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|Membership, rotation, and lithium abundances in the open clusters NGC 2451 A and B|
High-resolution spectra of 30 late-type and 9 early-type candidatemembers of the young (50-80 Myr) open clusters NGC 2451 A and Bhave been analyzed in order to complement our previous photometric andX-ray study. Cluster membership of these X-ray selected stars has beenconfirmed or rejected on the basis of radial velocity and Hαchromospheric emission. The metallicity of both clusters seems to beabout solar - contrary to previous investigations. Lithium abundanceshave been determined by two different methods, namely curve-of-growthtechniques and spectrum synthesis, yielding quite consistent results.The pattern of Li abundances versus effective temperature resembles thatof the equally-old Alpha Per cluster, i.e., little Li depletion is seenfor solar-type and earlier-type stars, while towards cooler stars Li ismore and more depleted, possibly showing a star-to-star scatter below 5200 K. The hottest star in our sample shows a Li abundance0.5 dex higher than the meteoritic value. Rotational velocitieshave been determined in order to investigate the supposed dependence ofactivity and Li depletion on rotation.Based on observations performed at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla/Chile.
|An X-ray study of the open clusters NGC 2451 A and B|
We have conducted a detailed study of the object NGC 2451, whichactually consists of two different open clusters A and B along the sameline of sight at 206 pc and 370 pc distance, respectively. Althoughbelonging to the nearest clusters, they have not been much investigateduntil present due to strong contamination by field stars. ROSAT X-rayobservations and optical UBVR photometry are used to identify clustermembers by means of X-ray emission and colour-magnitude diagrams. Theidentified stars concentrate nicely around the expected main sequencesin the colour-magnitude diagram at the distances derived fromastrometric investigations. Altogether, 39 stars are identified asmember candidates of the nearer cluster A, 49 stars as member candidatesof the more distant cluster B, and 22 faint stars are probably membersof either of the two clusters, but due to large errors it is not clearto which one they belong. Further 40 stars identified with X-ray sourcesare probably non-members. For the first time, the range of knownprobable cluster members of NGC 2451 A and B has been extended downwardsthe main sequence to stars of spectral class M. Isochrone fitting yieldsan age of 50 to 80 Myrs for NGC 2451 A and ~50 Myrs for NGC 2451 B,consistent with the X-ray luminosity distribution functions, which arecomparable to other clusters in the same age range. Except from theoccurence of four flares, the stars of both clusters do not show stronglong-term X-ray variability exceeding a factor 5 over a time span of 1to 3 years.Based on observations performed by the ROSAT X-ray observatory and theEuropean Southern Observatory.Tables 3-6 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org
|WIYN Open Cluster Study. VII. NGC 2451A and the Hipparcos Distance Scale|
We provide new evidence that NGC 2451A is undoubtedly a young opencluster, although sparsely populated. New cluster membership has beenderived from relative proper motions of 5868 stars. In total, 136 starsdown to V~15 have membership probability Pμ>=2%. NewCCD BV photometry indicates that about 70 stars are indeed main-sequencestars of NGC 2451A. This is also supported by our measurements of radialvelocities. A total of 34 very likely cluster members yield a meanheliocentric radial velocity for NGC 2451A equal to +22.9 kms-1. The high quality of our BV photometry, a confirmation ofcluster membership from proper motions and radial velocities, and arecently obtained metallicity estimate for several cluster stars allowus to perform a precise isochrone fit. The Yale isochrones, updated bythe latest available input physics, have been fitted to the cluster'scolor-magnitude diagram, yielding a distance modulusV0-MV in the range 6.35 to 6.38, which is inexcellent agreement with the distance modulus (m-M)0=6.38derived from the Hipparcos data recently by van Leeuwen and Robichon etal. For NGC 2451A the isochrone fit yields an age of 60+/-20 Myr; hence,the cluster appears to be somewhat younger than the Pleiades. We alsopresent alternative evidence suggesting that the cluster could beslightly older than the Pleiades. The most important result of thisstudy is an excellent match between the main-sequence fitting andHipparcos distances to NGC 2451A. If we consider noticeable similaritiesbetween NGC 2451A and Pleiades, then the Hipparcos distance anomaly forPleiades may not require an explanation of astrophysical nature.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|On the Variability of Late B III-V Stars|
We investigate the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of luminosity classIII-V B6-B9 stars. Most are relatively non-variable. Candidates forwhich further study is desirable are identified.
