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|B-type supergiants in the Small Magellanic Cloud: rotational velocities and implications for evolutionary models|
High-resolution spectra for 24 SMC and Galactic B-type supergiants havebeen analysed to estimate the contributions of both macroturbulence androtation to the broadening of their metal lines. Two differentmethodologies are considered, viz. goodness-of-fit comparisons betweenobserved and theoretical line profiles and identifying zeros in theFourier transforms of the observed profiles. The advantages andlimitations of the two methods are briefly discussed with the lattertechniques being adopted for estimating projected rotational velocities(v sin i) but the former being used to estimate macroturbulentvelocities. The projected rotational velocity estimates range fromapproximately 20 to 60 km s-1, apart from one SMC supergiant,Sk 191, with a v sin i ≃ 90 km s-1. Apart from Sk 191,the distribution of projected rotational velocities as a function ofspectral type are similar in both our Galactic and SMC samples withlarger values being found at earlier spectral types. There is marginalevidence for the projected rotational velocities in the SMC being higherthan those in the Galactic targets but any differences are only of theorder of 5-10 km s-1, whilst evolutionary models predictdifferences in this effective temperature range of typically 20 to 70 kms-1. The combined sample is consistent with a linearvariation of projected rotational velocity with effective temperature,which would imply rotational velocities for supergiants of 70 kms-1 at an effective temperature of 28 000 K (approximately B0spectral type) decreasing to 32 km s-1 at 12 000 K (B8spectral type). For all targets, the macroturbulent broadening wouldappear to be consistent with a Gaussian distribution (although otherdistributions cannot be discounted) with an 1/e half-width varying fromapproximately 20 km s-1 at B8 to 60 km s-1 at B0spectral types.
|New runaway OB stars with HIPPARCOS|
A Monte Carlo method for detection of runaway OB stars fromobservational data is proposed. 61 runaway OB star candidates have beendetected by an analysis of Hipparcos proper motions. The peculiartangential and total transverse velocities have been determined forthese stars. A list of the detected runaway star candidates ispresented. The evidence of a discrepancy between photometric andparallactic distances of runaway OB star candidates is presented.
|Photospheric and stellar wind variability in ɛ Ori (B0 Ia)|
We provide direct observational evidence for a link between photosphericactivity and perturbations in the dense inner-most stellar wind regionsof the B supergiant star ɛ Ori. The results, which are relevantto our understanding of the origin of wind structure, are based on amulti-spectral line analysis of optical time-series data secured in 1998using the HEROS spectrograph on the ESO Dutch 0.9-m telescope in LaSilla. A period of 1.9 days is consistently identified in Balmer,He I absorption, and weak metal lines such as Si III and C II. Theprimary characteristic is a large-amplitude swaying of the centralabsorption trough of the line, with differential velocities in linesformed at varying depths in the atmosphere. The variance resulting fromthe ``S-wave'' velocity behaviour of the lines is constrained within± the projected rotation velocity (80 km s-1) inthe weakest absorption lines, but extends blue-ward to over -200 kms-1 in Hα. A second (superimposed) 1.9 day signal ispresent at more extended blue-ward velocities (to -300 kms-1) in lines containing stronger circumstellar components.Inspection of archival optical data from 1996 provides evidence thatthis modulation signal has persisted for at least 2.5 years. Non-radialpulsational modelling is carried out in an attempt to reproduce the keyobservational characteristics of the line profile variability. Onlylimited success is obtained with prograde (m=-1) modes. The principalS-wave pattern cannot be matched by these models and remains enigmatic.Based on observations obtained as part of the MUSICOS 98 campaign fromESO La Silla, Chile.
