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# HD 130948 (HP Boötis)

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 Reliability Checks on the Indo-US Stellar Spectral Library Using Artificial Neural Networks and Principal Component AnalysisThe Indo-US coudé feed stellar spectral library (CFLIB) madeavailable to the astronomical community recently by Valdes et al. (2004,ApJS, 152, 251) contains spectra of 1273 stars in the spectral region3460 to 9464Å at a high resolution of 1Å (FWHM) and a widerange of spectral types. Cross-checking the reliability of this databaseis an important and desirable exercise since a number of stars in thisdatabase have no known spectral types and a considerable fraction ofstars has not so complete coverage in the full wavelength region of3460-9464Å resulting in gaps ranging from a few Å to severaltens of Å. We use an automated classification scheme based onArtificial Neural Networks (ANN) to classify all 1273 stars in thedatabase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried outto reduce the dimensionality of the data set before the spectra areclassified by the ANN. Most importantly, we have successfullydemonstrated employment of a variation of the PCA technique to restorethe missing data in a sample of 300 stars out of the CFLIB. Frequency of Debris Disks around Solar-Type Stars: First Results from a Spitzer MIPS SurveyWe have searched for infrared excesses around a well-defined sample of69 FGK main-sequence field stars. These stars were selected withoutregard to their age, metallicity, or any previous detection of IRexcess; they have a median age of ~4 Gyr. We have detected 70 μmexcesses around seven stars at the 3 σ confidence level. Thisextra emission is produced by cool material (<100 K) located beyond10 AU, well outside the habitable zones'' of these systems andconsistent with the presence of Kuiper Belt analogs with ~100 times moreemitting surface area than in our own planetary system. Only one star,HD 69830, shows excess emission at 24 μm, corresponding to dust withtemperatures >~300 K located inside of 1 AU. While debris disks withLdust/L*>=10-3 are rare around oldFGK stars, we find that the disk frequency increases from 2%+/-2% forLdust/L*>=10-4 to 12%+/-5% forLdust/L*>=10-5. This trend in thedisk luminosity distribution is consistent with the estimated dust inour solar system being within an order of magnitude greater or less thanthe typical level around similar nearby stars. Although there is nocorrelation of IR excess with metallicity or spectral type, there is aweak correlation with stellar age, with stars younger than a gigayearmore likely to have excess emission. X-ray emission of brown dwarfs: towards constraining the dependence on age, luminosity, and temperatureAims.We observed brown dwarfs in different evolutionary stages with theChandra X-ray Observatory with the aim to disentangle the influence ofdifferent stellar parameters on the X-ray emission of substellarobjects. The ages of our three targets (HR 7329 B, Gl 569 Bab, and HD130948 BC) are constrained by them being companions to main-sequencestars of known age. With both known age and effective temperature orbolometric luminosity, the mass can be derived from evolutionary models.Methods.Combining the new observations with previous studies presentedin the literature yields a brown dwarf sample that covers the age rangefrom ~1 Myr to ~1 Gyr. Since the atmospheric temperature of brown dwarfsis approximately constant at young ages, a sample with a large agespread is essential for investigating the possible influence ofeffective temperature on X-ray activity. Results.Two out of three browndwarfs are detected with Chandra, with variable lightcurves andcomparatively soft spectra. Combining our results with published dataallows us to consider a subsample of high-mass brown dwarfs (with0.05-0.07 M_ȯ), thus eliminating mass from the list of freeparameters. We find evidence that X-ray luminosity declines withdecreasing bolometric luminosity steeper than expected from thecanonical relation for late-type stars (L_x/L_bol =10-3...-5). Effective temperature is identified as a likelyparameter responsible for the additional decline of X-ray activity inthe more evolved (and therefore cooler) brown dwarfs of the "high-mass"sample. In another subsample of brown dwarfs characterized by similareffective temperature, the X-ray luminosity scales with the bolometricluminosity without indications for a deviation from the canonical rangeof 10-3...-5 observed for late-type stars.Conclusions.Ourfindings support the idea that effective temperature plays a criticalrole for the X-ray activity in brown dwarfs. This underlines an earliersuggestion based on observations of chromospheric Hα emission inultracool dwarfs that the low ionization fraction in the cool browndwarf atmospheres may suppress magnetic activity. Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search ProgramsWe present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples. Single-Visit Photometric and Obscurational CompletenessWe report a method that uses completeness'' to estimate the number ofextrasolar planets discovered by an observing program with adirect-imaging instrument. We develop a completeness function forEarth-like planets on habitable'' orbits for an instrument with acentral field obscuration, uniform sensitivity in an annular detectionzone, and limiting sensitivity that is expressed as a deltamagnitude'' with respect to the star, determined by systematic effects(given adequate exposure time). We demonstrate our method of estimationby applying it to our understanding of the coronagraphic version of theTerrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-C) mission as of 2004 October. Weestablish an initial relationship between the size, quality, andstability of the instrument's optics and its ability to meet missionscience requirements. We provide options for increasing the fidelity andversatility of the models on which our method is based, and we discusshow the method could be extended to model the TPF-C mission as a wholeto verify that its design can meet the science requirements. The Planet-Metallicity CorrelationWe have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determineTeff, logg, vsini, and [Fe/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on theKeck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. Thisis the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has beenmade for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identifya subset of 850 stars that have Doppler observations sufficient todetect uniformly all planets with radial velocity semiamplitudes K>30m s-1 and orbital periods shorter than 4 yr. From this subsetof stars, we determine that fewer than 3% of stars with-0.5<[Fe/H]<0.0 have Doppler-detected planets. Above solarmetallicity, there is a smooth and rapid rise in the fraction of starswith planets. At [Fe/H]>+0.3 dex, 25% of observed stars have detectedgas giant planets. A power-law fit to these data relates the formationprobability for gas giant planets to the square of the number of metalatoms. High stellar metallicity also appears to be correlated with thepresence of multiple-planet systems and with the total detected planetmass. This data set was examined to better understand the origin of highmetallicity in stars with planets. None of the expected fossilsignatures of accretion are observed in stars with planets relative tothe general sample: (1) metallicity does not appear to increase as themass of the convective envelopes decreases, (2) subgiants with planetsdo not show dilution of metallicity, (3) no abundance variations for Na,Si, Ti, or Ni are found as a function of condensation temperature, and(4) no correlations between metallicity and orbital period oreccentricity could be identified. We conclude that stars with extrasolarplanets do not have an accretion signature that distinguishes them fromother stars; more likely, they are simply born in higher metallicitymolecular clouds.Based on observations obtained at Lick and Keck Observatories, operatedby the University of California, and the Anglo-Australian Observatories. Multiplicity among Widely Separated Brown Dwarf Companions to Nearby Stars: Gliese 337CDWe present Lick Natural Guide Star Adaptive Optics observations of theL8 brown dwarf Gl 337C, which is resolved for the first time into twoclosely separated (0.53"+/-0.03"), nearly equal magnitude componentswith a Ks flux ratio of 0.93+/-0.10. Companionship isinferred from the absence of a 3.6" offset source in Two Micron All SkySurvey or photographic plate images, implying that the observedsecondary component is a comoving late-type dwarf. With a projectedseparation of 11 AU and nearly equal magnitude components, Gl 337CD hasproperties similar to those of other known companion and fieldsubstellar binaries. Its long orbital period (estimated to be ~140-180yr) inhibits short-term astrometric mass measurements, but the Gl 337CDsystem is ideal for studying the L-T transition at a fixed age andmetallicity. From a compilation of all known widely separated (>~100AU) stellar-brown dwarf multiple systems, we find evidence that thebinary fraction of brown dwarfs in these systems is notably higher thanthat of field brown dwarfs, 45+15-13% versus18+7-4% for analogous samples. We speculate onpossible reasons for this difference, including the possibility thatdynamic (ejection) interactions that may form such wide pairspreferentially retain binary secondaries because of their greatercombined mass and/or ability to absorb angular momentum. Low-mass companions to Hyades starsIt is now well established that a large fraction of the low-mass starsare binaries or higher order multiples. Similarly a sizable fractionhave giant planets. In contrast to these, the situation for brown dwarfcompanions is complicated: While close systems seem to be extremelyrare, wide systems are possibly more common. In this paper, we presentnew results on a survey for low-mass companions in the Hyades. Aftermeasuring precisely the radial velocity of 98 Hyades dwarf stars for 5years, we have selected all stars that show low-amplitude long-periodtrends. With AO-observations of these 14 stars we found companioncandidates around nine of them, where one star has two companions. Thetwo companions of HIP 16548 have masses between 0.07 to 0.08Mȯ, and are thus either brown dwarfs or very low massstars. In the case of HAN 172 we found a companion with a mass between0.08 to 0.10 Mȯ, which is again between a star and abrown dwarf. The other seven stars all have stellar companions. In twoadditional cases, the RV-variations are presumably caused by stellaractivity, and in another case the companion could be a short-periodbinary. The images of the remaining two stars are slightly elongated,which might imply that even these are binaries. Because at least 12 ofthe 14 stars showing low-amplitude RV trends turn out to have companionswith a mass ≥ 70 M_Jupiter, or are just active, we finally estimatethe number of companions with masses between 10 M_Jupiter and 70M_Jupiter within 8 AU of the host stars in the Hyades as ≤2%. Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's diskWe have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratiosfrom the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of severalalpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of theGalaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg,Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H]< +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences betweenabundances measured in the different studies were lower than randomerrors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions fromHipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreivedfor 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits havebeen computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesianmethod of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative ofthe thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account theHercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probabledynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemicallywell separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both showparallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in theinterval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respectto Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even largerenhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than thethin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus instar formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observea vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Herculesstream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a widerrange of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk andsuper-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers inall their properties. A survey of 10-μm silicate emission from dust around young sun-like starsWe obtained low resolution (R=100) mid-infrared (8-13 μm wavelengths)spectra of 8 nearby young main sequence stars with the Keck 1 telescopeand Long-Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) to search for 10 μm silicate(Si-O stretch) emission from circumstellar dust. No stars exhibitedreadily apparent emission: Spectra were then analyzed by least-squaresfitting of a template based on a spectrum of Comet Hale-Bopp. Using thistechnique, we were able to constrain the level of silicate emission to athreshold 10 times below what was previously possible from space. Wefound one star, HD 17925, with a spectrum statistically differentfrom its calibrator and consistent with a silicate emission peak of 7%of the photosphere at a wavelength of 10 μm. Excess emission at 60μm from this star has already been reported. Lithium abundances of the local thin disc starsLithium abundances are presented for a sample of 181 nearby F and Gdwarfs with accurate Hipparcos parallaxes. The stars are on circularorbits about the Galactic centre and, hence, are identified as belongingto the thin disc. This sample is combined with two published surveys toprovide a catalogue of lithium abundances, metallicities ([Fe/H]),masses, and ages for 451 F-G dwarfs, almost all belonging to the thindisc. The lithium abundances are compared and contrasted with publishedlithium abundances for F and G stars in local open clusters. The fieldstars span a larger range in [Fe/H] than the clusters for which [Fe/H]~=0.0 +/- 0.2. The initial (i.e. interstellar) lithium abundance of thesolar neighbourhood, as derived from stars for which astration oflithium is believed to be unimportant, is traced from logɛ(Li) =2.2 at [Fe/H]=-1 to logɛ(Li) = 3.2 at +0.1. This form for theevolution is dependent on the assumption that astration of lithium isnegligible for the stars defining the relation. An argument is advancedthat this latter assumption may not be entirely correct, and, theevolution of lithium with [Fe/H] may be flatter than previouslysupposed. A sharp Hyades-like Li dip is not seen among the field starsand appears to be replaced by a large spread among lithium abundances ofstars more massive than the lower mass limit of the dip. Astration oflithium by stars of masses too low to participate in the Li dip isdiscussed. These stars show little to no spread in lithium abundance ata given [Fe/H] and mass. Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M StarsWe present chromospheric Ca II H and K activity measurements, rotationperiods, and ages for ~1200 F, G, K, and M type main-sequence stars from~18,000 archival spectra taken at Keck and Lick Observatories as a partof the California and Carnegie Planet Search Project. We have calibratedour chromospheric S-values against the Mount Wilson chromosphericactivity data. From these measurements we have calculated medianactivity levels and derived R'HK, stellar ages,and rotation periods from general parameterizations for 1228 stars,~1000 of which have no previously published S-values. We also presentprecise time series of activity measurements for these stars.Based on observations obtained at Lick Observatory, which is operated bythe University of California, and on observations obtained at the W. M.Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University ofCalifornia and the California Institute of Technology. The KeckObservatory was made possible by the generous financial support of theW. M. Keck Foundation. The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar SpectraWe have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http. Dynamical Masses of the Binary Brown Dwarf GJ 569 BabWe have obtained new images and high-resolution (R~22,400) near-infrared(1.2400-1.2575 μm) spectra of each component of the brown dwarfbinary GJ 569 Bab using the adaptive optics facility of the Keck IItelescope and the NIRSPEC spectrometer. These data have allowed us toimprove the determination of the astrometric orbit and to measure radialvelocities of the components. We have used the astrometric andspectroscopic measurements to derive the dynamical mass of each browndwarf and the systemic velocity of the pair by means of aχ2 fitting technique. From various considerations, themass of each component is likely in the range 0.034-0.070Msolar (GJ 569 Bb) and 0.055-0.087 Msolar (GJ 569Ba). This implies that the mass ratio q of the binary is greater than0.4, the most likely value being q=0.75-0.85. Adopting 0.072Msolar as the most conservative location of the substellarlimit for solar metallicity, our analysis confirms GJ 569 Bb as thefirst genuine brown dwarf known without any theoretical assumptions. Wehave compared the dynamical masses of GJ 569 Ba and Bb, and theireffective temperatures and luminosities, to the predictions ofstate-of-the-art theoretical evolutionary isochrones, finding thatmodels exhibit good performance in the regime of high substellar massesif the binary is about a few hundred million years old. However, thesurface gravities of GJ 569 Ba (M8.5 V) and Bb (M9 V) derived from ourspectral analysis (the observed data have been compared to the latestsynthetic spectra) appear to be smaller than the values provided by theevolutionary models. Synthetic Lick Indices and Detection of α-enhanced Stars. II. F, G, and K Stars in the -1.0 < [Fe/H] < +0.50 RangeWe present an analysis of 402 F, G, and K solar neighborhood stars, withaccurate estimates of [Fe/H] in the range -1.0 to +0.5 dex, aimed at thedetection of α-enhanced stars and at the investigation of theirkinematical properties. The analysis is based on the comparison of 571sets of spectral indices in the Lick/IDS system, coming from fourdifferent observational data sets, with synthetic indices computed withsolar-scaled abundances and with α-element enhancement. We useselected combinations of indices to single out α-enhanced starswithout requiring previous knowledge of their main atmosphericparameters. By applying this approach to the total data set, we obtain alist of 60 bona fide α-enhanced stars and of 146 stars withsolar-scaled abundances. The properties of the detected α-enhancedand solar-scaled abundance stars with respect to their [Fe/H] values andkinematics are presented. A clear kinematic distinction betweensolar-scaled and α-enhanced stars was found, although a one-to-onecorrespondence to thin disk'' and thick disk'' components cannot besupported with the present data. Nearby stars of the Galactic disk and halo. III.High-resolution spectroscopic observations of about 150 nearby stars orstar systems are presented and discussed. The study of these and another100 objects of the previous papers of this series implies that theGalaxy became reality 13 or 14 Gyr ago with the implementation of amassive, rotationally-supported population of thick-disk stars. The veryhigh star formation rate in that phase gave rise to a rapid metalenrichment and an expulsion of gas in supernovae-driven Galactic winds,but was followed by a star formation gap for no less than three billionyears at the Sun's galactocentric distance. In a second phase, then, thethin disk - our familiar Milky Way'' - came on stage. Nowadays ittraces the bright side of the Galaxy, but it is also embedded in a hugecoffin of dead thick-disk stars that account for a large amount ofbaryonic dark matter. As opposed to this, cold-dark-matter-dominatedcosmologies that suggest a more gradual hierarchical buildup throughmergers of minor structures, though popular, are a poor description forthe Milky Way Galaxy - and by inference many other spirals as well - if,as the sample implies, the fossil records of its long-lived stars do notstick to this paradigm. Apart from this general picture that emergeswith reference to the entire sample stars, a good deal of the presentwork is however also concerned with detailed discussions of manyindividual objects. Among the most interesting we mention the bluestraggler or merger