|Absolute proper motions of open clusters. I. Observational data|
Mean proper motions and parallaxes of 205 open clusters were determinedfrom their member stars found in the Hipparcos Catalogue. 360 clusterswere searched for possible members, excluding nearby clusters withdistances D < 200 pc. Members were selected using ground basedinformation (photometry, radial velocity, proper motion, distance fromthe cluster centre) and information provided by Hipparcos (propermotion, parallax). Altogether 630 certain and 100 possible members werefound. A comparison of the Hipparcos parallaxes with photometricdistances of open clusters shows good agreement. The Hipparcos dataconfirm or reject the membership of several Cepheids in the studiedclusters. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The 74th Special Name-list of Variable Stars|
We present the Name-list introducing GCVS names for 3153 variable starsdiscovered by the Hipparcos mission.
|Geneva photometry of the open cluster NGC 2451 and its exceptional Be star HR 2968 satellite.}|
During many years, several authors discussed whether NGC2451 was a real open star cluster or not. By using parallaxesand proper motions from Hipparcos satellite, and Geneva multicolourphotometric measurements of 64 stars, the existence of two clusters Aand B is confirmed. Distances and Geneva colour excesses E[B-V] arerespectively 197 pc, 0.01 and 358 pc, 0.12 for NGC2451 A and B. The two clusters have the same age (log t =7.7). A unique Be star, HR 2968, which belongs tocluster B, has been monitored from 1978 to 1998 in Geneva photometry andfrom November 1989 to March 1993 by the Hipparcos satellite. This starshows exceptional luminosity variations: i) The mean luminosity, whichhas been stable since 1978 (normal B-star phase), increased from 1990 to1995 (Be phase), and then decreased until 1998; ii) Also, in 1990started a periodic light variation with a period of 371 d. Five periodsof this mid-term light variation were observed. Hipparcos and Genevaphotometries are in perfect agreement. A model is proposed to explainthis periodic variability: the Be star is the main component of a binarysystem having an eccentric orbit of period 371 d; from 1990, the Be starwas surrounded by matter expelled in its equatorial plane and, at eachperiastron passage, the companion star interacts gravitationally and/orradiatively with the disk. The physical parameters of the Be star andits companion (most probably a main sequence star) are determined byusing their belonging to NGC 2451 B and bycalculating an approximate orbit from published radial velocities. Themean values of the photometric data are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u.strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|An extensive Delta a-photometric survey of southern B and A type bright stars|
Photoelectric photometry of 803 southern BS objects in the Deltaa-system as detection tool for magnetic chemically peculiar (=CP2) starshas been carried out and compared to published spectral types. Thestatistical yield of such objects detected by both techniques ispractically the same. We show that there are several factors whichcontaminate the search for these stars, but this contamination is onlyof the order of 10% in both techniques. We find a smooth transition fromnormal to peculiar stars. Our sample exhibits the largest fraction ofCP2 stars at their bluest colour interval, i.e. 10% of all stars in thecolour range -0.19 <= B-V < -0.10 or -0.10 <= b-y < -0.05.No peculiar stars based on the Delta a-criterion were found at bluercolours. Towards the red side the fraction of CP2 stars drops to about3% for positive values of B-V or b-y with red limits roughlycorresponding to normal stars of spectral type A5. The photometricbehaviour of other peculiar stars: Am, HgMn, delta Del, lambda Boo, Heabnormal stars, as well as Be/shell stars and supergiants shows someslight, but definite deviations from normal stars. Spectroscopic andvisual binaries are not distinguished from normal stars in their Delta abehaviour. The results of this work justify larger statistical work(e.g. in open clusters) employing more time-saving photometric methods(CCD). \newpage Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 2 is only availablein electronic form via anonymous ftp 22.214.171.124 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The nature of some doubtful open clusters as revealed by HIPPARCOS|
