|B Star Rotational Velocities in h and χ Persei: A Probe of Initial Conditions during the Star Formation Epoch?|
Projected rotational velocities (vsini) have been measured for 216 B0-B9stars in the rich, dense h and χ Persei double cluster and comparedwith the distribution of rotational velocities for a sample of fieldstars having comparable ages (t~12-15 Myr) and masses (M~4-15Msolar). For stars that are relatively little evolved fromtheir initial locations on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) (those withmasses M~4-5 Msolar), the mean vsini measured for the h andχ Per sample is slightly more than 2 times larger than the meandetermined for field stars of comparable mass, and the cluster and fieldvsini distributions differ with a high degree of significance. Forsomewhat more evolved stars with masses in the range 5-9Msolar, the mean vsini in h and χ Per is 1.5 times thatof the field; the vsini distributions differ as well, but with a lowerdegree of statistical significance. For stars that have evolvedsignificantly from the ZAMS and are approaching the hydrogen exhaustionphase (those with masses in the range 9-15 Msolar), thecluster and field star means and distributions are only slightlydifferent. We argue that both the higher rotation rates and the patternof rotation speeds as a function of mass that differentiatemain-sequence B stars in h and χ Per from their field analogs werelikely imprinted during the star formation process rather than a resultof angular momentum evolution over the 12-15 Myr cluster lifetime. Wespeculate that these differences may reflect the effects of the higheraccretion rates that theory suggests are characteristic of regions thatgive birth to dense clusters, namely, (1) higher initial rotationspeeds; (2) higher initial radii along the stellar birth line, resultingin greater spin-up between the birth line and the ZAMS; and (3) a morepronounced maximum in the birth line radius-mass relationship thatresults in differentially greater spin-up for stars that become mid- tolate-B stars on the ZAMS.
|An empirical temperature calibration for the Δ a photometric system . I. The B-type stars|
We establish an empirical effective temperature calibration of mainsequence, luminosity class V to III B-type stars for the Δ aphotometric system which was originally developed to detect magneticchemically peculiar objects of the upper main sequence (early B-type toearly F-type) at 5200 Å. However, this system provides the index(g_1-y) which shows an excellent correlation with (B-V) as well as (b-y)and can be used as an indicator of the effective temperature. This issupplemented by a very accurate color-magnitude diagram, y or V versus(g_1-y), which can be used, for example, to determine the reddening,distance and age of an open cluster. This makes the Δ aphotometric system an excellent tool to investigate theHertzsprung-Russell-Diagram (HRD) in more detail. Using thereddening-free parameters and already established calibrations withinthe Strömgren uvbyβ, Geneva 7-color and Johnson UBV systems, apolynomial fit of third degree for the averaged effective temperaturesto the individual (g_1-y)0 values was derived. For thispurpose, data from the literature as well as new observations were takenresulting in 225 suitable bright normal B-type objects. The statisticalmean of the error for this sample is 238 K which is sufficient toinvestigate the HRD of distant galactic open clusters as well asextragalactic aggregates in the future.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|uvby photometry of the CP stars HR 149, HD 32966, HD 171782, and HR 7911|
Differential Strömgren uvby observations from the Four CollegeAutomated Photoelectric Telescope (FCAPT) are presented for the CP starsHR 149 and HR 7911 and the mCP stars HD 32966 and HD 171782. TheMercury-Manganese star HR 149 is found to be constant while HR 7911 witha period of 5.9617 days probably has a component which is a magnetic CPstar. Improved periods were derived for HD 32966 and HD 171782 of 3.0927and 4.4674 days, respectively. The former is a rather large amplitudemCP star. Both have at least one light curve different in shape from theothers observed. Tables 2, 3, 4 and 5 are only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/1023
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Photometry from the HIPPARCOS Catalogue: Constant MCP Stars, Comparison and Check Stars|
Photometry from the Hipparcos catalogue is used to verify the constancyof four magnetic CP stars, as well as the comparison and the check starsused for variability studies of normal and chemically peculiar B and Astars with the Four College Automated Photoelectric Telescope;variability in these stars can produce spurious results. A few of thecomparison stars are found to be variable and should be replaced forfuture differential photometric studies.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Light curve of the ellipsoidal variable HD 1826.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1989CoSka..18...17B&db_key=AST
|Observations of interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A|
Observations of the interstellar diffuse absorption band at 4430 A for800 O and B stars in Neckel's (1967) catalog are being carried out, and482 spectra obtained up to September 1983 have been reduced. It isconfirmed that the strength of the interstellar diffuse absorption bandat 4430 A does not simply relate to the abundance of interstellar grainson the line of sight. The relation between the color excess E(B-V) andthe equivalent width of the band to the direction of l = 130-140 deg andb = -5 to +5 deg shows that some parameter(s) other than E(B-V) is (are)needed to understand the cause of this band.
|The galactic reddening law - The evidence from uvby-beta photometry of B stars|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1985A&A...142..189T&db_key=AST
|Be stars in binaries|
The known companions to 80 Be stars and 355 B stars listed in the BrightStar Catalogue in the range B1-B7 III-V and north of delta = -30 deg areconsidered. The known near-absence of Be binaries with periods less than1/10 yr is confirmed. For longer periods up to the limit of 10,000 AU ofthis survey, the Be and B stars do not differ in binary frequencies.This result implies that during pre-main-sequence contraction, the tidalbraking in binaries wider than 0.5 AU was inadequate to prevent theformation of stars with nearly the break-up rotational velocities. Thefraction of Be and B stars that have companions is higher in clustersand associations (38 percent) than among field stars (25 percent),confirming that escapees from clusters tend to be single stars. There issome evidence that the companions of Be stars that occur in the sameluminosity range tend also to be Be stars; that result was expectedbecause in visual binaries there is a known tendency for rapidlyrotating primaries to have rapidly rotating secondaries.
