Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

HD 179949


Contents

Images

Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images


Related articles

Condensation temperature trends among stars with planets
Results from detailed spectroscopic analyses of stars hosting massiveplanets are employed to search for trends between abundances andcondensation temperatures. The elements C, S, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, V,Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn are included in the analysis of 64 stars withplanets and 33 comparison stars. No significant trends are evident inthe data. This null result suggests that accretion of rocky material onto the photospheres of stars with planets is not the primary explanationfor their high metallicities. However, the differences between the solarphotospheric and meteoritic abundances do display a weak but significanttrend with condensation temperature. This suggests that the metallicityof the Sun's envelope has been enriched relative to its interior byabout 0.07 dex.

Extrasolar planets, stellar winds and chromospheric hotspots
Recent observations have shown what is believed to be planet-inducedchromospheric activity on stars with hot Jupiters. We present a model ofthe magnetic interaction between a planet and a star with a dipolarmagnetic field. Reconnection between the fields of the star and planetaccelerates electrons along the field lines that connect the star andplanet. By determining the locations at which these field lines connectto the stellar surface, we can model the surface pattern of thechromospheric response to the planet-star interaction. We find that theinclination of the rotation axis of the star determines the magnitude ofthe emission, while a misalignment of the magnetic and rotation axesproduces a phase shift between the peak of the observed chromosphericemission and the phase where the planet is directly in front of thestar. This phase shift increases as the extent of the stellar coronaincreases. This model reproduces the cyclic signature of chromosphericenhancement seen in stars with hot Jupiters. It can reproduce the65° phase lag reported for HD 179949 if the closed corona of thestar extends out to the orbital radius of the planet at8.5R*. It cannot, however, reproduce the phase lag of169° reported for υ And.

Colour-differential interferometry for the observation of extrasolar planets
We present the high angular resolution technique of colour-differentialinterferometry for direct detection of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs).The measurement of differential phase with long-baseline ground-basedinterferometers in the near-infrared could allow the observation ofseveral hot giant extrasolar planets in tight orbit around the nearbystars, and thus yield their low- or mid-resolution spectroscopy,complete orbital data set and mass. Estimates of potentially achievablesignal-to-noise ratios are presented for a number of planets alreadydiscovered by indirect methods. The limits from the instrumental andatmospheric instability are discussed, and a subsequent observationalstrategy is proposed.

Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems
We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131radial velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known asof 2005 July 1. Common proper-motion companions were investigated usingthe multiepoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys and confirmed by matching thetrigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distancesestimated photometrically. We also attempt to confirm or refutecompanions listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog, in the Catalogsof Nearby Stars Series by Gliese and Jahreiß, in Hipparcosresults, and in Duquennoy & Mayor's radial velocity survey. Ourfindings indicate that a lower limit of 30 (23%) of the 131 exoplanetsystems have stellar companions. We report new stellar companions to HD38529 and HD 188015 and a new candidate companion to HD 169830. Weconfirm many previously reported stellar companions, including six starsin five systems, that are recognized for the first time as companions toexoplanet hosts. We have found evidence that 20 entries in theWashington Double Star Catalog are not gravitationally bound companions.At least three (HD 178911, 16 Cyg B, and HD 219449), and possibly five(including HD 41004 and HD 38529), of the exoplanet systems reside intriple-star systems. Three exoplanet systems (GJ 86, HD 41004, andγ Cep) have potentially close-in stellar companions, with planetsat roughly Mercury-Mars distances from the host star and stellarcompanions at projected separations of ~20 AU, similar to the Sun-Uranusdistance. Finally, two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarfcompanions. This comprehensive assessment of exoplanet systems indicatesthat solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicityenvironments-singles, binaries, and triples-and that planets survive thepost-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.

Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets
We present a catalog of nearby exoplanets. It contains the 172 knownlow-mass companions with orbits established through radial velocity andtransit measurements around stars within 200 pc. We include fivepreviously unpublished exoplanets orbiting the stars HD 11964, HD 66428,HD 99109, HD 107148, and HD 164922. We update orbits for 83 additionalexoplanets, including many whose orbits have not been revised sincetheir announcement, and include radial velocity time series from theLick, Keck, and Anglo-Australian Observatory planet searches. Both thesenew and previously published velocities are more precise here due toimprovements in our data reduction pipeline, which we applied toarchival spectra. We present a brief summary of the global properties ofthe known exoplanets, including their distributions of orbital semimajoraxis, minimum mass, and orbital eccentricity.Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which isoperated jointly by the University of California and the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology. The Keck Observatory was made possible by thegenerous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Dwarfs in the Local Region
We present lithium, carbon, and oxygen abundance data for a sample ofnearby dwarfs-a total of 216 stars-including samples within 15 pc of theSun, as well as a sample of local close giant planet (CGP) hosts (55stars) and comparison stars. The spectroscopic data for this work have aresolution of R~60,000, a signal-to-noise ratio >150, and spectralcoverage from 475 to 685 nm. We have redetermined parameters and derivedadditional abundances (Z>10) for the CGP host and comparison samples.From our abundances for elements with Z>6 we determine the meanabundance of all elements in the CGP hosts to range from 0.1 to 0.2 dexhigher than nonhosts. However, when relative abundances ([x/Fe]) areconsidered we detect no differences in the samples. We find nodifference in the lithium contents of the hosts versus the nonhosts. Theplanet hosts appear to be the metal-rich extension of local regionabundances, and overall trends in the abundances are dominated byGalactic chemical evolution. A consideration of the kinematics of thesample shows that the planet hosts are spread through velocity space;they are not exclusively stars of the thin disk.

Chemical Composition of the Planet-harboring Star TrES-1
We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star ofthe transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution KeckHIRES and Hobby-Eberly Telescope HRS spectra, we have determinedabundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc,Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting averageabundance of <[X/H]>=-0.02+/-0.06 is in good agreement withinitial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare theelemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars withplanets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. Weinvestigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elementsin TrES-1 and other stars with planets and find no statisticallysignificant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperatureTc. We use published abundances and kinematic information forthe sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and severalstatistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms oftheir likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk ofthe Milky Way. TrES-1 is found to be very likely a member of thethin-disk population. By comparing α-element abundances of planethosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find thatmetal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0.0) stars with planets appear to besystematically underabundant in [α/Fe] by ~0.1 dex with respect tocomparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, butsystematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by differentgroups cannot be ruled out.

Frequency of Hot Jupiters and Very Hot Jupiters from the OGLE-III Transit Surveys toward the Galactic Bulge and Carina
We derive the frequencies of hot Jupiters (HJs) with 3-5 day periods andvery hot Jupiters (VHJs) with 1-3 day periods by comparing the planetsactually detected in the OGLE-III survey with those predicted by ourmodels. The models are constructed following Gould and Morgan (2003) bypopulating the line of sight with stars drawn from the HipparcosCatalogue. Using these, we demonstrate that the number of stars withsensitivity to HJs and VHJs is only 5-16% of those in the OGLE-IIIfields satisfying the spectroscopic-follow-up limit of V_max < 17.5mag. Hence, the frequencies we derive are much higher than a naiveestimate would indicate. We find that at 90% confidence the fraction ofstars with planets in the two period ranges is (1/320)(1^+1.37_-0.59)for HJs and (1/710)(1^+1.10_-0.54) for VHJs. The HJ rate isstatistically indistinguishable from that found in radial velocity (RV)studies. However, we note that magnitude-limited RV samples are heavilybiased toward metal-rich (hence, planet-bearing) stars, while transitsurveys are not, and therefore we expect that more sensitive transitsurveys should find a deficit of HJs as compared to RV surveys. Thedetection of three transiting VHJs, all with periods less than 2 days,is marginally consistent with the complete absence of such detections inRV surveys. The planets detected are consistent with being uniformlydistributed between 1.00 and 1.25 Jovian radii, but there are too few inthe sample to map this distribution in detail.

