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 CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsWe present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773 Local kinematics of K and M giants from CORAVEL/Hipparcos/Tycho-2 data. Revisiting the concept of superclustersThe availability of the Hipparcos Catalogue has triggered many kinematicand dynamical studies of the solar neighbourhood. Nevertheless, thosestudies generally lacked the third component of the space velocities,i.e., the radial velocities. This work presents the kinematic analysisof 5952 K and 739 M giants in the solar neighbourhood which includes forthe first time radial velocity data from a large survey performed withthe CORAVEL spectrovelocimeter. It also uses proper motions from theTycho-2 catalogue, which are expected to be more accurate than theHipparcos ones. An important by-product of this study is the observedfraction of only 5.7% of spectroscopic binaries among M giants ascompared to 13.7% for K giants. After excluding the binaries for whichno center-of-mass velocity could be estimated, 5311 K and 719 M giantsremain in the final sample. The UV-plane constructed from these datafor the stars with precise parallaxes (σπ/π≤20%) reveals a rich small-scale structure, with several clumpscorresponding to the Hercules stream, the Sirius moving group, and theHyades and Pleiades superclusters. A maximum-likelihood method, based ona Bayesian approach, has been applied to the data, in order to make fulluse of all the available stars (not only those with precise parallaxes)and to derive the kinematic properties of these subgroups. Isochrones inthe Hertzsprung-Russell diagram reveal a very wide range of ages forstars belonging to these groups. These groups are most probably relatedto the dynamical perturbation by transient spiral waves (as recentlymodelled by De Simone et al. \cite{Simone2004}) rather than to clusterremnants. A possible explanation for the presence of younggroup/clusters in the same area of the UV-plane is that they have beenput there by the spiral wave associated with their formation, while thekinematics of the older stars of our sample has also been disturbed bythe same wave. The emerging picture is thus one of dynamical streamspervading the solar neighbourhood and travelling in the Galaxy withsimilar space velocities. The term dynamical stream is more appropriatethan the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars ofdifferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. Theposition of those streams in the UV-plane is responsible for the vertexdeviation of 16.2o ± 5.6o for the wholesample. Our study suggests that the vertex deviation for youngerpopulations could have the same dynamical origin. The underlyingvelocity ellipsoid, extracted by the maximum-likelihood method afterremoval of the streams, is not centered on the value commonly acceptedfor the radial antisolar motion: it is centered on < U > =-2.78±1.07 km s-1. However, the full data set(including the various streams) does yield the usual value for theradial solar motion, when properly accounting for the biases inherent tothis kind of analysis (namely, < U > = -10.25±0.15 kms-1). This discrepancy clearly raises the essential questionof how to derive the solar motion in the presence of dynamicalperturbations altering the kinematics of the solar neighbourhood: doesthere exist in the solar neighbourhood a subset of stars having no netradial motion which can be used as a reference against which to measurethe solar motion?Based on observations performed at the Swiss 1m-telescope at OHP,France, and on data from the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.Full Table \ref{taba1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/430/165} Really Cool Stars and the Star Formation History at the Galactic CenterWe present λ/Δλ=550-1200 near-infrared H and Kspectra for a magnitude-limited sample of 79 asymptotic giant branch andcool supergiant stars in the central ~5 pc (diameter) of the Galaxy. Weuse a set of similar spectra obtained for solar neighborhood stars withknown Teff and Mbol that is in the same range asthe Galactic center (GC) sample to derive Teff andMbol for the GC sample. We then construct the H-R diagram forthe GC sample. Using an automated maximum likelihood routine, we derivea coarse star formation history of the GC. We find that (1) roughly 75%of the stars formed in the central few parsecs are older than 5 Gyr; (2)the star formation rate (SFR) is variable over time, with a roughly 4times higher SFR in the last 100 Myr compared to the average SFR; (3)our model can match dynamical limits on the total mass of stars formedonly by limiting the initial mass function to masses above 0.7Msolar (this could be a signature of mass segregation or ofthe bias toward massive star formation from the unique star formationconditions in the GC); (4) blue supergiants account for 12% of the totalsample observed, and the ratio of red to blue supergiants is roughly1.5; and (5) models with isochrones with [Fe/H]=0.0 over all ages fitthe stars in our H-R diagram better than models with lower [Fe/H] in theoldest age bins, consistent with the finding of Ramírez et al.that stars with ages between 10 Myr and 1 Gyr have solar [Fe/H]. Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Taurus-AurigaWe present high-resolution optical spectra obtained with the HIRESspectrograph on the W. M. Keck I Telescope of seven low-mass T Tauristars (LMTTs) and brown dwarfs in Taurus-Auriga. The observed Li I 6708Å absorption, low surface gravity signatures, and radialvelocities confirm that all are members of the Taurus star-formingregion; no new spectroscopic binaries are identified. Four of the seventargets observed appear to be T Tauri brown dwarfs. Of particularinterest is the previously classified continuum T Tauri star'' GM Tau,which has a spectral type of M6.5 and possibly a substellar mass. Thesespectra, in combination with previous high-resolution spectra of LMTTs,are used to understand the formation and early evolution of objects inTaurus-Auriga with masses near and below the stellar/substellarboundary. None of the LMTTs in Taurus are rapidly rotating (vsini<30km s-1), unlike low-mass objects in Orion. Many of the slowlyrotating, nonaccreting stars and brown dwarfs exhibit prominent Hαemission (equivalent widths of 3-36 Å), indicative of activechromospheres. We demonstrate empirically that the full width at 10% ofthe Hα emission profile peak is a more practical and possibly moreaccurate indicator of accretion than either the equivalent width ofHα or optical veiling: 10% widths >270 km s-1 areclassical T Tauri stars (i.e., accreting), independent of stellarspectral type. Although LMTTs can have accretion rates comparable tothat of more typical, higher mass T Tauri stars (e.g., K7-M0 spectraltypes), the average mass accretion rate appears to decrease withdecreasing mass. A functional form of M~M is consistent with theavailable data, but the dependence is difficult to establish because ofboth selection biases in observed samples and the decreasing frequencyof active accretion disks at low masses (M<0.2 Msolar).The diminished frequency of accretion disks for LMTTs, in conjunctionwith their lower, on average, mass accretion rates, implies that theyare formed with less massive disks than higher mass T Tauri stars. Theradial velocities, circumstellar properties, and known binaries do notsupport the suggestion that many of the lowest mass members of Taurushave been ejected from higher stellar density regions within the cloud.Instead, LMTTs appear to have formed and are evolving in the same way ashigher mass T Tauri stars, but with smaller disks and shorter disklifetimes. Wing Near-Infrared, TiO-Band, and V-Band Photometry of Chromospherically Active Star λ AndromedaeAs a pilot program, Wing near-IR, TiO-band, and V-band photometry isbeing conducted of the RS Canum Venaticorum type, chromosphericallyactive, G8 IV-III star λ Andromedae. The objective is toinvestigate a possible relationship between variation of the ~54 dayrotationally starspot modulated visual light curve and TiO absorptionstrength. The TiO (γ,0,0) absorption band strength at λ=719nm is very sensitive to temperature for cool stars and manifests itselfin cooler starspot regions (T<=4000 K). TiO photometry has anadvantage over conventional photometry in that it provides unambiguousmeasures of the fractional cool starspot coverage. In addition, as thestars rotate, the variation in the TiO index yields information aboutthe longitudinal distribution of the starspots. Importantly, combiningthe TiO photometry with the V-band and near-IR light curves allows thediscrimination of white-light faculae (=hot spot) and cool starspotcontributions. Initial results of this study indicate that the observedV-band and near-IR continua light variations found for λ Andprimarily arise from bright spot (plage) features rather than darkstarspots as is usually assumed. This is in contrast to current theoriesthat the visual light variation is solely due to dark spots. Modelsusing both bright and dark spot features have been developed and arebeing used to fit the light and TiO-index curves. The models account forcool/hot spot characteristics such as projected filling factor andtemperature. The long-term variation of V light and TiO index have beeninvestigated to search for any activity cycles. Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systemsFor Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997 Infrared spectral classification of normal stars.Moderate resolution (~400) 2.38-45.2 mu m infrared spectra of starswithout dust features were obtained with the Short WavelengthSpectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Theobservations are part of a larger program with the objective to extendand refine the current infrared classification schemes. In particular,our data provide the basis for a more detailed classification of the1.N-1.NO sources (ordinary and oxygen rich naked stars) as defined byKraemer et al. (\cite{kraemer}) in a comprehensive classification of theISO-SWS spectra. For our analysis, the continuum was determined byfitting Engelke's function (Engelke \cite{engelke}) to the SWS data. Thestellar angular diameters derived from these estimates of the continuumare in good agreement with values obtained by other methods. Analysis ofthe equivalent widths of the CO fundamental and first overtone molecularbands, the SiO fundamental and first overtone, as well as theH2O bending mode band as a function of MK class, reveals thatthere is sufficient information in the SWS spectra to distinguishbetween hot (B, A, F) and cool stars. Furthermore, it is possible todetermine the spectral type for the G, K and M giants, and subtyperanges in a sequence of K and M giants. The equivalent widths of the COand SiO bands are found to be well correlated in K and M stars, suchthat the equivalent widths of the CO fundamental, the SiO first overtoneand the SiO fundamental can be reasonably well extrapolated from thedepth of the CO first overtone. We have identified two stars,HR 365 and V Nor, whosemid-infrared spectrum does not correspond to their respective opticalclassification. HR 365 may have a late M companion,which dominates the observed infrared spectrum while VNor is a late type giant that was included because itsspectrum was classified as featureless under the IRAS LRS scheme.According to Kraemer et al. (\cite{kraemer}), V Norhas a thin dust shell, which distorts the analysis of its mid-infraredabsorption bands. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project withinstruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries:France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK) and with the participationof ISAS and NASA. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution MeasurementsThe Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includesmost of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunaroccultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infraredwavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwisebeen made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. Inparticular, visual and infrared photometry is included for almost allthe sources. This has been partly extracted from currently availablecatalogs, and partly obtained specifically for CHARM. The main aim is toprovide a compilation of sources which could be used as calibrators orfor science verification purposes by the new generation of largeground-based facilities such as the ESO Very Large Interferometer andthe Keck Interferometer. The Catalog is available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/386/492, and from theauthors on CD-Rom. Long-Term VRI Photometry of Small-Amplitude Red Variables. I. Light Curves and PeriodsWe report up to 5000 days of VRI photometry, from a robotic photometrictelescope, of 34 pulsating red giants, namely, TV Psc, EG And, Z Psc, RZAnd, 4 Ori, RX Lep, UW Lyn, η Gem, μ Gem, ψ1 Aur,V523 Mon, V614 Mon, HD 52690, Y Lyn, BC CMi, X Cnc, UX Lyn, RS Cnc, VYUMa, ST UMa, TU CVn, FS Com, SW Vir, 30 Her, α1 Her,V642 Her, R Lyr, V450 Aql, V1293 Aql, δ Sge, EU Del, V1070 Cyg, WCyg, and μ Cep, as well as a few variable comparison stars. V, R, andI variations are generally in phase. The length and density of the dataenable us to look for variations on timescales ranging from days toyears. We use both power-spectrum (Fourier) analysis and autocorrelationanalysis, as well as light-curve analysis; these three approaches arecomplementary. The variations range from regular to irregular, but inmost of the stars, we find a period in the range of 20-200 days, whichis probably due to low-order radial pulsation. In many of the stars, wealso find a period which is an order of magnitude longer. It may be dueto rotation, or it may be due to a new kind of convectively inducedoscillatory thermal mode, recently proposed by P. Wood. Long period variable stars: galactic populations and infrared luminosity calibrationsIn this paper HIPPARCOS astrometric and kinematic data are used tocalibrate both infrared luminosities and kinematical parameters of LongPeriod Variable stars (LPVs). Individual absolute K and IRAS 12 and 25luminosities of 800 LPVs are determined and made available in electronicform. The estimated mean kinematics is analyzed in terms of galacticpopulations. LPVs are found to belong to galactic populations rangingfrom the thin disk to the extended disk. An age range and a lower limitof the initial mass is given for stars of each population. A differenceof 1.3 mag in K for the upper limit of the Asymptotic Giant Branch isfound between the disk and old disk galactic populations, confirming itsdependence on the mass in the main sequence. LPVs with a thin envelopeare distinguished using the estimated mean IRAS luminosities. The levelof attraction (in the classification sense) of each group for the usualclassifying parameters of LPVs (variability and spectral types) isexamined. Table only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/374/968 or via ASTRIDdatabase (http://astrid.graal.univ-montp2.fr). Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). Long-Term VRI Photometry of Pulsating Red GiantsWe report up to 5000 days of VRI photometry, from a robotic photometrictelescope, of 37 pulsating red giants, namely: TV Psc, EG And, Z Psc, RZAnd, 4 Ori, RX Lep, η Gem, μ Gem, UW Lyn, ψ 1 Aur,V523 Mon, V614 Mon, HD 52690, Y Lyn, BC CMi, X Cnc, UX Lyn, RS Cnc, VYUMa, ST UMa, TU CVn, FS Com, 35 Com, SW Vir, 30 Her, α1 Her, V642 Her, R Lyr, HD 174621, V450 Aql, V1293 Aql,δ Sge, EU Del, V1070 Cyg, W Cyg, μ Cep, and ν Cep. V, R, andI variations are generally in phase. The length and density of the dataenable us to look for variations on time scales ranging from days toyears. We use both power-spectrum (Fourier) analysis, andautocorrelation analysis, as well as light-curve analysis; these threeapproaches are complementary. The variations range from regular toirregular but, in most of the stars, we find a period in the range of 20to 200 days which is probably due to low-order radial pulsation. In manyof the stars, we also find a period which is an order of magnitudelonger. It may be due to rotation, or it may be due to a new kind ofconvectively-induced oscillatory thermal mode, recently proposed byPeter Wood. Supported by NASA, NSF, and NSERC Canada. Simple photometric observations of BR Canum Venaticorum (a troublesome comparison star)During the last four years an Optec SSP3 photometer has been used toobtain lightcurves for various suspected and confirmed variable stars.Upon analysis the semi-regular variable BR CVn (formerly a comparisonstar for V CVn) showed clear periods of 712 and 71 days, both periodshaving average peak-to-peak amplitudes of less than 0.3 magnitude. Thetotal observed range using a V-band filter has been 6.47-7.17. Speckle Interferometry of New and Problem HIPPARCOS BinariesThe ESA Hipparcos satellite made measurements of over 12,000 doublestars and discovered 3406 new systems. In addition to these, 4706entries in the Hipparcos Catalogue correspond to double star solutionsthat did not provide the classical parameters of separation and positionangle (rho,theta) but were the so-called problem stars, flagged G,''O,'' V,'' or X'' (field H59 of the main catalog). An additionalsubset of 6981 entries were treated as single objects but classified byHipparcos as suspected nonsingle'' (flag S'' in field H61), thusyielding a total of 11,687 problem stars.'' Of the many ground-basedtechniques for the study of double stars, probably the one with thegreatest potential for exploration of these new and problem Hipparcosbinaries is speckle interferometry. Results are presented from aninspection of 848 new and problem Hipparcos binaries, using botharchival and new speckle observations obtained with the USNO and CHARAspeckle cameras. Period-Luminosity-Colour distribution and classification of Galactic oxygen-rich LPVs. I. Luminosity calibrationsThe absolute K magnitudes and kinematic parameters of about 350oxygen-rich Long-Period Variable stars are calibrated, by means of anup-to-date maximum-likelihood method, using Hipparcos parallaxes andproper motions together with radial velocities and, as additional data,periods and V-K colour indices. Four groups, differing by theirkinematics and mean magnitudes, are found. For each of them, we alsoobtain the distributions of magnitude, period and de-reddened colour ofthe base population, as well as de-biased period-luminosity-colourrelations and their two-dimensional projections. The SRa semiregulars donot seem to constitute a separate class of LPVs. The SRb appear tobelong to two populations of different ages. In a PL diagram, theyconstitute two evolutionary sequences towards the Mira stage. The Mirasof the disk appear to pulsate on a lower-order mode. The slopes of theirde-biased PL and PC relations are found to be very different from theones of the Oxygen Miras of the LMC. This suggests that a significantnumber of so-called Miras of the LMC are misclassified. This alsosuggests that the Miras of the LMC do not constitute a homogeneousgroup, but include a significant proportion of metal-deficient stars,suggesting a relatively smooth star formation history. As a consequence,one may not trivially transpose the LMC period-luminosity relation fromone galaxy to the other Based on data from the Hipparcos astrometrysatellite. Appendix B is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Velocity variations of semiregular variables in the infraredWe obtained time series of high resolution spectra around 1.6 mu m for15 short period semiregular variables to study the velocity variationsin their atmospheres with the help of second overtonevibration-rotational lines of CO. All objects of our sample clearly showvelocity variations of a few km s-1. The amplitude of theblue' SRVs (according to Kerschbaum & Hron te{KH92}) is on theaverage a factor of two smaller than that of the red' SRVs. Periodicityof the variations differs from star to star. Some SRVs vary