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 λ Bootis stars with composite spectraWe examine the large sample of λ Boo candidates collected inTable 1 of Gerbaldi et al. (\cite{Gerbaldi2003}) to see how many of themshow composite spectra. Of the 132 λ Boo candidates we identify22 which definitely show composite spectra and 15 more for which thereare good reasons to suspect a composite spectrum. The percentage ofλ Boo candidates with composite spectra is therefore >17% andpossibly considerably higher. For such stars the λ Booclassification should be reconsidered taking into account the fact thattheir spectra are composite. We argue that some of the underabundancesreported in the literature may simply be the result of the failure toconsider the composite nature of the spectra. This leads to thelegitimate suspicion that some, if not all, the λ Boo candidatesare not chemically peculiar at all. A thorough analysis of even a singleone of the λ Boo candidates with composite spectra, in which thecomposite nature of the spectrum is duly considered, which woulddemonstrate that the chemical peculiarities persist, would clear thedoubt we presently have that the stars with composite spectra may not beλ Boo stars at all.Based on observations collected at ESO (Echelec spectrograph) and at TBL(Telescope Bernard Lyot) of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France). The pulsational characteristics of the λ Bootis type star BD Phe (HD 11413)We have investigated the pulsational characteristics of the λBootis type star BD Phe. Detailed asteroseismological investigationshave so far only been carried out for four members of this group ofstars, with the number of identified frequencies in these stars rangingfrom four to seven. We present 30 h of UBVRI time-series photometry,together with 14 h of high-dispersion high signal-to-noise ratiospectroscopy of BD Phe. At least seven frequencies were detected. Sincethese are all present in independent sets of observations, we argue thatthe frequencies are fairly well determined despite our limited data. Wepresent a very tentative discussion of the possible pulsation modes. Ourresults may be useful in the context of recently published δ Scutipulsation models, which take into account the effects of diffusion. The heterogeneous class of lambda Bootis starsWe demonstrate that it is arduous to define the lambda Boo stars as aclass of objects exhibiting uniform abundance peculiarities which wouldbe generated by a mechanism altering the structure of their atmosphericlayers. We collected the stars classified as lambda Boo up to now anddiscuss their properties, in particular the important percentage ofconfirmed binaries producing composite spectra (including our adaptiveoptics observations) and of misclassified objects. The unexplained RVvariables (and thus suspected binaries), the known SB for which we lackinformation on the companion, the stars with an UV flux inconsistentwith their classification, and the fast rotating stars for which noaccurate abundance analysis can be performed, are also reviewed.Partly based on observations collected at the CFH Telescope (Hawaii) andat TBL of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France).Table \ref{tab5} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org A study of lambda Bootis type stars in the wavelength region beyond 7000 ÅThe group of lambda Bootis type stars comprises late B- to earlyF-type, Population I objects which are basically metal weak, inparticular the Fe group elements, but with the clear exception of C, N,O and S. One of the theories to explain the abundance pattern of thesestars involves circumstellar or interstellar matter around the objects.Hence, we have compiled all available data from the literature of wellestablished members of the lambda Bootis group redward of 7000Å, in order to find evidence for matter around these objects.Furthermore, we present unpublished ISO as well as submillimetercontinuum and CO (2-1) line measurements to complete the data set. Intotal, measurements for 34 (26 with data redward of 20 mu m) wellestablished lambda Bootis stars are available. There is evidence foran infrared excesses in six stars (HD 31295, HD 74873, HD 110411, HD125162, HD 198160/1 and HD 210111) and two are doubtful cases (HD 11413and HD 192640) resulting in a percentage of 23% (excluding the twodoubtful cases). Dust models for these objects show fractional dustluminosities comparable to the Vega-type stars and slightly higher dusttemperatures. ISO-SWS spectroscopy for HD 125162 and HD 192640 resultedin the detection of pure stellar H I lines ruling out an activeaccretion disk (as found for several Herbig Ae/Be stars) around theseobjects. The submillimeter measurements gave only upper limits for theline and continuum fluxes.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA; andobservations at the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope (HHT, operated by the theSubmillimeter Telescope Observatory).Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org The status of Galactic field λ Bootis stars in the post-Hipparcos eraThe λ Bootis stars are Population I, late B- to early F-typestars, with moderate to extreme (up to a factor 100) surfaceunderabundances of most Fe-peak elements and solar abundances of lighterelements (C, N, O and S). To put constraints on the various existingtheories that try to explain these peculiar stars, we investigate theobservational properties of λ Bootis stars compared with areference sample of normal stars. Using various photometric systems andHipparcos data, we analyse the validity of standard photometriccalibrations, elemental abundances, and Galactic space motions. Therecrystallizes a clear picture of a homogeneous group of Population Iobjects found at all stages of their main-sequence evolution, with apeak at about 1 Gyr. No correlation of astrophysical parameters such asthe projected rotational velocities or elemental abundances with age isfound, suggesting that the a priori unknown mechanism, which createsλ Bootis stars, works continuously for late B- to early F-typestars in all stages of main-sequence evolution. Surprisingly, the sodiumabundances seem to indicate an interaction between the stars and theirlocal environment. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 On the Period-Luminosity-Colour-Metallicity relation and the pulsational characteristics of lambda Bootis type starsGenerally, chemical peculiarity found for stars on the upper mainsequence excludes delta Scuti type pulsation (e.g. Ap and Am stars), butfor the group of lambda Bootis stars it is just the opposite. This makesthem very interesting for asteroseismological investigations. The groupof lambda Bootis type stars comprises late B- to early F-type,Population I objects which are basically metal weak, in particular theFe group elements, but with the clear exception of C, N, O and S. Thepresent work is a continuation of the studies by Paunzen et al.(\cite{Pau97}, \cite{Pau98}), who presented first results on thepulsational characteristics of the lambda Bootis stars. Since then, wehave observed 22 additional objects; we found eight new pulsators andconfirmed another one. Furthermore, new spectroscopic data (Paunzen\cite{Pau01}) allowed us to sort out misidentified candidates and to addtrue members to the group. From 67 members of this group, only two arenot photometrically investigated yet which makes our analysis highlyrepresentative. We have compared our results on the pulsationalbehaviour of the lambda Bootis stars with those of a sample of deltaScuti type objects. We find that at least 70% of all lambda Bootis typestars inside the classical instability strip pulsate, and they do sowith high overtone modes (Q < 0.020 d). Only a few stars, if any,pulsate in the fundamental mode. Our photometric results are inexcellent agreement with the spectroscopic work on high-degree nonradialpulsations by Bohlender et al. (\cite{Boh99}). Compared to the deltaScuti stars, the cool and hot borders of the instability strip of thelambda Bootis stars are shifted by about 25 mmag, towards smaller(b-y)_0. Using published abundances and the metallicity sensitiveindices of the Geneva 7-colour and Strömgren uvbybeta systems, wehave derived [Z] values which describe the surface abundance of theheavier elements for the group members. We find that thePeriod-Luminosity-Colour relation for the group of lambda Bootis starsis within the errors identical with that of the normal delta Scutistars. No clear evidence for a statistically significant metallicityterm was detected. Based on observations from the Austrian AutomaticPhotoelectric Telescope (Fairborn Observatory), SAAO and Siding SpringObservatory. The accretion/diffusion theory for lambda Bootis stars in the light of spectroscopic dataMost of the current theories suggest the lambda Bootis phenomenon tooriginate from an interaction between the stellar surface and its localenvironment. In this paper, we compare the abundance pattern of thelambda Bootis stars to that of the interstellar medium and find largerdeficiencies for Mg, Si, Mn and Zn than in the interstellar medium. Acomparison with metal poor post-AGB stars showing evidence forcircumstellar material indicates a similar physical process possiblybeing at work for some of the lambda Bootis stars, but not for all ofthem. Despite the fact that the number of spectroscopically analysedlambda Bootis stars has considerably increased in the past, a test ofpredicted effects with observations shows current abundance andtemperature data to be still controversial. The abundance pattern of lambda Bootis starsWithin a project to investigate the properties of lambda Bootis stars,we report on their abundance pattern. High resolution spectra have beenobtained for a total of twelve candidate lambda Bootis stars, four ofthem being contained in spectroscopic binary systems, and detailedabundance analyses have been performed. All program stars show acharacteristic lambda Bootis abundance pattern (deficient heavy elementsand solar abundant light elements) and an enhanced abundance of Na. Thiswork raises the fraction of lambda Bootis stars with known abundances to50%. The resulting abundances complemented by literature data are usedto construct a mean lambda Bootis abundance pattern'', which exhibits,apart from general underabundances