A search for water masers toward extrasolar planets
Context: .Water is the most common triatomic molecule in the universeand the basis of life on Earth. Astrophysical masers have been widelystudied in recent years and have been shown to be invaluable probes ofthe details of the environment in which they are found. Water masers,for instance, are often detected toward low-mass star-forming regions.Doppler radial-velocity surveys have detected about 160exoplanets.Aims.Observations of water masers from exoplanetary systemswould give us a new detailed window through which to explorethem.Methods.We present a search for water masers toward eighteenextrasolar planets using the newly upgraded Australia Telescope CompactArray at 12 mm. A sensitivity of ˜25 mJy beam-1 and anangular resolution of ~10'' were achieved at 22.235 GHz. Results.Nomaser lines are clearly observed.

Abundances of refractory elements in the atmospheres of stars with extrasolar planets
Aims.This work presents a uniform and homogeneous study of chemicalabundances of refractory elements in 101 stars with and 93 without knownplanetary companions. We carry out an in-depth investigation of theabundances of Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Na, Mg and Al. The newcomparison sample, spanning the metallicity range -0.70< [Fe/H]<0.50, fills the gap that previously existed, mainly at highmetallicities, in the number of stars without known planets.Methods.Weused an enlarged set of data including new observations, especially forthe field "single" comparison stars . The line list previously studiedby other authors was improved: on average we analysed 90 spectral linesin every spectrum and carefully measured more than 16 600 equivalentwidths (EW) to calculate the abundances.Results.We investigate possibledifferences between the chemical abundances of the two groups of stars,both with and without planets. The results are globally comparable tothose obtained by other authors, and in most cases the abundance trendsof planet-host stars are very similar to those of the comparison sample.Conclusions.This work represents a step towards the comprehension ofrecently discovered planetary systems. These results could also beuseful for verifying galactic models at high metallicities andconsequently improve our knowledge of stellar nucleosynthesis andgalactic chemical evolution.

Ground-based direct detection of close-in extra-solar planets with nulling and high order adaptive optics
Ground-based direct detection of extra-solar planets is very challengingdue to high planet to star brightness contrasts. For giant close-inplanets, such as have been discovered by the radial velocity method,closer than 0.1 AU, the reflected light is predicted to be fairly highyielding a contrast ratio ranging from 10-4 to10-5 at near infra-red wavelengths. In this paper, weinvestigate direct detection of reflected light from such planets usingnulling interferometry, and high-order adaptive optics in conjunctionwith large double aperture ground-based telescopes. In thisconfiguration, at least 10-3 suppression of the entirestellar Airy pattern with small loss of planet flux as close as 0.03arcsec is achievable. Distinguishing residual starlight from the planetsignal is achieved by using the center of gravity shift method ormulticolor differential imaging. Using these assumptions, we deriveexposure times from a few minutes to several hours for direct detectionof many of the known extra-solar planets with several short-baselinedouble aperture telescopes such as the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT),the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Keck Telescope.

Oxygen abundances in planet-harbouring stars. Comparison of different abundance indicators
We present a detailed and uniform study of oxygen abundances in 155solar type stars, 96 of which are planet hosts and 59 of which form partof a volume-limited comparison sample with no known planets. EWmeasurements were carried out for the [O I] 6300 Å line and the OI triplet, and spectral synthesis was performed for several OH lines.NLTE corrections were calculated and applied to the LTE abundanceresults derived from the O I 7771-5 Å triplet. Abundances from [OI], the O I triplet and near-UV OH were obtained in 103, 87 and 77dwarfs, respectively. We present the first detailed and uniformcomparison of these three oxygen indicators in a large sample ofsolar-type stars. There is good agreement between the [O/H] ratios fromforbidden and OH lines, while the NLTE triplet shows a systematicallylower abundance. We found that discrepancies between OH, [O I] and the OI triplet do not exceed 0.2 dex in most cases. We have studied abundancetrends in planet host and comparison sample stars, and no obviousanomalies related to the presence of planets have been detected. Allthree indicators show that, on average, [O/Fe] decreases with [Fe/H] inthe metallicity range -0.8< [Fe/H] < 0.5. The planet host starspresent an average oxygen overabundance of 0.1-0.2 dex with respect tothe comparison sample.

