db_key=AST
|Radial velocities of bright southern stars, III|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1963MNRAS.126...29B&db_key=AST
|U, b, v, and Hβ Photometry for the Bright B8- and B9-TYPE Stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1963ApJ...137..530C&db_key=AST
|Colors of bright stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1954AJ.....59..228E&db_key=AST
|On the individual parallaxes of the brighter galactic helium stars in the southern hemisphere, together with considerations on the parallax of stars in general.|