of heavy elements (~-1 dex) and solarabundances of C, N, O, Na and S, a star-to-star scatter which is up totwice as large as for a comparable sample of normal stars. Based onobservations obtained at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Padua-Asiago,OPD/LNA, KPNO and DSO. Rotational velocities of A-type stars. I. Measurement of v sin i in the southern hemisphereWithin the scope of a Key Programme determining fundamental parametersof stars observed by HIPPARCOS, spectra of 525 B8 to F2-type starsbrighter than V=8 have been collected at ESO. Fourier transforms ofseveral line profiles in the range 4200-4500 Å are used to derivev sin i from the frequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis ofthe sample indicates that measurement error is a function of v sin i andthis relative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 6%on average. The results obtained are compared with data from theliterature. There is a systematic shift from standard values from\citet{Slk_75}, which are 10 to 12% lower than our findings. Comparisonswith other independent v sin i values tend to prove that those fromSlettebak et al. are underestimated. This effect is attributed to thepresence of binaries in the standard sample of Slettebak et al., and tothe model atmosphere they used. Based on observations made at theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, in the frameworkof the Key Programme 5-004-43K. Table 4 is only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/105 Light element non-LTE abundances of lambda Bootis stars. II. Nitrogen and sulphurOne of the main characteristics proclaimed for the group of the lambdaBootis stars is the apparent solar abundance of the light elements C, N,O and S. The typical abundance pattern is completed by the strongunderabundances of the Fe-peak elements. In the first paper of thisseries, we have shown that carbon is less abundant than oxygen but bothelements are still significantly more abundant than Fe-peak elements.The mean abundances, based on a detailed non-LTE investigation, werefound -0.37 dex and -0.07 dex, respectively. As a further step, we nowpresent non-LTE abundances of nitrogen and sulphur for thirteen membersof the lambda Bootis group based on several spectral lines between 8590Å, and 8750 Å. Furthermore, LTE abundances for calcium inthe same spectral range were derived and compared with values from theliterature. Similar to the mean abundances of carbon and oxygen, nearlysolar values were found (-0.30 dex for nitrogen and -0.11 dex forsulphur) for our sample of program stars. Among our sample, onepreviously undetected binary system (HD 64491) was identified. From astatistical point of view, the abundances of the light elements rangefrom slightly overabundant to moderately underabundant compared to theSun. However, the individual objects always exhibit a similiar pattern,with the Fe-peak elements being significantly more underabundant thanthe light elements. No correlation of the derived abundances withastrophysical parameters such as the effective temperature, surfacegravity or projected rotational velocity was found. Furthermore, theabundances of the light elements do not allow us to discriminate betweenany proposed theory. Based on observations obtained at BNAO Rozhen andComplejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under theagreement between the Consejo Nacional de InvestigacionesCientíficas y Técnicas de la República Argentinaand the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan. A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. III. Final resultsIn the third paper of a series dedicated to the spectroscopic survey fornew lambda Bootis stars, we present all new and confirmed members of thegroup as well as a detailed analysis of the observed sample. The natureof this small group of chemically peculiar stars of the upper mainsequence still challenges our understanding of processes like diffusion,mass-loss and accretion. The typical abundances pattern (nearly solarvalues for C, N, O and S whereas the Fe-peak elements are moderate tostrong underabundant) can still not be explained by any proposed theory.Hence, the significant increase of new members gives the opportunity toinvestigate the group properties in more detail. We report the discoveryof 26 new members of the group and the confirmation of 18 candidatesfrom the literature. This almost triples the number of known lambdaBootis stars. The existence of one member in the young open cluster NGC2264 and four members in the Orion OB1 association proves that thelambda Bootis phenomenon already works at very early stages of stellarevolution. Recent results from the Hipparcos mission have shown that thewell established lambda Bootis stars of the Galactic field comprise thewhole area from the Zero Age Main Sequence to the Terminal Age MainSequence (~ 109 yr for an A-type star). There is a continuoustransition between very young and rather evolved evolutionary stages. Wefind that the overall percentage of lambda Bootis type among all normaltype stars in the spectral range from B8 to F4 is 2% in the Galacticfield as well as in open clusters. Furthermore, 44 metal-weak