with theperiod listed in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS4), otherswith a considerable longer period. But for all SRVs the measuredvelocities at 1.6 mu m are over a large part of the cycle smaller thanthe velocities found in the literature. Different explanations of thisfeature are discussed. We think that the observed difference in meanvelocity might be caused by a blueshift due to large convective cells onthe stellar surface. A search for Technetium in semiregular variablesWe searched for the lines of Tc in the spectra of Semiregular variables(SRVs) in the wavelength region from 4180 to 4300 Å using highresolution spectroscopy. Tc as an s-process element is produced on thethermally pulsing AGB and is therefore a good indicator for theevolutionary status of Semiregular variables. Combining our results withprevious investigations we get a database large enough for a statisticalstudy. Tc is not found in SRVs with periods below 100 days, spectraltypes earlier than M5 and photospheric IRAS colours. These objects areblue' SRVs in the classification system of Kerschbaum & Hron(\cite{KH94}). Among the red' SRVs (periods longer than 100 days) thefraction of stars showing Tc in their spectra is about 15 % with aprobably lower fraction among the stars with periods above 150 days.This is significantly lower than for the typical Miras. Taking intoaccount the probable conditions for the occurence of the third dredge-upand the expected behavior of the Tc abundance along an evolutionarytrack on the AGB, our results support an evolutionary scenario fromblue' SRVs (early AGB) to red' SRVs (early TP-AGB) and on to longperiod Miras. Only the most massive (masses above 2M_ȯ) stars showTc during the SRV stage. The luminosities of the Tc-rich SRVs and Mirasare compatible with theoretical estimates of the minimum core massrequired for the third dredge-up. Based on observations collected at theEuropean Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO No.54.E-0350), theGerman Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by theMax-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the SpanishNational Commission for Astronomy, and Kitt Peak National Observatory,USA. Pulsation Modes in Small-Amplitude Red Variable StarsWe have investigated the pulsation modes of small-amplitude redvariables with well-determined periods and accurate Hipparcos parallaxesby comparing observational and theoretical Q-values. In our sample of 13stars, one appears to be pulsating in the third overtone, nine in thefirst or second overtone, and three in the fundamental or firstovertone. This result is consistent with the predictions of recentpulsation models by Xiong et al. Stellar radii of M giantsWe determine the stellar radii of the M giant stars in the Hipparcoscatalogue that have a parallax measured to better than 20% accuracy.This is done with the help of a relation between a visual surfacebrightness parameter and the Cousins (V - I) colour index, which wecalibrate with M giants with published angular diameters.The radii of(non-Mira) M giants increase from a median value of 50 R_Sun at spectraltype M0 III to 170 R_Sun at M7/8 III. Typical intermediate giant radiiare 65 R_Sun for M1/M2, 90 R_Sun for M3, 100 R_Sun for M4, 120 R_Sun forM5 and 150 R_Sun for M6. There is a large intrinsic spread for a givenspectral type. This variance in stellar radius increases with latertypes but in relative terms, it remains constant.We determineluminosities and, from evolutionary tracks, stellar masses for oursample stars. The M giants in the solar neighbourhood have masses in therange 0.8-4 M_Sun. For a given spectral type, there is a close relationbetween stellar radius and stellar mass. We also find a linear relationbetween the mass and radius of non-variable M giants. With increasingamplitude of variability we have larger stellar radii for a given mass. The Infrared Spectral Classification of Oxygen-rich Dust ShellsThis paper presents infrared spectral classifications for a flux-limitedsample of 635 optically identified oxygen-rich variables includingsupergiants and sources on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Severalclasses of spectra from oxygen-rich dust exist, and these can bearranged in a smoothly varying sequence of spectral shapes known as thesilicate dust sequence. Classification based on this sequence revealsseveral dependencies of the dust emission on the properties of thecentral star. Nearly all S stars show broad emission features fromalumina dust, while most of the supergiants exhibit classic featuresfrom amorphous silicate dust. Mira variables with symmetric light curvesgenerally show broad alumina emission, while those with more asymmetriclight curves show classic silicate emission. These differences may arisefrom differences in the photospheric C/O ratio. Radii and effective temperatures for K and M giants and supergiants. II.Not Available Continuous declination system set up by observations of photoelectric astrolabe Mark I In Irkutsk. The first results