We discuss the nature of some galactic open clusters by using propermotions and parallaxes from the Hipparcos and ACT catalogues. We showthat the clusters Collinder 399, Upgren 1, NGC 1252 and Melotte 227 donot exist. Collinder 132 is found to be mainly composed out of membersof an OB association, but there may be a star cluster present in thisarea too. Roeser & Bastian (1994) proposed that NGC 2451 consists oftwo star clusters. We show that NGC 2451 A definitively does exist, NGC2451 B may exist. A star cluster may also be present in the area ofRoslund 5. The Hipparcos data finally confirm the reality of Collinder135.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|NGC 2451 - What is it?|
During the last decade, a debate has arisen whether the grouping ofstars called NGC 2451 is a real star cluster. We investigate thecorresponding area of the sky kinematically, using proper motions of thePPM catalogue. The group of stars that was originally called NGC 2451shows a large scatter of their proper motions, which proves that they donot form a cluster. However, close-by we find a group of 24 PPM starswith common proper motion. A colour-magnitude diagram of 19 of theseshows an extremely well-defined main sequence, giving a distance ofabout 220 pc. This cluster is not NGC 2451. We tentatively call itPuppis Moving Group (PMG). There is strong indication for a secondcluster at about 400 pc. Photometry, radial velocities and propermotions of stars fainter than the magnitude limit of PPM are needed tofurther investigate the matter.
|The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematics|
Published uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter.
|The common origin of some open clusters|
Eight open clusters have been observed with uvby-beta photometry and forseven of them the metal abundances have been determined. Six of thesehave similar metallicities. They are close in space and are also knownto have similar ages and radial velocities. These clusters are suspectedof having a common origin. Some studies are made of the reliability ofthe photometric system. A large gain in limiting magnitude can beachieved against an unimportant loss of accuracy if interference filtersare removed.
|Six clusters in Puppis-Vela|
Intermediate band and H-beta observations of stars in the clusters NGC2451, Cr 140, Cr 135, Cr 173, IC 2391, and Cr 132 in Puppis-Vela arediscussed. Photometric and astrometric parameters for the stars areshown and discussed, along with light and color curves, color-luminosityarrays, histograms for reddening and luminosity, and stellardistributions. Cr 132 consists mainly of members of CMa OB2 plus a fewstars that may be an extension of Cr 140. The latter is an elongatedcluster of some 20 stars, 450 pc distant, 30 million years old, and with(U,V,W) = (+27,-6,-16) km/s. Cr 135 has only eight members, including aK2 Ib star, some 30 million years old, 310 pc distant, and (U,V,W) =(+13,-11,-12) km/s. For NGC 2451, extensive photometry reveals nocluster. Cr 173 is in the Vela sheet and may contain Gamma Vel and thecepheid AH Vel. IC 2391 is a very extended cluster including about twodozen stars brighter than the sun, some 30 million years old and 165 pcdistant, with (U,V,W) = (+20,-19,-3) km/s.
|Intermediate band photometry of early-type stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977PASP...89..205E&db_key=AST
|Spectral classification from the ultraviolet line features of S2/68 spectra. II - Late B-type stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977A&AS...30...71C&db_key=AST
|Evolved stars in open clusters.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976ApJS...30..451H&db_key=AST
|The frequency of peculiar A and metallic-line stars in open clusters.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1976ApJ...205..807H&db_key=AST
|Photometry of peculiar A stars.|
|Spectral types in the open cluster NGC 2451.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1975PASP...87..823L&db_key=AST
|Rotational Velocities in Short-Period A-Type Binaries|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1971ApJ...163..333A&db_key=AST
|Photoelectric Photometry of NGC 2451|
|The Open Cluster NGC 2451|
|Photometry of NGC 2451|