|Spectropolarimetry of O supergiants|
We present medium-resolution spectropolarimetry at high signal-to-noiseratio of the Hα emission line of 20 O-type supergiants. Five stars(25 per cent) of the sample show a statistically significant change inpolarization through the line. We combine our Hα data with newK-band spectropolarimetry and archival low-resolution opticalspectropolarimetry to determine the polarigenic mechanism in the starsthat show a line effect. We show that the line polarization change inthe binary systems is caused by the classical `dilution' mechanism, inwhich the Hα emission is essentially unpolarized and the continuumpolarization is caused by intrabinary scattering. We find that the lineeffect in HD 108 is also well modelled by pure dilution, but suggestthat the continuum polarization is the result of stochastic windclumping. A similar description applies to the continuum polarization ofHD 188001, although the line effect cannot be reproduced by puredilution. We use low-resolution spectropolarimetry to determine theinterstellar polarization vector to λ Cephei, and confirm thatthe intrinsic polarization of the object is very low (<0.1 per cent,corresponding to an equator:pole density ratio of <1.25). The linepolarization of this star is modelled using the TORUS three-dimensionalradiative-transfer code. We show that the line effect is a consequenceof symmetry breaking caused by the rapid rotation of the system (>200km s-1), and that the system is similar polarimetrically tothe O4 supergiant ζ Puppis. Finally, we note that the precision ofcurrent photo- and spectro-polarimetric observations is insufficient totest structured wind models, which predict a continuum polarization of~0.1 per cent.
|Macroturbulent and rotational broadening in the spectra of B-type supergiants|
The absorption-line spectra of early B-type supergiants show significantbroadening that implies that an additional broadening mechanism(characterized here as `macroturbulence') is present in addition torotational broadening. Using high-resolution spectra withsignal-to-noise ratios of typically 500, we have attempted to quantifythe relative contributions of rotation and macroturbulence, but evenwith data of this quality significant problems were encountered.However, for all our targets, a model where macroturbulence dominatesand rotation is negligible is acceptable; the reverse scenario leads topoor agreement between theory and observation. Additionally, there ismarginal evidence for the degree of broadening increasing with linestrength, possibly a result of the stronger lines being formed higher inthe atmosphere. Acceptable values of the projected rotational velocityare normally less than or equal to 50 km s-1, which may alsobe a typical upper limit for the rotational velocity. Our best estimatesfor the projected rotational velocity are typically 10-20 kms-1 and hence compatible with this limit. These values arecompared with those predicted by single star evolutionary models, whichare initially rapidly rotating. It is concluded that either these modelsunderestimate the rate of rotational breaking or some of the targets maybe evolving through a blue loop or are binaries.
|New periodic variables from the Hipparcos epoch photometry|
Two selection statistics are used to extract new candidate periodicvariables from the epoch photometry of the Hipparcos catalogue. Theprimary selection criterion is a signal-to-noise ratio. The dependenceof this statistic on the number of observations is calibrated usingabout 30000 randomly permuted Hipparcos data sets. A significance levelof 0.1 per cent is used to extract a first batch of candidate variables.The second criterion requires that the optimal frequency be unaffectedif the data are de-trended by low-order polynomials. We find 2675 newcandidate periodic variables, of which the majority (2082) are from theHipparcos`unsolved' variables. Potential problems with theinterpretation of the data (e.g. aliasing) are discussed.
|Rotational Velocities of B Stars|
We measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are ``nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age.