candidates HD 165401 and HD 137763/HD 137778, thelikely accretion of a giant planet or brown dwarf on 59 Vir in itsrecent history, and HD 63433 that proves to be a young solar analog at\tau200 Myr. Likewise, the secondary to HR 4867, formerly suspectednon-single from the Hipparcos astrometry, is directly detectable in thehigh-resolution spectroscopic tracings, whereas the visual binary \chiCet is instead at least triple, and presumably even quadruple. Withrespect to the nearby young stars a complete account of the Ursa MajorAssociation is presented, and we provide as well plain evidence foranother, the Hercules-Lyra Association'', the likely existence ofwhich was only realized in recent years. On account of its rotation,chemistry, and age we do confirm that the Sun is very typical among itsG-type neighbors; as to its kinematics, it appears however not unlikelythat the Sun's known low peculiar space velocity could indeed be thecause for the weak paleontological record of mass extinctions and majorimpact events on our parent planet during the most recent Galactic planepassage of the solar system. Although the significance of thiscorrelation certainly remains a matter of debate for years to come, wepoint in this context to the principal importance of the thick disk fora complete census with respect to the local surface and volumedensities. Other important effects that can be ascribed to this darkstellar population comprise (i) the observed plateau in the shape of theluminosity function of the local FGK stars, (ii) a small thoughsystematic effect on the basic solar motion, (iii) a reassessment of theterm asymmetrical drift velocity'' for the remainder (i.e. the thindisk) of the stellar objects, (iv) its ability to account for the bulkof the recently discovered high-velocity blue white dwarfs, (v) itsmajor contribution to the Sun's 220 km s-1 rotationalvelocity around the Galactic center, and (vi) the significant flatteningthat it imposes on the Milky Way's rotation curve. Finally we note ahigh multiplicity fraction in the small but volume-complete local sampleof stars of this ancient population. This in turn is highly suggestivefor a star formation scenario wherein the few existing single stellarobjects might only arise from either late mergers or the dynamicalejection of former triple or higher level star systems. The Brown Dwarf Desert at 75-1200 AUWe present results of a comprehensive infrared coronagraphic search forsubstellar companions to nearby stars. The research consisted of (1) a178-star survey at Steward and Lick observatories, with opticalfollow-up from Keck Observatory, capable of detecting companions withmasses greater than 30 MJ, and semimajor axes between about140 to 1200 AU; (2) a 102-star survey using the Keck Telescope, capableof detecting extrasolar brown dwarfs and planets typically more massivethan 10 MJ, with semimajor axes between about 75 and 300 AU.Only one brown dwarf companion was detected, and no planets. Thefrequency of brown dwarf companions to G, K, and M stars orbitingbetween 75 and 300 AU is measured to be 1%+/-1%, the most precisemeasurement of this quantity to date. The frequency of massive (greaterthan 30 MJ) brown dwarf companions at 120-1200 AU is found tobe f=0.7%+/-0.7%. The frequency of giant planet companions with massesbetween 5 and 10 MJ orbiting between 75 and 300 AU ismeasured here for the first time to be no more than ~3%. Together withother surveys that encompass a wide range of orbital separations, theseresults imply that substellar objects with masses between 12 and 75MJ form only rarely as companions to stars. Theories of starformation that could explain these data are only now beginning toemerge. Empirically Constrained Color-Temperature Relations. II. uvbyA new grid of theoretical color indices for the Strömgren uvbyphotometric system has been derived from MARCS model atmospheres and SSGsynthetic spectra for cool dwarf and giant stars having-3.0<=[Fe/H]<=+0.5 and 3000<=Teff<=8000 K. Atwarmer temperatures (i.e., 8000-2.0. To overcome thisproblem, the theoretical indices at intermediate and high metallicitieshave been corrected using a set of color calibrations based on fieldstars having well-determined distances from Hipparcos, accurateTeff estimates from the infrared flux method, andspectroscopic [Fe/H] values. In contrast with Paper I, star clustersplayed only a minor role in this analysis in that they provided asupplementary constraint on the color corrections for cool dwarf starswith Teff<=5500 K. They were mainly used to test thecolor-Teff relations and, encouragingly, isochrones thatemploy the transformations derived in this study are able to reproducethe observed CMDs (involving u-v, v-b, and b-y colors) for a number ofopen and globular clusters (including M67, the Hyades, and 47 Tuc)rather well. Moreover, our interpretations of such data are verysimilar, if not identical, with those given in Paper I from aconsideration of BV(RI)C observations for the sameclusters-which provides a compelling argument in support of thecolor-Teff relations that are reported in both studies. Inthe present investigation, we have also analyzed the observedStrömgren photometry for the classic Population II subdwarfs,compared our