|Four-colour and H-beta photometry of B stars in Fehrenbach and Burnage radial velocity fields at B about -30 deg|
Observations in uvby and H-beta are presented for 39 stars classified asB-type in seven 4 x 4-deg fields studied by Fehrenbach and Burnage(1981, 1982) at b about -30 deg. About half the stars arephotometrically little-evolved B stars; most of the rest areintermediate A stars. Intrinsic color and absolute-magnitudecalibrations are applied: that of Hilditch et al. (1983) forintermediate A stars is estimated to be much less certain than those forother types. Maps of reddening along lines of sight indicate that littlereddening occurs within 100 pc of the sun, that essentially allreddening has occurred within z = + or - 150-200 pc, and that the totalreddening is essentially consistent with values given by the Bursteinand Heiles (1982) HI/GC method. The luminosities of some faint early Bstars cannot be usefully constrained by placing them within thereddening structure. One of the two program stars with very large radialvelocities is a horizontal branch object; the other has peculiar colors.
|A new list of 617 radial velocities in four galactic fields|
Four stellar fields in the -30 deg galactic latitude have been surveyedfor radial velocities, using a 62 cm objective prism. Exact positions,spectral types, and approximate magnitudes are provided for 617 stars infour different 4 x 4 deg fields. B to F4 stars were found which haveGaussian velocity distributions.
|Geneva photometric boxes. II - The reddening towards the galactic poles|
It is noted that photometric boxes allow a very accurate estimation ofindividual reddenings for B- and early A-type stars. A catalog of 129stars with galactic latitudes higher than 30 deg is given. A small butsignificant reddening is seen in the direction of both the northern andsouthern galactic poles: E(B-V) approximately 0.04.
|Spectral classification from the ultraviolet line features of S2/68 spectra. V - Supplement series|
The paper presents the ultraviolet classification of more than 450 B-Aand F spectra obtained with the sky survey telescope mounted on the TD1satellite. Concerning abnormal objects, attention is given to the Bestars, the binary stars, the helium weak stars, and the lambda Booobjects. With regard to Be stars, it is concluded that the 1930 Awavelength feature is linked to the existence of either shell structuresor Fe II emission lines in the visual spectral range. In addition, it issuggested that stellar spectra at wavelengths of 1410, 1610-20 and 2400A are equivalent to the He-weak group in the classical range.
|Final catalogue of 229 photometric standards in UBV system near the selected areas 1-115|
|Late B-type stars - Rotation and the incidence of HgMn stars|
High-dispersion spectrograms for an unbiased sample of 256 late B-typestars are examined in an attempt to determine whether slow rotation isnecessary and sufficient for the appearance of HgMn anomalies innonmagnetic stars. The peculiar stars in the sample are identified,values of v sin i are derived for all the stars observed, and theradial-velocity variations of the identified HgMn stars are analyzed.The distribution of rotational velocities for late B-type stars isobtained, and the role of rotation in producing extended envelopes isevaluated. The binary frequency and mass-ratio distribution are derivedfor systems containing HgMn components, the effect of duplicity on thedistribution of rotational velocities is estimated, and the role of suchfactors as rotation, age, and binary characteristics in determiningwhether HgMn anomalies are present is investigated. The results clearlyshow that HgMn stars occur only within a limited temperature range, thatall such stars rotate slowly, but that rotation, effective temperature,age, surface gravity, and binary properties do not serve to determinewhether a star will exhibit abundance anomalies.
|Is star formation bimodal ? II. The nearest early-type stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977PASP...89..187E&db_key=AST
|Catalogue of early-type stars measured in a narrow-band photometric system|
A compilation of the photoelectric measurements in the Barbier-Morguleffsystem is presented. The catalogue includes data for 773 stars ofspectral type 08 to F6. 706 stars have been measured at least twice.
|The manganese stars|
Ultraviolet spectrograms of 194 middle and late B-type stars wereobtained in a search for Mn stars. The 24 Mn stars found in this searchlay within the limited temperature range from 0.33 to 0.48. Theirobserved rate of incidence and rotational velocity distributionsubstantiate the hypothesis that the Mn stars constitute a considerablefraction of the slowly rotating stars in this temperature range. If theatmospheres of these stars are sufficiently stable for diffusionprocesses to be effective, then it also becomes possible to account forthe temperature range in which the Mn overabundance occurs.
|Four-color and H beta photometry for the bright B8 and B9 type stars north of declination -10 degre.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973AJ.....78..738C&db_key=AST
|Spectral classification of the bright B8 stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1972AJ.....77..750C&db_key=AST
|The corrected magnitudes and colours of 278 stars near S.A. 1-139 in the UBV system|
|Astronomical Radiation Measurements. II. Observations of Stars in the Spectral Region λλ 2800-2100|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1968ApJ...153..557B&db_key=AST
|U, b, v, and Hβ Photometry for the Bright B8- and B9-TYPE Stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1963ApJ...137..530C&db_key=AST
|Spectral Classification of 533 B8-A2 Stars and the Mean Absolute Magnitude of a0 V Stars.|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1959ApJ...130..159O&db_key=AST
|Tests of suspected variable stars.|