|Wind variability of B supergiants. IV. A survey of IUE time-series data of 11 B0 to B3 stars|
We present the most suitable data sets available in the InternationalUltraviolet Explorer (IUE) archive for the study of time-dependentstellar winds in early B supergiants. The UV line profile variability in11 B0 to B3 stars is analysed, compared and discussed, based on 16separate data sets comprising over 600 homogeneously reducedhigh-resolution spectrograms. The targets include ``normal'' stars withmoderate rotation rates and examples of rapid rotators. A gallery ofgrey-scale images (dynamic spectra) is presented, which demonstrates therichness and range of wind variability and highlights differentstructures in the winds of these stars. This work emphasises thesuitability of B supergiants for wind studies, under-pinned by the factthat they exhibit unsaturated wind lines for a wide range of ionization.The wind activity of B supergiants is substantial and has highly variedcharacteristics. The variability evident in individual stars isclassified and described in terms of discrete absorption components,spontaneous absorption, bowed structures, recurrence, and ionizationvariability and stratification. Similar structures can occur in stars ofdifferent fundamental parameters, but also different structures mayoccur in the same star at a given epoch. We discuss the physicalphenomena that may be associated with the spectral signatures. Thediversity of wind patterns evident likely reflects the role of stellarrotation and viewing angle in determining the observationalcharacteristics of azimuthally extended structure rooted at the stellarsurface. In addition, SEI line-synthesis modelling of the UV wind linesis used to provide further information about the state of the winds inour program stars. Typically the range, implied by the line profilevariability, in the product of mass-loss rate and ion fraction (mdotq_i) is a factor of ~ 1.5, when integrated between 0.2 and 0.9 v_infty ;it can however be several times larger over localised velocity regions.At a given effective temperature the mean relative ion ratios can differby a factor of 5. The general excess in predicted (forward-scattered)emission in the low velocity regime is discussed in terms of structuredoutflows. Mean ion fractions are estimated over the B0 to B1 spectralclasses, and trends in the ionic ratios as a function of wind velocityare described. The low values obtained for the ion fractions of UVresonance lines may reflect the role of clumping in the wind.
|Multicomponent radiatively driven stellar winds. II. Gayley-Owocki heating in multitemperature winds of OB stars|
We show that the so-called Gayley-Owocki (Doppler) heating is importantfor the temperature structure of the wind of main sequence stars coolerthan the spectral type O6. The formula for Gayley-Owocki heating isderived directly from the Boltzmann equation as a direct consequence ofthe dependence of the driving force on the velocity gradient. SinceGayley-Owocki heating deposits heat directly on the absorbing ions, wealso investigated the possibility that individual components of theradiatively driven stellar wind have different temperatures. This effectis negligible in the wind of O stars, whereas a significant temperaturedifference takes place in the winds of main sequence B stars for starscooler than B2. Typical temperature differences between absorbing ionsand other flow components for such stars is of the order 103K. However, in the case when the passive component falls back onto thestar, the absorbing component reaches temperatures of order106 K, which allows for emission of X-rays. Moreover, wecompare our computed terminal velocities with the observed ones. Wefound quite good agreement between predicted and observed terminalvelocities. The systematic difference coming from the using of the socalled ``cooking formula'' has been removed.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|On the origin of the O and B-type stars with high velocities. II. Runaway stars and pulsars ejected from the nearby young stellar groups|
We use milli-arcsecond accuracy astrometry (proper motions andparallaxes) from Hipparcos and from radio observations to retrace theorbits of 56 runaway stars and nine compact objects with distances lessthan 700 pc, to identify the parent stellar group. It is possible todeduce the specific formation scenario with near certainty for twocases. (i) We find that the runaway star zeta Ophiuchi and the pulsarPSR J1932+1059 originated about 1 Myr ago in a supernova explosion in abinary in the Upper Scorpius subgroup of the Sco OB2 association. Thepulsar received a kick velocity of ~ 350 km s-1 in thisevent, which dissociated the binary, and gave zeta Oph its large spacevelocity. (ii) Blaauw & Morgan and Gies & Bolton alreadypostulated a common origin for the runaway-pair AE Aur and mu Col,possibly involving the massive highly-eccentric binary iota Ori, basedon their equal and opposite velocities. We demonstrate that these threeobjects indeed occupied a very small volume ~ 2.5 Myr ago, and show thatthey were ejected from the nascent Trapezium cluster. We identify theparent group for two more pulsars: both likely originate in the ~ 50 Myrold association Per OB3, which contains the open cluster alpha Persei.At least 21 of the 56 runaway stars in our sample can be linked to thenearby associations and young open clusters. These include the classicalrunaways 53 Arietis (Ori OB1), xi Persei (Per OB2), and lambda Cephei(Cep OB3), and fifteen new identifications, amongst which a pair ofstars running away in opposite directions from the region containing thelambda Ori cluster. Other currently nearby runaways and pulsarsoriginated beyond 700 pc, where our knowledge of the parent groups isvery incomplete.
|The 74th Special Name-list of Variable Stars|
We present the Name-list introducing GCVS names for 3153 variable starsdiscovered by the Hipparcos mission.
