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 Analysis of 26 barium stars. I. AbundancesContext: .We present a detailed analysis of 26 barium stars, includingdwarf barium stars, providing their atmospheric parameters (T_eff, logg, [Fe/H], v_t), and elemental abundances. Aims: .We aim atderiving gravities and luminosity classes of the sample stars, inparticular to confirm the existence of dwarf barium stars. Accurateabundances of chemical elements were derived. We present the abundanceratios between nucleosynthetic processes, by using Eu and Ba asrepresentatives of the r- and s-processes. Methods:.High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph atthe ESO-1.52 m Telescope, along with photometric data with Fotrap at theZeiss telescope at the LNA. The atmospheric parameters were derived inan iterative way, with temperatures obtained from colour-temperaturecalibrations. The abundances were derived using spectrum synthesis forLi, Na, Al, α-, iron-peak, s-, and r-element atomic lines, and forC and N molecular lines. Results: .Atmospheric parameters in therange 4300 < T_eff < 6500, -1.2 < [Fe/H] < 0.0, and 1.4≤ log g < 4.6 were derived, confirming that our sample containsgiants, subgiants, and dwarfs. The abundance results obtained for Li,Al, Na, α-, and iron-peak elements for the sample stars show thatthey are compatible with the values found in the literature for normaldisk stars in the same range of metallicities. Enhancements of C, N, andheavy elements relative to Fe, that characterise barium stars, werederived and showed that [X/Ba] vs. [Ba/H] and [X/Ba] vs. [Fe/H] presentdifferent behaviour as compared to [X/Eu] vs. [Eu/H] and [X/Eu] vs.[Fe/H], reflecting the different nucleosynthetic sites for the s- andr-processes. Analysis of the Na, Mg, Al, and Si Abundances in the Atmospheres of Red Giants of Different Spectral SubgroupsWe analyze the Na, Mg, Al, and Si abundances in the atmospheres of morethan 40 stars, includingred giants of different spectral subgroups(normal red giants, mild and classical barium stars) and severalsupergiants. All these elements exhibit abundance excesses, with theoverabundance increasing with the star’s luminosity. Thedependence of the overabundances for each of these elements on theluminosity (or log g) is the same for all the spectral subgroups,testifying to a common origin: they are all products of hydrogen burningin the NeNa and MgAl cycles that have been dredged up from the stellarinteriors to the outer atmospheric layers by convection that graduallydevelops during the star’s evolution from the main sequence to thered-giant stage. The sodium abundances derived for several stars arelower than for other stars with similar atmospheric parameters. The agesand kinematic characteristics of these two groups of stars suggest thatthey probably belong to different stellar generations. Analysis of Atmospheric Abundances in Classical Barium StarsWe present our analysis of elemental abundances in the atmospheres of 16classical barium stars derived from high-resolution spectra and modelatmospheres. Comparison of the results with analogous data for moderatebarium stars and normal red giants shows that the abundance patterns forelements before the iron peak are the same for all three groups of redgiants, testifying to a similar origin. For binary systems, we confirmthe influence of the orbital period and, hence, the componentseparation, on the overabundance of s-process elements. The amount ofenrichment in s-process elements is also influenced by mass,metallicity, and evolutionary phase. Any of these parameters can beimportant in individual objects. The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 A search for diffuse absorption bands in carbon-rich stars - I. Barium and related starsThe results of a search for interstellar and circumstellar absorptionlines in high-resolution optical spectra of seven late-type stars arepresented. All these stars are single-lined spectroscopic binaries withunseen companions, presumably white dwarfs. Some residual materialindicative of recent mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB)star might still be associated with the systems. Peculiar energydistribution and the sodium D1 and D2 lines givedirect evidence about the material in the line of sight in some cases.Absorption features of simple carbon-bearing molecules (C2,CN) have been detected in most of the examined stars, confirming acarbon-rich nature of the corresponding medium. The presence of fourwell-known prominent diffuse absorption bands at 5780, 5797, 5705, and5844 Å, belonging to different families, was examined. We have notfound clear evidence for these bands in the programme stars. Thepossible explanations are discussed in brief. Studies of Classical Barium StarsUsing atmosphere models based on high-resolution spectra, we havederived the abundances of chemical elements in the atmospheres of sevenclassical barium stars and compared them with the elemental abundancesof moderate barium stars and normal red giants. The behavior of elementsup to the iron peak is the same in all three groups of giants, providingevidence that