final'' (b-y)-Teff relationship with thosederived empirically in a number of recent studies and examined in somedetail the dependence of the m1 index on [Fe/H].Based, in part, on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope,operated jointly on the island of La Palma by Denmark, Finland, Iceland,Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de losMuchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Based, in part, on observations obtained with the Danish 1.54 mtelescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Chemical enrichment and star formation in the Milky Way disk. III. Chemodynamical constraintsIn this paper, we investigate some chemokinematical properties of theMilky Way disk, by using a sample composed by 424 late-type dwarfs. Weshow that the velocity dispersion of a stellar group correlates with theage of this group, according to a law proportional to t0.26,where t is the age of the stellar group. The temporal evolution of thevertex deviation is considered in detail. It is shown that the vertexdeviation does not seem to depend strongly on the age of the stellargroup. Previous studies in the literature seem to not have found it dueto the use of statistical ages for stellar groups, rather thanindividual ages. The possibility to use the orbital parameters of a starto derive information about its birthplace is investigated, and we showthat the mean galactocentric radius is likely to be the most reliablestellar birthplace indicator. However, this information cannot bepresently used to derive radial evolutionary constraints, due to anintrinsic bias present in all samples constructed from nearby stars. Anextensive discussion of the secular and stochastic heating mechanismscommonly invoked to explain the age-velocity dispersion relation ispresented. We suggest that the age-velocity dispersion relation couldreflect the gradual decrease in the turbulent velocity dispersion fromwhich disk stars form, a suggestion originally made by Tinsley &Larson (\cite{tinsley}, ApJ, 221, 554) and supported by several morerecent disk evolution calculations. A test to distinguish between thetwo types of models using high-redshift galaxies is proposed.Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/423/517 The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 Library of flux-calibrated echelle spectra of southern late-type dwarfs with different activity levelsWe present Echelle spectra of 91 late-type dwarfs, of spectral typesfrom F to M and of different levels of chromospheric activity, obtainedwith the 2.15 m telescope of the CASLEO Observatory located in theArgentinean Andes. Our observations range from 3890 to 6690 Å, ata spectral resolution from 0.141 to 0.249 Å per pixel(R=λ/δ λ ≈ 26 400). The observations were fluxcalibrated with the aid of long slit spectra. A version of thecalibrated spectra is available via the World Wide Web.Table 2 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/699The spectra are available as FITS and ascii-files at the URL:http://www.iafe.uba.ar/cincunegui/spectra/Table2.html. They are alsoavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/699. When convertingthe fits to ascii, the spectra were oversampled to a constant δλ ≈ 0.15 Å.Table 2 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous Some anomalies in the occurrence of debris discs around main-sequence A and G starsDebris discs consist of large dust grains that are generated bycollisions of comets or asteroids around main-sequence stars, and thequantity and distribution of debris may be used to detect the presenceof perturbing planets akin to Neptune. We use stellar and disc surveysto compare the material seen around A- and G-type main-sequence stars.Debris is detected much more commonly towards A stars, even when acomparison is made only with G stars of comparable age. Detection ratesare consistent with disc durations of ~0.5 Gyr, which may occur at anytime during the main sequence. The higher detection rate for A stars canresult from this duration being a larger fraction of the main-sequencelifetime, possibly boosted by a globally slightly larger disc mass thanfor the G-type counterparts. The disc mass range at any given age is afactor of at least ~100 and any systematic decline with time is slow,with a power law estimated to not be steeper than t-1/2.Comparison with models shows that dust can be expected as late as a fewGyr when perturbing planetesimals form slowly at large orbital radii.Currently, the Solar system has little dust because the radius of theKuiper Belt is small and hence the time-scale to produce planetesimalswas less than 1 Gyr. However, the apparently constant duration of ~0.5Gyr when dust is visible is not predicted by the models. Near-infrared adaptive optics spectroscopy of binary brown dwarfs HD 130948B and 130948C.Not Available A Search for Brown Dwarfs around Young Solar-Analog Stars Using the Hokupaa/Gemini Adaptive Optics SystemWe present the results of a search for low-mass companions around asample of young, solar-analog stars using the Hokupaa adaptive opticsinstrument mounted on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Out of 31 starsobserved, one binary brown dwarf system was found as a companion to thestar HD 