Astrophysics in 2004
In this 14th edition of ApXX,1 we bring you the Sun (§ 2) and Stars(§ 4), the Moon and Planets (§ 3), a truly binary pulsar(§ 5), a kinematic apology (§ 6), the whole universe(§§ 7 and 8), reconsideration of old settled (§ 9) andunsettled (§ 10) issues, and some things that happen only on Earth,some indeed only in these reviews (§§ 10 and 11).

Photospheric CNO Abundances of Solar-Type Stars
We determined the C, N, and O abundances of 160 nearby F, G, and Kdwarfs and subgiants by using spectra obtained with the HIDESspectrograph at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, with the purposes of(1) establishing the runs of [C/Fe], [N/Fe], and [O/Fe] for thesegalactic disk stars in the metallicity range of -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲+0.4, (2) searching for any difference in the CNO abundances ofplanet-host stars as compared to non-planet-host stars, and (3)examining the consistency of the abundances derived from different linesto check the validity of the analysis. The non-LTE effect on theabundance determination was taken into consideration based on ourextensive statistical-equilibrium calculations. We confirmed thatconsistent abundances are mostly accomplished between different lines,and that [C/Fe] as well as [O/Fe] progressively increase with a decreasein [Fe/H] with the slope of the former (˜ 0.2‑0.3) beingshallower than the latter (˜ 0.4‑0.5), while [N/Fe] does notshow any clear systematic trend with the metallicity. The [C/Fe],[N/Fe], and [O/Fe] values of 27 planet-harboring stars (included in oursample of 160 stars) were shown to be practically indistinguishable fromthose exhibited by non-planet-harboring stars of similar metallicities.

Lithium Abundances of F-, G-, and K-Type Stars: Profile-Fitting Analysis of the Li I 6708 Doublet
An extensive profile-fitting analysis was performed for the Li(+Fe)6707-6708Å feature of nearby 160 F-K dwarfs/subgiants (including27 planet-host stars) in the Galactic disk ( 7000 K ≳Teff ≳ 5000 K, -1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.4), in orderto establish the photospheric lithium abundances of these stars. Thenon-LTE effect (though quantitatively insignificant) was taken intoaccount based on our statistical equilibrium calculations, which werecarried out on an adequate grid of models. Our results confirmed most ofthe interesting observational characteristics revealed by recentlypublished studies, such as the bimodal distribution of the Li abundancesfor stars at Teff ≳ 6000 K, the satisfactory agreementof the upper envelope of the A(Li) vs. [Fe/H] distribution with thetheoretical models, the existence of a positive correlation betweenA(Li) and the stellar mass, and the tendency of lower lithium abundancesof planet-host stars (as compared to stars without planets) at thenarrow ``transition'' region of 5900 K ≳ Teff ≳5800 K. The solar Li abundance derived from this analysis is 0.92 (H =12.00), which is by 0.24dex lower than the widely referenced standardvalue of 1.16.

Spectroscopic Study on the Atmospheric Parameters of Nearby F--K Dwarfs and Subgiants
Based on a collection of high-dispersion spectra obtained at OkayamaAstrophysical Observatory, the atmospheric parameters (Teff,log g, vt, and [Fe/H]) of 160 mid-F through early-K starswere extensively determined by the spectroscopic method using theequivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines along with the numericaltechnique of Takeda et al. (2002, PASJ, 54, 451). The results arecomprehensively discussed and compared with the parameter values derivedby different approaches (e.g., photometric colors, theoreticalevolutionary tracks, Hipparcos parallaxes, etc.) as well as with thepublished values found in various literature. It has been confirmed thatour purely spectroscopic approach yields fairly reliable and consistentresults.