|CCD spectra of MK standards and a preliminary extension of the MK classification to the yellow-red region.|
|Galactic B-supergiants: A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis to estimate atmospheric parameters and chemical compositions|
A non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of moderate resolution (R ~ 5 000)spectra of 46 Galactic B-type supergiants is presented. Standardtechniques are adopted, viz. plane-parallel geometry and radiative andhydrostatic equilibrium. Spectroscopic atmospheric parameters (T_eff,log g & v_turb) and chemical abundances (He, C, N, O, Mg & Si)are estimated, both as a test of the validity of such an approach and inan attempt to provide consistent results for supergiants covering asignificant range of spectral types. The values of the estimatedatmospheric parameters and their dependence on the physics adopted inthe model atmospheres calculations are discussed. The absolute metalabundances are compared to those of main sequence B-type stars and, ingeneral, their chemical compositions appear to be similar. Theabundances for He, C, N & O are considered in some detail and arediscussed in the context of possible evolutionary histories for thisstellar sample. Specifically, it is found that the supergiant sample canbe subdivided into a number of evolutionarily distinct groups. The lowermass objects are predominantly chemically near-normal i.e. theirphotospheres show little or no evidence for chemical processing, whereasthe higher mass supergiants have CNO ratios which are indicative of CNand possibly NO-cycle burning. An attempt is made to quantify thedifference in nitrogen and carbon abundances between the high and lowmass targets but this is hampered by theoretical uncertainties. Thepossibilities that the most highly processed supergiants may have eitherlarger rotational velocities or have undergone mass transfer within abinary system are discussed.
|Photometric Separation of Stellar Properties Using SDSS Filters|
Using synthetic photometry of Kurucz model spectra, we explore thecolors of stars as a function of temperature, metallicity, and surfacegravity with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) filters, u'g'r'i'z'. Thesynthetic colors show qualitative agreement with the few publishedobservations in these filters. We find that the locus of synthetic starsis basically two-dimensional for 4500 < T < 8000 K, whichprecludes simultaneous color separation of the three basic stellarcharacteristics we consider. Colors including u' contain the mostinformation about normal stellar properties; measurements in this filterare also important for selecting white dwarfs. We identify two differentsubsets of the locus in which the loci separate by either metallicity orsurface gravity. For 0.5 < g' - r' < 0.8 (corresponding roughly toG stars), the locus separates by metallicity; for photometric error of afew percent, we estimate metallicity to within ~0.5 dex in this range.In the range -0.15 < g' - r' < 0.00 (corresponding roughly to Astars), the locus shows separation by surface gravity. In both cases, weshow that it is advantageous to use more than two colors whendetermining stellar properties by color. Strategic observations in SDSSfilters are required to resolve the source of a ~5% discrepancy betweensynthetic colors of Gunn-Stryker stars, Kurucz models, and externaldeterminations of the metallicities and surface gravities. The syntheticstar colors can be used to investigate the properties of any normal starand to construct analytic expressions for the photometric prediction ofstellar properties in special cases.