130948 (HIP 72567), as confirmed by proper motion and near-IRspectra. Orbital motion between the two brown dwarfs was measured, butour 14 month time baseline is inadequate to accurately measure thesystem's dynamical mass. Upcoming spectroscopic observations of thebrown dwarfs will measure their lithium absorption lines to provide amore accurate age estimate of the system. The eventual dynamical massdetermination coupled with the age determination will provide a valuablecheck of brown dwarf evolutionary models. Detection of Nine M8.0-L0.5 Binaries: The Very Low Mass Binary Population and Its Implications for Brown Dwarf and Very Low Mass Star FormationUse of the highly sensitive Hokupa'a/Gemini curvature wave front sensorhas allowed direct adaptive optics (AO) guiding on very low mass (VLM)stars with SpT = M8.0-L0.5. A survey of 39 such objects detected nineVLM binaries (seven of which were discovered for the first time to bebinaries). Most of these systems are tight (separation <5 AU) andhave similar masses (ΔKs<0.8 mag; 0.852.4 mag and consist of a VLM star orbited by a much coolerL7-L8 brown dwarf companion. On the basis of this flux-limited (Ks<12mag) survey of 39 M8.0-L0.5 stars (mainly from the 2MASS sample of Giziset al.), we find a sensitivity-corrected binary fraction in the range15%+/-7% for M8.0-L0.5 stars with separations greater than 2.6 AU. Thisis less than the 32%+/-9% measured for more massive M0-M4 dwarfs overthe same separation range. It appears M8.0-L0.5 binaries (as well as Land T dwarf binaries) have a much smaller semimajor axis distributionpeak (~4 AU) compared to more massive M and G dwarfs, which have a broadpeak at larger ~30 AU separations. We also find no VLM binary systems(defined here as systems with Mtot<0.185Msolar)with separations greater than 15 AU. We briefly explore possible reasonswhy VLM binaries are slightly less common, nearly equal in mass, andmuch more tightly bound compared to more massive binaries. Weinvestigate the hypothesis that the lack of wide (a>20 AU) VLM/browndwarf binaries may be explained if the binary components were given asignificant differential velocity kick. Such a velocity kick ispredicted by current ejection'' theories, where brown dwarfs areformed because they are ejected from their embryonic minicluster andtherefore starved of accretion material. We find that a kick from aclose triple or quadruple encounter (imparting a differential kick of ~3km s-1 between the members of an escaping binary) couldreproduce the observed cutoff in the semimajor axis distribution at ~20AU. However, the estimated binarity (<~5%) produced by such ejectionscenarios is below the 15%+/-7% observed. Similarly, VLM binaries couldbe the final hardened binaries produced when a minicluster decays.However, the models of Sterzik & Durisen and Durisen, Sterzik, &Pickett also could not produce a VLM binary fraction of 15% and a G starbinary fraction of 57%. The observed VLM binary frequency could possiblybe produced by cloud core fragmentation. However, our estimate of afragmentation-produced VLM binary semimajor axis distribution contains asignificant fraction of wide'' VLM binaries with a>20 AU incontrast to observation. In summary, more detailed theoretical work willbe needed to explain these interesting results that show VLM binaries tobe a significantly different population from more massive M & Gdwarf binaries. An infrared imaging search for low-mass companions to members of the young nearby β Pic and Tucana/Horologium associationsWe present deep high dynamic range infrared images of young nearby starsin the Tucana/Horologium and β Pic associations, all  10 to 35Myrs young and at  10 to 60 pc distance. Such young nearby starsare well-suited for direct imaging searches for brown dwarf and evenplanetary companions, because young sub-stellar objects are stillself-luminous due to contraction and accretion. We performed ourobservations at the ESO 3.5m NTT with the normal infrared imagingdetector SofI and the MPE speckle camera Sharp-I. Three arc sec north ofGSC 8047-0232 in Horologium a promising brown dwarf companion candidateis detected, which needs to be confirmed by proper motion and/orspectroscopy. Several other faint companion candidates are alreadyrejected by second epoch imaging. Among 21 stars observed inTucana/Horologium, there are not more than one to five brown dwarfcompanions outside of 75 AU (1.5'' at 50 pc); most certainly only <=5% of the Tuc/HorA stars have brown dwarf companions (13 to 78 Jupitermasses) outside of 75 AU. For the first time, we can report an upperlimit for the frequency of massive planets ( 10 Mjup) atwide separations ( 100 AU) using a meaningfull and homogeneoussample: Of 11 stars observed sufficiently deep in β Pic (12 Myrs),not more than one has a massive planet outside of  100 AU, i.e.massive planets at large separations are rare (<= 9%).Based on observations obtained on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs65.L-0144(B), 66.D-0135, 66.C-0310(A), 67.C-0209(B), 67.C-0213(A),68.C-0008(A), and 68.C-0009(A)} } Multiplicity of Nearby Free-Floating Ultracool Dwarfs: A Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Search for CompanionsWe present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2(WFPC2) observations