objectsare listed which might be connected with the lambda Bootis phenomenon.Our biased sample (chosen by photometric boxes) is not distinguishedfrom all A-type stars in the corresponding spectral region by therotational velocity distribution. Only for the luminosity classes IV andIII (especially for the cooler program stars) the determined mean v sini values are very high compared to those of the literature. Based onobservations from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padova-Asiago, Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT, Chews Ridge Observatory (MIRA) and University ofToronto Southern Observatory (Las Campanas). A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. II. The observational datalambda Bootis stars comprise only a small number of all A-type stars andare characterized as nonmagnetic, Population i, late B to early F-typedwarfs which show significant underabundances of metals whereas thelight elements (C, N, O and S) are almost normal abundant compared tothe Sun. In the second paper on a spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootisstars, we present the spectral classifications of all program starsobserved. These stars were selected on the basis of their Strömgrenuvbybeta colors as lambda Bootis candidates. In total, 708 objects insix open clusters, the Orion OB1 association and the Galactic field wereclassified. In addition, 9 serendipity non-candidates in the vicinity ofour program stars as well as 15 Guide Star Catalogue stars were observedresulting in a total of 732 classified stars. The 15 objects from theGuide Star Catalogue are part of a program for the classification ofapparent variable stars from the Fine Guidance Sensors of the HubbleSpace Telescope. A grid of 105 MK standard as well as pathological''stars guarantees a precise classification. A comparison of our spectralclassification with the extensive work of Abt & Morrell(\cite{Abt95}) shows no significant differences. The derived types are0.23 +/- 0.09 (rms error per measurement) subclasses later and 0.30 +/-0.08 luminosity classes more luminous than those of Abt & Morrell(\cite{Abt95}) based on a sample of 160 objects in common. The estimatederrors of the means are +/- 0.1 subclasses. The characteristics of oursample are discussed in respect to the distribution on the sky, apparentvisual magnitudes and Strömgren uvbybeta colors. Based onobservations from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padova-Asiago, Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT, Chews Ridge Observatory (MIRA) and University ofToronto Southern Observatory (Las Campanas). delta Scuti and related stars: Analysis of the R00 CatalogueWe present a comprehensive analysis of the properties of the pulsatingdelta Scuti and related variables based mainly on the content of therecently published catalogue by Rodríguez et al.(\cite{retal00a}, hereafter R00). In particular, the primaryobservational properties such as visual amplitude, period and visualmagnitude and the contributions from the Hipparcos, OGLE and MACHOlong-term monitoring projects are examined. The membership of thesevariables in open clusters and multiple systems is also analyzed, withspecial attention given to the delta Scuti pulsators situated ineclipsing binary systems. The location of the delta Scuti variables inthe H-R diagram is discussed on the basis of HIPPARCOS parallaxes anduvbybeta photometry. New borders of the classical instability arepresented. In particular, the properties of the delta Scuti pulsatorswith nonsolar surface abundances (SX Phe, lambda Boo, rho Pup, delta Deland classical Am stars subgroups) are examined. The Hipparcos parallaxesshow that the available photometric uvbybeta absolute magnitudecalibrations by Crawford can be applied correctly to delta Scutivariables rotating faster than v sin i ~ 100 km s{-1} withnormal spectra. It is shown that systematic deviations exist for thephotometrically determined absolute magnitudes, which correlate with vsin i and delta m1. The photometric calibrations are found tofit the lambda Boo stars, but should not be used for the group ofevolved metallic-line A stars. The related gamma Dor variables and thepre-main-sequence delta Scuti variables are also discussed. Finally, thevariables catalogued with periods longer than 0fd 25 are examined on astar-by-star basis in order to assign them to the proper delta Scuti, RRLyrae or gamma Dor class. A search for massive, long-period delta Scutistars similar to the triple-mode variable AC And is also carried out. Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part III. Additional fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over a longinterval of time and summarized mainly in the FK5. Part III of the FK6(abbreviated FK6(III)) contains additional fundamental stars with directsolutions. Such direct solutions are appropriate for single stars or forobjects which can be treated like single stars. Part III of the FK6contains in total 3272 stars. Their ground-based data stem from thebright extension of the FK5 (735 stars), from the catalogue of remainingSup stars (RSup, 732 stars), and from the faint extension of the FK5(1805 stars). From the 3272 stars in Part III, we have selected 1928objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since their instantaneousproper motions and their mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,354 of the stars in Part III are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives, in addition to the SI mode, the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(III) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.59 mas/year. This isa factor of 1.34 better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.79 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(III) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.93 mas/year, which is by a factor of about 2better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 1.83mas/year (cosmic errors included). On the Variability of A0-A2 Luminosity Class III-V StarsWe study the Hipparcos Satellite photometry of A0-A2 luminosity classIII-V stars. Most are not particularly variable. A few stars for whichfurther study is desirable are identified. A revised catalogue of delta Sct starsAn extensive and up-dated list of delta Sct stars is presented here.More than 500 papers, published during the last few years, have beenrevised and 341 new variables have been added to our last list, sixyears ago. This catalogue is intended to be a comprehensive review onthe observational characteristics of all the delta Sct stars known untilnow, including stars contained in earlier catalogues together with othernew discovered variables, covering information published until January2000. In summary, 636 variables, 1149 references and 182 individualnotes are presented in this new list. Tables 1 and 2 will be accessibleonly in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The pulsation and evolution of lambda Bootis stars.Not Available Infrared Space Observatory Photometric Search of Main-Sequence Stars for Vega-Type SystemsWe obtained 3.6-20 μm photometry of 38 bright [IRAS F_nu(12μm)>0.7 Jy] main-sequence stars with the Infrared SpaceObservatory (ISO). Observations were conducted with the ISOPHOTinstrument, in the single-pointing photometry mode, through filters at3.6, 11.5, and 20.0 mum. We searched for excess (Vega-type) emissionfrom dust at temperatures >~100 K, located at ~1-60 AU from thestars. We thus sampled dust at warm, terrestrial material temperaturesand at cool (~100 K) temperatures of possible Kuiper Belt-type regionsin these systems. We detected 20 μm excesses from ~14% of oursources, but we did not detect 11.5 μm excesses from any of them. Wepresent single-temperature blackbody models of the location and densityof dust emission around 10 stars, two of them (29 Cyg and Gl 816) withexcesses newly reported here. We make a thorough comparison of ISO andIRAS data on our target stars and propose a new calibration procedurefor ISOPHOT staring measurements at 3.6, 11.5, and 20 mum. Spectroscopy of Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo. II. The Identification and Classification of Horizontal-Branch and Other A-Type StarsWe discuss a spectroscopic and photometric technique that enables theidentification and classification of field horizontal-branch (FHB) andother A-type stars, even from relatively low signal-to-noise ratiomedium-resolution spectra. This technique makes use of broadband UBVcolors predicted from model atmosphere calculations and Balmer lineprofiles and Ca II K equivalent widths determined from synthetic spectrato estimate the physical parameters T_eff, log g, and [Fe/H] for starsin the effective temperature range 6000-10,000 K. A comparison of ourmethod with high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of standard starsindicates a scatter in the derived parameters of sigma(T_eff)=+/-250 K,sigma(log g)=+/-0.14 dex, and sigma([Fe/H])=+/-0.12 dex. This precisionallows for a separation of low surface gravity FHB and other, generallyhigher surface gravity, A-type (and somewhat later) stars. We alsodevelop a synthetic-template comparison technique, which is veryeffective in the identification of metallic-line and peculiar A-typestars. A detailed investigation of the influence of noise in the spectraon the determination of physical parameters shows that, for spectra withsignal-to-noise ratios in the range 10 Radial velocities of HIPPARCOS southern B8-F2 type starsRadial velocities have been determined for a sample of B8-F2 type starsobserved by the Hipparcos satellite. Observations were obtained withinthe framework of an ESO key-program. Radial velocities have beenmeasured using a cross-correlation method, the templates being a grid ofsynthetic spectra. The obtained precision depends on effectivetemperature and projected rotational velocity of the star as well as ona possible asymmetry of the correlation peak generally due to secondarycomponents. New spectroscopic binaries have been detected from theseasymmetries and the variability of the measured radial velocity.Simulations of binary and triple systems have been performed. Forbinaries our results have been compared with Hipparcos binary data.Adding the variable radial velocities, the minimum binary fraction hasbeen found 60% for physical systems. Radial velocities have beendetermined for 581 B8-F2 stars, 159 being new. Taking into accountpublished radial velocities, 39% south A-type stars with V magnitudelower than 7.5 have a radial velocity. Based on observations obtained atthe European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile) and on datafrom the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.