they have a common origin. The dependence of the anomalousabundances of s-process elements on stellar mass and metallicity isqualitatively similar for all three groups, probably indicating that asubstantial role is played by the evolutionary phase of the stars. Weconclude that the barium-star phenomenon and the overabundances ofs-process elements in barium stars cannot be explained as a consequenceof binarity alone. The extent to which the s-process elements areoverabundant is affected by the mass, metallicity, and evolutionaryphase of the given star, and any of these parameters may prove to beimportant in a specific object. An Archive of IUE Low-Dispersion Spectra of the White Dwarf StarsWe have produced an archive of the ultraviolet low-dispersion spectrafor the full set of white dwarf stars observed with the InternationalUltraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite over the course of its 18 yrmission. This archive contains the spectra of 322 individual degeneratestars which have been processed to optimize the signal-to-noise for eachstar. In particular, all spectra have been corrected for residualtemporal and thermal effects and placed on the Hubble Space TelescopeFaint Object Spectrograph absolute flux scale using procedures describedby Massa & Fitzpatrick. Wherever possible, multiple observations ofindividual stars have been co-added to further enhance signal-to-noiseand have been combined into a single spectrum including the full 1150 to3150 Å wavelength region observed by IUE. The contents of thisspectral archive are described and the details of data reductionprocedures are provided, along with the url for access to the electronicfiles of the processed spectra. Photometry of Mercury from SOHO/LASCO and Earth. The Phase Function from 2 to 170 deg.CCD observations of Mercury were obtained with the large anglespectrometric coronograph (LASCO) on the solar and heliosphericobservatory spacecraft, near superior and inferior solar conjunctions.Whole disk photometry was extracted from the orange and blue filterimages and transformed to V magnitudes on the UBV system. The LASCO datawere combined with ground-based, V-filter photometry acquired at largerelongation angles. The resulting photometric phase function covers thegreatest span of angles to date and is the first wide-range function tobe obtained since the era of visual observation. We analyzed the datausing a polynomial fit and a Hapke function fit, and derived thefollowing photometric results. Mercury's fully lit brightness, adjustedto a distance of 1.0 AU from the Sun and observer, was found to beV=-0.694(+/-0.030), which is more luminous than previously measured. Thecorresponding geometric albedo is 0.142(+/-0.005). The phase integral is0.478(+/-0.005) and resulting spherical albedo is 0.068(+/-0.003). Theupper limit of a possible rotational brightness variation is about 0.05magnitude. Mercury's brightness surges by more than 40% between phaseangles 10 and 2°, while the illuminated fraction of the diskincreases by less than 1%. A set of coefficients for Hapke's functionthat fit most of the phase curve includes h=0.065+/-0.002 indicatingthat Mercury and the Moon have similar regolith compaction states andparticle size distributions, and θ-bar=16°+/-1° implyinga macroscopically smoother surface than the Moon. However, we foundother solutions that fit the observations nearly as well withsignificantly smaller and larger values of h, and with values ofθ-bar around 25°. The wide range for θ-bar is due tothe inability of the model to fit the photometry obtained at large phaseangles. . The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectraWe present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033 Carbon-rich giants in the HR diagram and their luminosity functionThe luminosity function (LF) of nearly 300 Galactic carbon giants isderived. Adding BaII giants and various related objects, about 370objects are located in the RGB and AGB portions of the theoretical HRdiagram. As intermediate steps, (1) bolometric corrections arecalibrated against selected intrinsic color indices; (2) the diagram ofphotometric coefficients 1/2 vs. astrometric trueparallaxes varpi are interpreted in terms of ranges of photosphericradii for every photometric group; (3) coefficients CR andCL for bias-free evaluation of mean photospheric radii andmean luminosities are computed. The LF of Galactic carbon giantsexhibits two maxima corresponding to the HC-stars of the thick disk andto the CV-stars of the old thin disk respectively. It is discussed andcompared to those of carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Galacticbulge. The HC-part is similar to the LF of the Galactic bulge,reinforcing the idea that the Bulge and the thick disk are part of thesame dynamical component. The CV-part looks similar to the LF of theLarge Magellanic Cloud (LMC), but the former is wider due to thesubstantial errors on HIPPARCOS parallaxes. The obtained meanluminosities increase with increasing radii and decreasing effectivetemperatures, along the HC-CV sequence of photometric groups, except forHC0, the earliest one. This