of a sample of 134 ultracool objects (spectraltypes later than M7) coming from the Deep Near Infrared Survey (DENIS),Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS),with distances estimated to range from 7 to 105 pc. Fifteen newultracool binary candidates are reported here. Eleven known binaries areconfirmed, and orbital motion is detected in some of them. We estimatethat the closest binary systems in this sample have periods between 5and 20 yr, and thus dynamical masses will be derived in the near future.For the calculation of binary frequency, we restrict ourselves tosystems with distances less than 20 pc. After correction of the binariesbias, we find a ratio of visual binaries (at the HST limit of detection)of around 10%, and that ~15% of the 26 objects within 20 pc are binarysystems with separations between 1 and 8 AU. The observed frequency ofultracool binaries is similar to that of binaries with G-type primariesin the separation range from 2.1 to 140 AU. There is also a cleardeficit of ultracool binaries with separations greater than 15 AU, and apossible tendency for the binaries to have mass ratios near unity. Mostsystems have indeed visual and near-infrared brightness ratios between 1and 0.3. We discuss our results in the framework of current scenariosfor the formation and evolution of free-floating brown dwarfs. The Hamburg/RASS Catalogue of optical identifications. Northern high-galactic latitude ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue X-ray sourcesWe present the Hamburg/RASS Catalogue (HRC) of optical identificationsof X-ray sources at high-galactic latitude. The HRC includes all X-raysources from the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue (RASS-BSC) with galacticlatitude |b| >=30degr and declination delta >=0degr . In thispart of the sky covering ~ 10 000 deg2 the RASS-BSC contains5341 X-ray sources. For the optical identification we used blue Schmidtprism and direct plates taken for the northern hemisphere Hamburg QuasarSurvey (HQS) which are now available in digitized form. The limitingmagnitudes are 18.5 and 20, respectively. For 82% of the selectedRASS-BSC an identification could be given. For the rest either nocounterpart was visible in the error circle or a plausibleidentification was not possible. With ~ 42% AGN represent the largestgroup of X-ray emitters, ~ 31% have a stellar counterpart, whereasgalaxies and cluster of galaxies comprise only ~ 4% and ~ 5%,respectively. In ~ 3% of the RASS-BSC sources no object was visible onour blue direct plates within 40\arcsec around the X-ray sourceposition. The catalogue is used as a source for the selection of(nearly) complete samples of the various classes of X-ray emitters. STELIB: A library of stellar spectra at R ~ 2000We present STELIB, a new spectroscopic stellar library, available athttp://webast.ast.obs-mip.fr/stelib. STELIB consists of an homogeneouslibrary of 249 stellar spectra in the visible range (3200 to 9500Å), with an intermediate spectral resolution (la 3 Å) andsampling (1 Å). This library includes stars of various spectraltypes and luminosity classes, spanning a relatively wide range inmetallicity. The spectral resolution, wavelength and spectral typecoverage of this library represents a substantial improvement overprevious libraries used in population synthesis models. The overallabsolute photometric uncertainty is 3%.Based on observations collected with the Jacobus Kaptein Telescope,(owned and operated jointly by the Particle Physics and AstronomyResearch Council of the UK, The Nederlandse Organisatie voorWetenschappelijk Onderzoek of The Netherlands and the Instituto deAstrofísica de Canarias of Spain and located in the SpanishObservatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos on La Palma which is operated bythe Instituto de AstrofÃ­sica de Canarias), the 2.3 mtelescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring,Australia, and the VLT-UT1 Antu Telescope (ESO).Tables \ref{cat1} to \ref{cat6} and \ref{antab1} to A.7 are onlyavailable in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. The StellarLibrary STELIB library is also available at the CDS, via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/402/433 Nearby young starsWe present the results of an extensive all-sky survey of nearby stars ofspectral type F8 or later in a systematic search of young (zero-age mainsequence) objects. Our sample has been derived by cross-correlating theROSAT All-Sky Survey and the TYCHO catalogue, yielding a total of 754candidates distributed more or less randomly over the sky. Follow-upspectroscopy of these candidate objects has been performed on 748 ofthem. We have discovered a tight kinematic group of ten stars withextremely high lithium equivalent widths that are presumably youngerthan the Pleiades, but again distributed rather uniformly over the sky.Furthermore, about 43 per cent of our candidates have detectable levelsof lithium, thus indicating that these are relatively young objects withages not significantly above the Pleiades age.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory,Chile (ESO No. 62.I-0650, 66.D-0159(A), 67.D-0236(A)).
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