|Physical parameters of multiple systems like the Trapezium of early spectral types, derived from uvby-beta photometry. II.|
|Long-term visual spectrophotometric behaviour of Be stars|
The long-term spectrophotometric variations of 49 Be stars are studiedusing the U and V magnitudes of the UBV system, the total Balmerdiscontinuity D and the visible gradient Phi _rb. BCD spectrophotometricand photometric data in five different photometric systems, obtained inmost cases since 1950 and reduced to the BCD system, were used. The(U,D), (V,D), (Phi _rb,D) and (Phi _rb,V) correlations obtained differfrom star to star and they can be single or double-valued. They differclearly for Be phases or Be-shell phases. Be stars with small Vsin ishowing the ``spectrophotometric shell behaviour'': D > D_*, werefound. This finding implies either that strongly flattened models ofcircumstellar envelopes are in doubt for these stars, or that not all Bestars are rapid rotators. Comparison of observed variations with thosepredicted for model Be stars with spherical circumstellar envelopes ofvariable densities and dimensions implies that spectrophotometricpatterns of Be phases are due to circumstellar envelopes in low opacityregimes, while those of spectrophotometric shell phases are due tocircumstellar envelopes in high opacity regimes. In a given star, theenvelope regions responsible for the observed variations of D and Phi_rbin spectrophotometric shell phases seem to be smaller and denser thanthose producing the observed variations of these parameters inspectrophotometric Be phases. The high positive RV found in strong shellphases might favor the formation of compact circumstellar layers nearthe star. Figure 6 is only available in electronic form at CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Study of an unbiased sample of B stars observed with Hipparcos: the discovery of a large amount of new slowly pulsating B stars|
We present a classification of 267 new variable B-type stars discoveredby Hipparcos. We have used two different classification schemes and theyboth result in only a few new beta Cephei stars, a huge number of newslowly pulsating B stars, quite some supergiants with alpha Cyg-typevariations and variable CP stars, and further some new periodic Be starsand eclipsing binaries. Our results clearly point out the biased naturetowards short-period variables of earlier, ground-based surveys ofvariable stars. The position of the new beta Cephei stars and slowlypulsating B stars in the HR diagram is determined by means of Genevaphotometry and is confronted with the most recent calculations of theinstability strips for both groups of variables. We find that the newbeta Cephei stars are situated in the blue part of the instability stripand that the new slowly pulsating B stars almost fully cover thetheoretical instability domain determined for such stars. Thesupergiants with alpha Cyg-type variations are situated between theinstability strips of the beta Cephei and the slowly pulsating B starson the one hand and previously known supergiants that exhibitmicrovariations on the other hand. This suggests some connection betweenthe variability caused by the kappa mechanism acting in a zone ofpartially ionised metals and the unknown cause of the variations insupergiants.
|UV Spectral Classification of O and B Stars in the Small Magellanic =|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1951N&db_key=AST
|Cross-correlation characteristics of OB stars from IUE spectroscopy|
We present a catalogue of homogeneous measures of the linewidthparameter, v_esin i, for 373 O-type stars and early B supergiants(including the separate components of 25 binary and three triplesystems), produced by cross-correlating high-resolution,short-wavelength IUE spectra against a `template' spectrum of tauSco. Wealso tabulate terminal velocities. There are no O supergiants in oursample with v_esin i<65 km s^-1, and only one supergiant earlier thanB5 has v_esin i<50 km s^-1, confirming that an important linebroadening mechanism in addition to rotation must be present in theseobjects. A calibration of the area under the cross-correlation peakagainst spectral type is used to obtain estimates of continuum intensityratios of the components in 28 spectroscopically binary or multiplesystems. At least seven SB2 systems show evidence for the `Struve-Sahadeeffect', a systematic variation in relative line strength as a functionof orbital phase. The stellar wind profiles of the most rapid rotator inour sample, the O9III:n* star HD 191423 (v_esin i=436km s^-1), show itto have a `wind-compressed disc' similar to that of HD 93521; this starand other rapid rotators are good candidates for studies of non-radialpulsation.
|Physical parameters of multiple systems like the Trapezium of early spectral types, derived from uvby-beta photometry. I.|
|Ultraviolet Extinction by Interstellar Dust in External Galaxies: M31|
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) spectra ofstars in OB associations of M31 are used to derive the UV extinction byinterstellar dust in M31 by three different methods: (1) comparingspectra of M31 star pairs, (2) comparing spectra of M31 stars to thoseof Galactic standard stars, and (3) comparing M31 star spectra toatmOsphere models. The derived intrinsic M31 extinction curve has anoverall wavelength dependence very similar to that of the averageGalactic extinction curve but possibly has a weaker 2175 A bump,however, with a significance of only 1 σ. This result is differentfrom the LMC (30 Dor)-like curves published earlier, which containedboth intrinsic M31 extinction and "foreground" extinction, and werebased either on low- signal IUE spectra, or on FOS data affected byinaccuracy in the preliminary flux calibration, and were not computedwith the pair method used in this work. In this work, the foregroundextinction component from the Galactic halo is also investigated. Theforeground curve is consistent with the standard curve. While there is aslight indication for a steeper foreground curve than the standard one,the difference is not significant considering the data uncertainties.