trend illustrates the RGB- and AGB-tracks oflow- and intermediate-mass stars for a range in metallicities. From acomparison with theoretical tracks in the HR diagram, the initial massesMi range from about 0.8 to 4.0 Msun for carbongiants, with possibly larger masses for a few extreme objects. A largerange of metallicities is likely, from metal-poor HC-stars classified asCH stars on the grounds of their spectra (a spheroidal component), tonear-solar compositions of many CV-stars. Technetium-rich carbon giantsare brighter than the lower limit Mbol =~ -3.6+/- 0.4 andcentered at =~-4.7+0.6-0.9 at about =~(2935+/-200) K or CV3-CV4 in our classification. Much like the resultsof Van Eck et al. (\cite{vaneck98}) for S stars, this confirms theTDU-model of those TP-AGB stars. This is not the case of the HC-stars inthe thick disk, with >~ 3400 K and>~ -3.4. The faint HC1 and HC2-stars( =~ -1.1+0.7-1.0) arefound slightly brighter than the BaII giants ( =~-0.3+/-1.3) on average. Most RCB variables and HdC stars range fromMbol =~ -1 to -4 against -0.2 to -2.4 for those of the threepopulation II Cepheids in the sample. The former stars show the largestluminosities ( <~ -4 at the highest effectivetemperatures (6500-7500 K), close to the Mbol =~ -5 value forthe hot LMC RCB-stars (W Men and HV 5637). A full discussion of theresults is postponed to a companion paper on pulsation modes andpulsation masses of carbon-rich long period variables (LPVs; Paper IV,present issue). This research has made use of the Simbad databaseoperated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Partially based on data from theESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite. Table 2 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/967 Nucleosynthesis and Mixing on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. III. Predicted and Observed s-Process AbundancesWe present the results of s-process nucleosynthesis calculations forasymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of different metallicities anddifferent initial stellar masses (1.5 and 3 Msolar), and wepresent comparisons of them with observational constraints fromhigh-resolution spectroscopy of evolved stars over a wide metallicityrange. The computations were based on previously published stellarevolutionary models that account for the third dredge-up phenomenonoccurring late on the AGB. Neutron production is driven by the13C(α,n)16O reaction during the interpulseperiods in a tiny layer in radiative equilibrium at the top of the He-and C-rich shell. The neutron source 13C is manufacturedlocally by proton captures on the abundant 12C; a few protonsare assumed to penetrate from the convective envelope into the radiativelayer at any third dredge-up episode, when a chemical discontinuity isestablished between the convective envelope and the He- and C-richzones. A weaker neutron release is also guaranteed by the marginalactivation of the reaction 22Ne(α,n)25Mgduring the convective thermal pulses. Owing to the lack of a consistentmodel for 13C formation, the abundance of 13Cburnt per cycle is allowed to vary as a free parameter over a wideinterval (a factor of 50). The s-enriched material is subsequently mixedwith the envelope by the third dredge-up, and the envelope compositionis computed after each thermal pulse. We follow the changes in thephotospheric abundance of the Ba-peak elements (heavy s [hs]) and thatof the Zr-peak ones (light s [ls]), whose logarithmic ratio [hs/ls] hasoften been adopted as an indicator of the s-process efficiency (e.g., ofthe neutron exposure). Our model predictions for this parameter show acomplex trend versus metallicity. Especially noteworthy is theprediction that the flow along the s-path at low metallicities drainsthe Zr and Ba peaks and builds an excess at the doubly magic208Pb, which is at the termination of the s-path. We thendiscuss the effects on the models of variations in the crucialparameters of the 13C pocket, finding that they are notcritical for interpreting the results. The theoretical predictions arecompared with published abundances of s-elements for AGB giants ofclasses MS, S, SC, post-AGB supergiants, and for various classes ofbinary stars, which supposedly derive their composition by mass transferfrom an AGB companion. This is done for objects belonging both to theGalactic disk and to the halo. The observations in general confirm thecomplex dependence of neutron captures on metallicity. They suggest thata moderate spread exists in the abundance of 13C that isburnt in different stars. Although additional observations are needed,it seems that a good understanding has been achieved of s-processoperation in AGB stars. Finally, the detailed abundance distributionincluding the light elements (CNO) of a few s-enriched stars atdifferent metallicities are examined and satisfactorily reproduced bymodel envelope compositions. Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable starsThe data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297 The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 Do All BA II Stars Have White Dwarf Companions?With the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Goddard High ResolutionSpectrograph (GHRS) we have observed four barium stars, three mildbarium stars, and one weak G-band star in the ultraviolet spectralregion. One barium star was observed with HST and the Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph (STIS). The aim was to check the hypothesis thatall these peculiar stars have white dwarf (WD) companions, which attheir asymptotic giant branch phase transferred mass with peculiarelement abundances to the present barium and CH peculiar stars. Assumingthat the ultraviolet continua of the cool giants, including the bariumstars, are generated in their chromospheres and that the relationsbetween the continua and the emission lines created in the chromospheresand transition layers are similar in field giants and barium stars, wefound that, indeed, most of our target barium and weak barium starsappear to have excess flux in the UV when compared to standard giantstars. For most of the stars the excess flux can be attributed to WDcompanions with temperatures between 10,000 and 12,000 K, if the WD massis about 0.6 Msolar. Cooling times for the WDs were derivedfrom their effective temperatures and model calculations by M. Wood. Thecalculated cooling times are longer than the lifetimes of the bariumstars on the giant branch. For our target stars the mass transfertherefore happened while they were still on the main sequence. For twoof the mild barium stars and one or perhaps two barium stars the derivedcooling times for the WD companions come out to be longer than the totalevolutionary times of the barium stars as calculated by Schaller et al.If our derivations are correct (the error bars are rather large) theneither evolutionary models with larger convective overshoot have to beused for the barium stars or the cooling times of the white dwarfs haveto be revised downward. Possibly an additional (as yet unknown) coolingmechanism has to be considered? The weak G-band star HD 165634, whichhas a carbon underabundance of about a factor of 10, also appears tohave a WD companion. We discuss the implications of this very low carbonabundance. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble SpaceTelescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which isoperated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy.Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Re-processing the Hipparcos Transit Data and Intermediate Astrometric Data of spectroscopic binaries. I. Ba, CH and Tc-poor S starsOnly 235 entries were processed as astrometric binaries with orbits inthe Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogue (\cite{Hipparcos}). However, theIntermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) and Transit Data (TD) made availableby ESA make it possible to re-process the stars that turned out to bespectroscopic binaries after the completion of the Catalogue. This paperillustrates how TD and IAD may be used in conjunction with the orbitalparameters of spectroscopic binaries to derive astrometric parameters.The five astrometric and four orbital parameters (not already known fromthe spectroscopic orbit) are derived by minimizing an objective function(chi 2) with an algorithm of global optimization. This codehas been applied to 81 systems for which spectroscopic orbits becameavailable recently and that belong to various families ofchemically-peculiar red giants (namely, dwarf barium stars, strong andmild barium stars, CH stars, and Tc-poor S stars). Among these 81systems, 23 yield reliable astrometric orbits. These 23 systems make itpossible to evaluate on real data the so-called cosmic error''described by Wielen et al. (1997), namely the fact that an unrecognizedorbital motion introduces a systematic error on the proper motion.Comparison of the proper motion from the Hipparcos catalogue with thatre-derived in the present work indicates that the former are indeed faroff the present value for binaries with periods in the range 3 to ~ 8years. Hipparcos parallaxes of unrecognized spectroscopic binaries turnout to be reliable, except for systems with periods close to 1 year, asexpected. Finally, we show that, even when a complete orbital revolutionwas observed by Hipparcos, the inclination is unfortunately seldomprecise. Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satelliteoperated by the European Space Agency (ESA 1997). The heavy-element abundances of AGB stars and the angular momentum conservation model of wind accretion for barium starsAdopting new s-process nucleosynthesis scenario and branch s-processpath, we calculate the heavy-element abundances of solar metallicity3Msun thermal pulse asymptotic giant branch (hereafterTP-AGB) stars, and then discuss the correlation between heavy-elementabundances and C/O ratio. 