of international cooperation between CSAO and VS NIIFTRIThe Photoelectric Astrolabe Mark I (PHA I) has been revised with a newcombined prism which could work as an almucantar with zenith distance of45(deg) , to measure continuous declinations at the latitude of Irkutsk,Russia (phi = 52fdg2 ). The PHA I has been working at the astronomicalbase of VS NIIFTRI in Irkutsk since Nov. 1995 based on an internationalcooperation agreement of near 4 years for star catalogue and EOPmeasurements. The first observing program was ended in June 1997, givingcorrections in both right ascension and declination to 200 stars with noblind zone in declination determination, which most astrolabe cataloguesin the world usually would have. Appendix is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution SpectraIRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed. Accurate Two-dimensional Classification of Stellar Spectra with Artificial Neural NetworksWe present a solution to the long-standing problem of automaticallyclassifying stellar spectra of all temperature and luminosity classeswith the accuracy shown by expert human classifiers. We use the 15Angstroms resolution near-infrared spectral classification systemdescribed by Torres-Dodgen & Weaver in 1993. Using the spectrum withno manual intervention except wavelength registration, artificial neuralnetworks (ANNs) can classify these spectra with Morgan-Keenan types withan accuracy comparable to that obtained by human experts using 2Angstroms resolution blue spectra, which is about 0.5 types (subclasses)in temperature and about 0.25 classes in luminosity. Accuratetemperature classification requires a hierarchy of ANNs, whileluminosity classification is most successful with a single ANN. Wepropose an architecture for a fully automatic classification system. HD 112082: A New Semiregular VariableNot Available Radii and Effective Temperatures for K and M Giants and SupergiantsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111.1705D&db_key=AST Pulsation Timescales and Amplitudes in a Sample of Bright Semi-Regular Variable StarsWe have analyzed the differential V-band photometric variations ofrecords up to 8 years long in ten M III semi-regular (SR) variablestars. Periodograms constructed from each star's entire record andseasoned intervals were used to find repetitive occurrences of pulsationperiods in the range of 10 to 250 days. For every star at least onelocus of periods was observed, with many stars showing two distinctdistributions of pulsation timescales. The observed pulsation periodsand differential V-magnitude semi-amplitudes appear to be correlatedsuch that longer periods correspond to larger semi-amplitudes. (SECTION:Stars) H-alpha measurements for cool giantsThe H-alpha line in a cool star is usually an indication of theconditions in its chromosphere. I have collected H-alpha spectra of manynorthern G-M stars, which show how the strength and shape of the H-alphaline change with spectral type. These observations detect surprisinglittle variation in absoption-line depth (Rc approximately0.23 +/- 0.08), linewidth (FWHD approximately 1.44 +/- 0.22 A), orequivalent width (EW approximately 1.12 +/- 0.17 A) among G5-M5 IIIgiants. Lines in the more luminous stars tend to be broader and strongerby 30%-40% than in the Class III giants, while the H-alpha absorptiontends to weaken among the cooler M giants. Velocities of H-alpha andnearby photospheric lines are the same to within 1.4 +/- 4.4 km/s forthe whole group. To interpret these observations, I have calculatedH-alpha profiles, Ly-alpha strengths, and (C II) strengths for a seriesof model chromospheres representing a cool giant star like alpha Tau.Results are sensitive to the mass of the chromosphere, to chromospherictemperature, to clumping of the gas, and to the assumed physics of lineformation. The ubiquitous nature of H-alpha in cool giants and the greatdepth of observed lines argue that chromospheres of giants cover theirstellar disks uniformly and are homogeneous on a large scale. This isquite different from conditions on a small scale: To obtain a highenough electron density with the theoretical models, both to explain theexitation of hydrogen and possibly also to give the observed C IImultiplet ratios, the gas is probably clumped. The 6540-6580 A spectraof 240 stars are plotted in an Appendix, which identifies the date ofobservation and marks positions of strong telluric lines on eachspectrum. I assess the effects of telluric lines and estimates that thestrength of scattered light is approximately 5% of the continuum inthese spectra. I give the measurements of H-alpha as well as equivalentwidths of two prominent photospheric lines, Fe I lambda 6546 and Ca Ilambda 6572, which strengthen with advancing spectral type. Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

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 星座: 獵犬座 右阿森松: 12h54m56.50s 赤纬: +47Â°11'48.0" 视星: 5.84 距离: 215.983 天文距离 右阿森松适当运动: -17.5 赤纬适当运动: -7.5 B-T magnitude: 7.73 V-T magnitude: 6.022