}\fnmsep \thanks{Tables 7, 8and 9 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html A search for circumstellar gas around normal A stars and Lambda Bootis starsWe have searched for interstellar or circumstellar absorption lines inthe center of Ca II K towards bright A-type stars that are mostly within80 pc of the Sun. Narrow absorption features are found in about 30 % ofthe 28 normal main-sequence A stars and 18 metal-deficient lambda Bootisstars studied. We have determined surface gravities and projectedrotational velocities. Most of the stars with detectable Ca K featureshave comparatively low gravities and high projected rotationalvelocities. This correlation with stellar properties implies that mostof the narrow absorption features are of circumstellar rather thaninterstellar origin. The preference of low gravity and rapid rotationfurthermore suggests that most of the gas shells around A stars developin the pre-main-sequence phase of evolution, and disappear largelybefore the star arrives at the ZAMS. Among the normal A stars studied,about 50 % are known to have dust disks. Unlike A stars withcircumstellar gas, these dusty stars do not prefer low log g and high vsin i. This results in an apparent lack of correlation between gas anddust, and indicates that normal A stars with gas shells and those withdust disks are not in the same evolutionary stage. We conjecture thatdust disks tend to develop after most of the gas has disappeared. Basedon observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile How many lambda Bootis stars are binaries?In the attempt to shed new light on the lambda Boo phenomenon weanalyzed the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic characteristicsof stars out of a list of recently selected lambda Boo candidates. Weshow that the class is still ill-defined and discuss the possibilitythat some, if not most stars presently classified as lambda Boo, are infact binary pairs and that peculiar abundances may not correspond toactual values if the average values of the atmospheric parameters{Teff} and log g are assumed and the effect of veiling is nottaken into account. Partly based on data from the ESA Hipparcosastrometry satellite. Light element non-LTE abundances of lambda Bootis stars. I. Carbon and oxygenAbundances for the light elements of {lambda Bootis} stars are a mainkey to understand the astrophysical processes behind the so-called{lambda Bootis} phenomenon. These stars are characterized by a typicalabundance pattern (strong underabundances of the Fe-peak elementswhereas the light elements have apparently solar abundances) which isstill based mainly on LTE-calculations. Therefore we started aninvestigation to derive accurate abundances of the light elements (C, N,O and S). For this purpose a new oxygen model atom was implemented inthe Kiel non-LTE code. High resolution and high signal-to-noise spectrawere used. For each element only a single wavelength region with linesof the specific element was selected and observed in order to avoidcontamination from other elements. In the first paper we presentabundances for carbon and oxygen of a statistically significant numberof well established {lambda Bootis} stars. The second paper will dealwith nitrogen and sulphur. The most important result is that on averagecarbon is less abundant than oxygen but still both elements aresignificant more abundant than the Fe-peak elements. Furthermore theanticorrelation of carbon and oxygen with the silicon abundance isproven, which strongly supports the accretion/diffusion theory. Based onobservations obtained at ESO-La\,Silla and BNAO Rozhen An extensive Delta a-photometric survey of southern B and A type bright starsPhotoelectric photometry of 803 southern BS objects in the Deltaa-system as detection tool for magnetic chemically peculiar (=CP2) starshas been carried out and compared to published spectral types. Thestatistical yield of such objects detected by both techniques ispractically the same. We show that there are several factors whichcontaminate the search for these stars, but this contamination is onlyof the order of 10% in both techniques. We find a smooth transition fromnormal to peculiar stars. Our sample exhibits the largest fraction ofCP2 stars at their bluest colour interval, i.e. 10% of all stars in thecolour range -0.19 <= B-V < -0.10 or -0.10 <= b-y < -0.05.No peculiar stars based on the Delta a-criterion were found at bluercolours. Towards the red side the fraction of CP2 stars drops to about3% for positive values of B-V or b-y with red limits roughlycorresponding to normal stars of spectral type A5. The photometricbehaviour of other peculiar stars: Am, HgMn, delta Del, lambda Boo, Heabnormal stars, as well as Be/shell stars and supergiants shows someslight, but definite deviations from normal stars. Spectroscopic