13C(alpha ,n)16Oreaction is the major neutron source, which is released in radiativecondition during the interpulse period, hence gives rise to an efficients-processing that depends on the 13C profile in the13C pocket. A second small neutron burst from 22Nesource marginally operates during convective pulses over previouslys-processed material diluted with fresh Fe seed and H-burning ashes. Thecalculated heavy-element abundances and C/O ratio on the surfaces of AGBstars are compared with the observations of MS, S and C (N-type) stars.The observations are characterized by a spread in neutron exposures:0.5-2.5 times of the corresponding exposures reached in the three zonesof the 13C pocket showed by Fig. 1 of Gallino et al. (1998).The evolutionary sequence from M to S to C stars is explained naturallyby the calculated heavy-element abundances and C/O ratio. Then theheavy-element abundances on the surfaces of TP-AGB stars are used tocalculate the heavy-element overabundances of barium stars, which aregenerally believed to belong to binary systems and their heavy-elementoverabundances are produced by the accreting material from thecompanions (the former TP-AGB stars and the present white dwarfs). Toachieve this, firstly, the change equations of binary orbital elementsare recalculated by taking the angular momentum conservation in place ofthe tangential momentum conservation, and the change of delta r/r termis considered; then the heavy-element overabundances of barium stars arecalculated, in a self-consistent manner, through wind accretion duringsuccessive pulsed mass ejection, followed by mixing. The calculatedrelationships of heavy-element abundances to orbital periods P of bariumstars can fit the observations within the error ranges. Moreover, thecalculated abundances of nuclei of different atomic charge Z,corresponding to different neutron exposures of TP-AGB stars, can fitthe observational heavy-element abundances of 14 barium stars in theerror ranges. Our results suggest that the barium stars with longerorbital period P>1600 d may form through accreting part of the ejectafrom the intrinsic AGB stars through stellar wind, and the massaccretion rate is in the range of 0.1-0.5 times of Bondi-Hoyle'saccretion rate. Those with shorter orbital period P<600 d may beformed through other scenarios: dynamically stable late case C masstransfer or common envelope ejection. Ca II activity and rotation in F-K evolved starsCa II H and K high resolution observations for 60 evolved stars in thefield and in 5 open clusters are presented. From these spectrachromospheric fluxes are derived, and a homogeneous sample of more than100 giants is built adding data from the literature. In addition, formost stars, rotational velocities were derived from CORAVELobservations. By comparing chromospheric emission in the cluster starswe confirm the results of Pasquini & Brocato (1992): chromosphericactivity depends on the stellar effective temperature, and mass, whenintermediate mass stars (M ~ 4 Msun) are considered. TheHyades and the Praesepe clump giants show the same level of activity, asexpected from stars with similar masses and effective temperatures. Adifference of up to 0.4 dex in the chromospheric fluxes among the Hyadesgiants is recorded and this sets a clear limit to the intrinsic spreadof stellar activity in evolved giants. These differences in otherwisevery similar stars are likely due to stellar cycles and/or differencesin the stellar initial angular momentum. Among the field stars none ofthe giants with (V-R)o < 0.4 and Ia supergiants observedshows a signature of Ca II activity; this can be due either to the realabsence of a chromosphere, but also to other causes which preclude theappearance of Ca II reversal. By analyzing the whole sample we find thatchromospheric activity scales linearly with stellar rotational velocityand a high power of stellar effective temperature: F'k ~Teff7.7 (Vsini)0.9. This result can beinterpreted as the effect of two chromospheric components of differentnature: one mechanical and one magnetic. Alternatively, by using theHipparcos parallaxes and evolutionary tracks, we divide the sampleaccording to the stellar masses, and we follow the objects along anevolutionary track. For each range of masses activity can simply beexpressed as a function of only one parameter: either theTeff or the angular rotation Omega , with laws F'k~ Omega alpha , because angular velocity decreases witheffective temperature along an evolutionary track. By using theevolutionary tracks and the observed Vsini we investigate the evolutionof the angular momentum for evolved stars in the range 1-5Msun. For the 1.6-3 solar mass stars the data are consistentwith the IOmega =const law while lower and higher masses follow a lawsimilar to IOmega 2=const, where I is the computed stellarmomentum of inertia. We find it intriguing that Vsini remains almostconstant for 1Msun stars along their evolution; if a similarbehavior is shared by Pop II stars, this could explain the relativelyhigh degree of activity observed in Pop II giants. Finally, through theuse of models, we have verified the consistency of the F'k ~Omega alpha and the IOmega beta = Const lawsderived, finding an excellent agreement. This representation, albeitcrude (the models do not consider, for instance, mass losses) representsthe evolution of Ca II activity and of the angular momentum in asatisfactory way in most of the portion of HR diagram analyzed.Different predictions could be tested with observations in selectedclusters. Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla. Tables 1-3are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The CaII-M_v Correlation (Wilson-Bappu Effect) Calibrated by HIPPARCOS ParallaxesWe have used Hipparcos parallaxes to derive absolute visual magnitudesof G, K, and M stars with Ca II emission line widths previously measuredby O. C. Wilson. A linear relationship similar to the one derivedoriginally by Wilson & Bappu and improved by Lutz & Kelker wasfound from M_v=+7 to -2. For stars brighter than M_v=-2 a substantialnumber of stars show Ca II emission lines that are broader than expectedfrom the linear fit. Most of those stars are bright giants andsupergiants of type G. In appendices we show some sample Ca II profilesand identify emission lines of Fe II as well as the Hepsilon line insome stars. A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 StarsUltraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories. A re-analysis of the heavy-element abundance of barium stars.Not Available A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved starsRotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Five-colour photometry of OB-stars in the Southern HemisphereObservations of OB-stars, made in 1959 and 1960 at the Leiden SouthernStation near Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, with the VBLUW photometerattached to the 90 cm light-collector, are given in this paper. They arecompared with photometry obtained by \cite[Graham (1968),]{gra68}\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977),]{wal77} \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} and \cite[Van Genderen et al. (1984).]{gen84} Formulaefor the transformation of the present observations to those of\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977)]{wal77} and \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} are given. Table 4 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Wilson-Bappu effect of the MgII K line - dependence on stellar temperature, activity and metallicityThe Wilson-Bappu effect is investigated using accurate absolutemagnitudes of 65 stars obtained through early release of data from theHipparcos satellite together with MgII k line widths determined fromhigh resolution spectra observed with the International UltravioletExplorer (IUE) observatory. Stars of spectral classes F, G, K and M andluminosity classes I-V are represented in the sample. Wilson-Bappurelations for the Mg II k line for stars of different temperatures i.e.spectral classes are determined. The relation varies with spectral classand there is a significant scatter of the line widths around theregression lines. The sample contains slowly rotating stars of differentactivity levels and is suitable for investigations of a possiblerelation between line width and stellar activity. A difference inbehavior between dwarfs and giants (and supergiants) of spectral class Kseems to be present. Magnetic activity affects the width of the Mg II kline in dwarfs. Metallicity is found to influence the Mg II k line widthin giants and supergiants. Possible interpretations of the new resultsare briefly discussed. A search for hidden white dwarfs in theROSATEUV survey - II. Discovery of a distant DA+F6/7V binary system in a direction of low-density neutral hydrogenThe ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) survey of the extreme ultraviolet(EUV) has provided us with evidence for the existence of a previouslyunidentified sample of hot white dwarfs in unresolved, detached binarysystems. These stars are invisible at optical wavelengths due to theclose proximity of their much more luminous companions (spectral type Kor earlier). However, for companions of spectral type ~A5 or later thewhite dwarfs are easily visible at far-ultraviolet wavelengths, and canbe identified in spectra taken by IUE. 16 such systems have beendiscovered in this way through ROSATEUVEIUE observations, including fouridentified by us in Paper I. In the present paper we report the resultsof our continuing search during the final year of IUE operations. Onenew system, RE J0500-364 (DA+F6/7V), has been identified. This starappears to lie at a distance of ~500-1000 pc, making it one of the mostdistant white dwarfs, if not the most distant, to be detected in the EUVsurveys. The very low line-of-sight neutral hydrogen volume density tothis object could place a lower limit on the length of the beta CMainterstellar tunnel of diffuse gas, which stretches away from the LocalBubble in a similar direction to RE J0500-364. In this paper we alsoanalyse a number of the stars observed where no white dwarf companionwas found. Some of these objects show evidence for chromospheric andcoronal activity. Finally, we present an analysis of the previouslyknown WD+active F6V binary HD 27483 (Bohm-Vitense 1993), and show that,at T~22000K, the white dwarf may be contributing significantly to theobserved EUV flux. If so, it is one of the coolest such stars to bedetected in the EUV surveys. Magellanic Cloud Cepheids - AbundancesWe have determined parameters and abundances