|Astro-2 Observations of Interstellar Dust and Gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud|
This paper presents the first UV (1400-3200 A) polarimetry and far-UV(950-1200 A) spectrophotometry ever obtained for reddened stars in theLarge Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We derive the UV wavelength dependence ofinterstellar polarization down to 1400 A and that of extinction down tonear the Lyman limit. We also measure column densities of H_2_ alongthese lines of sight in the LMC. We have obtained these data with theHopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) and the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE) using the Astro-2 Observatory, which flewon the Space Shuttle in 1995 March. The UV interstellar polarization inthe LMC shows a wavelength dependence similar to that seen in theGalaxy. The magnitude of the polarization in the UV lies on or above anextrapolation of the Serkowski curve. This is consistent with thewavelength dependence seen for low λ_max_ sight lines in theGalaxy. The far-UV extinction in the LMC continues to rise to 10.5micron^-1^, which confirms that large numbers of small grains arepresent. The measured column densities of H_2_ with respect to H I arelow compared to the Galaxy and track the previously measured lower dustabundance. The H_2_ abundance may be regulated by the amount of dustpresent. These new data will allow a comparison of how interstellar dustproperties vary in different galactic environments.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|Terminal Velocities and the Bistability of Stellar Winds|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJ...455..269L&db_key=AST
|HD 93521, zeta Ophiuchi, and the effects of rapid rotation on the atmospheres and winds of 09.5 V stars|
Both low- and high-resolution IUE spectra of the rapidly rotating 09.5 Vstars HD 93521 and zeta Oph are used to develop a coherent picture ofthe effects of rapid rotation on the atmospheres and winds of late,main-sequence O stars. The observational consequences are by far thestrongest on HD 93521, most likely because it is being viewed nearlyequator-on. In particular, it is shown that HD 93521 (1) a much smallerUV optical flux ratio than expected, (2) UV photospheric linesindicative of a BO supergiant, (3) an abnormally strong N v winddoublet, and (4) wind profiles suggesting that its wind haslatitudinally dependent properties. Because HD 93521 has a largerobserved v sin i than zeta Oph and yet its H-alpha emission is nostronger than in zeta Oph, it is speculated that zeta Oph actuallyrotates as fast or faster than HD 93521, but has a smaller sin i.Because zeta Oph is significantly reddened, nothing can be determinedabout its intrinsic UV energy distribution. However, it is shown thatits UV photospheric lines are a bit peculiar and that its C IV and N Vwind doublets are abnormally strong and have unusual profiles. The C IVprofile agrees with models of a rotationally distorted wind similar tothe one in HD 93521, except viewed at an angle i approximately 60 deg-80deg. The spectral peculiarities of both stars are attributed to thecombined effects of gravity darkening of their atmospheres androtational distortion of their winds. The differences between theirspectra are interpreted as the result of being viewed at differentinclination angles. Because of the gravity darkening, atmosphericanalyses of either star based on single temperature and surface gravitymodel atmospheres are probably unreliable. Finally, I describe howdifferent effects conspire to make the spectroscopic signatures ofgravity darkening so pronounced at 09.5 V.
|Uvby-Beta Photometry of the Components of the Trapezium-Type Multiple Systems|
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|A "mysterious" line in the spectrum of P Cygni.|
There are a number of lines in the spectrum of P Cygni which cannot beidentified by the use of the "Revised Multiplet Table" (Moore 1959) andsome other sources like "Table of spectral lines" (Zaidel et al. 1977),the work of Glad (1956) etc. The most prominent among them is the lineat λ~3649A. It consists of an emission and shortward displacedabsorption component, i.e. it shows a P Cyg-type profile. The absorptionradial velocity and the obtained rough estimate of the total excitationenergy place the line in nearly the same parts of the wind where themedium-strength He i lines arise. The 3649A line is not observed in thespectrum of normal B0 to B3 supergiants of luminosity classes Ia and Ib.
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