andvisual binaries are not distinguished from normal stars in their Delta abehaviour. The results of this work justify larger statistical work(e.g. in open clusters) employing more time-saving photometric methods(CCD). \newpage Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 2 is only availablein electronic form via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Pulsation in lambda Bootis starsIn this paper we present a further step in applying asteroseismictechniques to the group of lambda Bootis stars which can becharacterized as nonmagnetic A to F-type Population I dwarfs withsignificant (surface) underabundances of Fe-peak elements. Since noconclusive theory explaining the origin of the observed abundanceanomalies exists, an extensive photometric survey for pulsation in thisgroup has been initiated. Knowledge about the pulsational properties(most members are located within the classical instability strip) couldhelp to establish constrains about the overall abundance of these starsas well as on the evolutionary status. New photometric observations werecarried out for eleven stars. Variability was detected in four stars(e.g. lambda Bootis itself) whereas the remaining seven objects areprobably constant. In total, 52 members of this group have beenphotometrically investigated so far. With 22 pulsating and 30constant'' stars, we derive a ratio of at least 50 % for variable tononvariable members inside the classical instability strip. This resultis based on high quality Hipparcos and new photometric data. Theobserved log /lineρ//lineρ_ȯ and log P values for thepulsating members are compatible with standard (solar abundant) deltaScuti models supporting the hypothesis that the found abundanceanomalies are restricted to the surface only. Otherwise the pulsationalproperties of this group are not outstanding compared to normal''delta Scuti stars, indicating that the mechanism driving the pulsationsis very similar. Based on observations obtained at ESO-La\,Silla, CTIO,SAAO, McDonald Observatory, Instituto Astrofisica Andalucia Observatoryand with the Hipparcos satellite Identification of lambda Bootis stars using IUE spectra. I. Low resolution dataAn analysis of the stars included in the catalogue of lambda Bootisstars by Paunzen et al. (1997) and which also have IUE observations ispresented here. Population I A-F type stars as well as field horizontalbranch stars were also included in the analysis. Using line-ratios ofcarbon to heavier elements (Al and Ni) allows us to establishunambiguous membership criteria for the lambda Bootis group. Tables 1-3are only available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 editionA fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5), or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html A consolidated catalogue of lambda Bootis starslambda Bootis stars challenge our understanding of diffusion andaccretion processes related to stars and their circumstellarenvironment, and they are interesting components of the classicalinstability strip. Attempts to derive group properties with statisticalmethods are severely limited by the small number of unambiguouslyidentified lambda Bootis stars. In general, the subject appears to beobscured by incorrect memberships and it is therefore essential toprovide a sufficiently large catalogue of definitive group membersbefore modeling the lambda Bootis phenomenon. This paper describes thefirst steps towards this goal, based on our current knowledge of wellinvestigated members, leading to a concise definition of lambda Bootisstars: {Pop I hydrogen burning metal poor (except of C,N,O and S) A-typestars.} The definition does not depend on phenomenological features,like flux depressions, colour excesses, v sin i values, etc. Based on anew homogeneous catalogue with 45 lambda Bootis stars, we discussclassification criteria which can be used for a spectroscopic andphotometric all-sky survey for lambda Bootis stars in the field and inclusters of different ages. Based on observations obtained atESO-La,Silla, CTIO, Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padua-Asiago, Univ. Toronto Southern Observatory,Observatorio do Pico dos Dias-LNA/CNPq/MCT (Brazil). Table 1 is alsoavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html. On the evolutionary status of λ Bootis stars using HIPPARCOS data.We have used the Hipparcos data to derive absolute magnitudes and thusthe evolutionary status for the group of λ Bootis stars. Theorigin for this small group of nonmagnetic, chemically peculiar stars,still remains a matter of debate. Using new evolutionary tracks, we areable to provide an age determination to distinguish between the twoproposed theories - the diffusion/mass-loss and the accretion theory.Our results establish the member of this group as objects which are veryclose to the Main Sequence. This is also supported by Pre-Main Sequenceevolutionary tracks as well as by observational results. We thereforecontradict prior conclusions that most of these stars are in the middleof their Main Sequence lifetime. The new results strongly support thepredictions of the accretion theory.
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