for three SMC and nine LMCCepheids that have not been previously studied spectroscopically formetallicity, as well as three SMC and one LMC Cepheids observedpreviously by Luck and Lambert. This work nearly doubles the number ofCepheids with spectroscopic metallicities in the SMC and triples thenumber in the LMC. For Galactic reference stars we have determined theabundances of 11 supergiants of spectral type F0 to K1. These abundancesare used herein to examine the dispersion in cosmic (Fe/H) values foundin LMC Cepheids by Luck and Lambert. The Magellanic Cloud Cepheids tendto be longer-period Cepheids, and thus have physical gravities that are1.0 dex and lower. Spectroscopic gravities are even lower. Fortunately,the (Fe/H) content as determined from Fe I is not strongly dependent ongravity and is thus well determined. We combine our abundances withother published high-resolution spectroscopic results, deriving a mean(Fe/H) for the SMC of -0.68. The total range seen in the (Fe/H) ratiosderived herein is -0.84 to -0.65. This result is in agreement withprevious studies showing a small intrinsic range in the metallicities inthe SMC. For the LMC, from the Cepheids studied here we obtain -0.30,with a range of -0.55 to -0.19. Combining all available data, we obtaina mean (Fe/H) of -0.34. From this analysis, there is little evidence fora significant metallicity dispersion in the LMC. Insights into the formation of barium and Tc-poor S stars from an extended sample of orbital elementsThe set of orbital elements available for chemically-peculiar red giant(PRG) stars has been considerably enlarged thanks to a decade-longCORAVEL radial-velocity monitoring of about 70 barium stars and 50 Sstars. When account is made for the detection biases, the observedbinary frequency among strong barium stars, mild barium stars andTc-poor S stars (respectively 35/37, 34/40 and 24/28) is compatible withthe hypothesis that they are all members of binary systems. Thesimilarity between the orbital-period, eccentricity and mass-functiondistributions of Tc-poor S stars and barium stars confirms that Tc-poorS stars are the cooler analogs of barium stars. A comparative analysisof the orbital elements of the various families of PRG stars, and of asample of chemically-normal, binary giants in open clusters, revealsseveral interesting features. The eccentricity - period diagram of PRGstars clearly bears the signature of dissipative processes associatedwith mass transfer, since the maximum eccentricity observed at a givenorbital period is much smaller than in the comparison sample of normalgiants. be held The mass function distribution is compatible with theunseen companion being a white dwarf (WD). This lends support to thescenario of formation of the PRG star by accretion of heavy-element-richmatter transferred from the former asymptotic giant branch progenitor ofthe current WD. Assuming that the WD companion has a mass in the range0.60+/-0.04 Msb ȯ, the masses of mild and strong barium starsamount to 1.9+/-0.2 and 1.5+/-0.2 Msb ȯ, respectively. Mild bariumstars are not restricted to long-period systems, contrarily to what isexpected if the smaller accretion efficiency in wider systems were thedominant factor controlling the pollution level of the PRG star. Theseresults suggest that the difference between mild and strong barium starsis mainly one of galactic population rather than of orbital separation,in agreement with their respective kinematical properties. There areindications that metallicity may be the parameter blurring the period -Ba-anomaly correlation: at a given orbital period, increasing levels ofheavy-element overabundances are found in mild barium stars, strongbarium stars, and Pop.II CH stars, corresponding to a sequence ofincreasingly older, i.e., more metal-deficient, populations. PRG starsthus seem to be produced more efficiently in low-metallicitypopulations. Conversely, normal giants in barium-like binary systems mayexist in more metal-rich populations. HD 160538 (DR Dra) may be such anexample, and its very existence indicates at least that binarity is nota sufficient condition to produce a PRG star. This paper is dedicated tothe memory of Antoine Duquennoy, who contributed many among theobservations used in this study The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circleThe sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30. The Pulkovo spectrophotometric catalog of bright stars in the range from 320 to 1080 NM - A supplementThe Pulkovo spectrophotometric catalog was published in Baltic AstronomyVol. 5, No. 4 (1996). Here we present a supplement of the catalogcontaining the flux distribution data for 77 stars in the wavelengthrange from 320 to 735 nm. Actually, this is a direct continuation ofTable 6 of the catalog. Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution SpectraIRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed. Systematic Errors in the FK5 Catalog as Derived from CCD Observations in the Extragalactic Reference Frame.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114..850S&db_key=AST
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