A link between the semimajor axis of extrasolar gas giant planets and stellar metallicity
The fact that most extrasolar planets found to date are orbitingmetal-rich stars lends credence to the core accretion mechanism of gasgiant planet formation over its competitor, the disc instabilitymechanism. However, the core accretion mechanism is not refined to thepoint of explaining orbital parameters such as the unexpected semimajoraxes and eccentricities. We propose a model that correlates themetallicity of the host star with the original semimajor axis of itsmost massive planet, prior to migration, assuming that the coreaccretion scenario governs giant gas planet formation. The modelpredicts that the optimum regions for planetary formation shift inwardsas stellar metallicity decreases, providing an explanation for theobserved absence of long-period planets in metal-poor stars. We compareour predictions with the available data on extrasolar planets for starswith masses similar to the mass of the Sun. A fitting procedure producesan estimate of what we define as the zero-age planetary orbit (ZAPO)curve as a function of the metallicity of the star. The model hints thatthe lack of planets circling metal-poor stars may be partly caused by anenhanced destruction probability during the migration process, becausethe planets lie initially closer to their central star.

Magnetospheric radio emission from extrasolar giant planets: the role of the host stars
We present a new analysis of the expected magnetospheric radio emissionfrom extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) for a distance limited sample ofthe nearest known extrasolar planets. Using recent results on thecorrelation between stellar X-ray flux and mass-loss rates from nearbystars, we estimate the expected mass-loss rates of the host stars ofextrasolar planets that lie within 20 pc of the Earth. We find that someof the host stars have mass-loss rates that are more than 100 times thatof the Sun and, given the expected dependence of the planetarymagnetospheric radio flux on stellar wind properties, this has a verysubstantial effect. Using these results and extrapolations of the likelymagnetic properties of the extrasolar planets, we infer their likelyradio properties.We compile a list of the most promising radio targets and conclude thatthe planets orbiting Tau Bootes, Gliese 86, Upsilon Andromeda and HD1237(as well as HD179949) are the most promising candidates, with expectedflux levels that should be detectable in the near future with upcomingtelescope arrays. The expected emission peak from these candidate radioemitting planets is typically ~40-50 MHz. We also discuss a range ofobservational considerations for detecting EGPs.

Spectroscopic Properties of Cool Stars (SPOCS). I. 1040 F, G, and K Dwarfs from Keck, Lick, and AAT Planet Search Programs
We present a uniform catalog of stellar properties for 1040 nearby F, G,and K stars that have been observed by the Keck, Lick, and AAT planetsearch programs. Fitting observed echelle spectra with synthetic spectrayielded effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projectedrotational velocity, and abundances of the elements Na, Si, Ti, Fe, andNi, for every star in the catalog. Combining V-band photometry andHipparcos parallaxes with a bolometric correction based on thespectroscopic results yielded stellar luminosity, radius, and mass.Interpolating Yonsei-Yale isochrones to the luminosity, effectivetemperature, metallicity, and α-element enhancement of each staryielded a theoretical mass, radius, gravity, and age range for moststars in the catalog. Automated tools provide uniform results and makeanalysis of such a large sample practical. Our analysis method differsfrom traditional abundance analyses in that we fit the observed spectrumdirectly, rather than trying to match equivalent widths, and wedetermine effective temperature and surface gravity from the spectrumitself, rather than adopting values based on measured photometry orparallax. As part of our analysis, we determined a new relationshipbetween macroturbulence and effective temperature on the main sequence.Detailed error analysis revealed small systematic offsets with respectto the Sun and spurious abundance trends as a function of effectivetemperature that would be inobvious in smaller samples. We attempted toremove these errors by applying empirical corrections, achieving aprecision per spectrum of 44 K in effective temperature, 0.03 dex inmetallicity, 0.06 dex in the logarithm of gravity, and 0.5 kms-1 in projected rotational velocity. Comparisons withprevious studies show only small discrepancies. Our spectroscopicallydetermined masses have a median fractional precision of 15%, but theyare systematically 10% higher than masses obtained by interpolatingisochrones. Our spectroscopic radii have a median fractional precisionof 3%. Our ages from isochrones have a precision that variesdramatically with location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We planto extend the catalog by applying our automated analysis technique toother large stellar samples.

A 2 Micron H2 Spectral Survey of Proto-Planetary Nebulae
We measured 2.1-2.3 μm spectra for a mostly complete sample of knownproto-planetary nebulae (PPNe) at declinations north of -30°. Thisspectral range includes the H2 emission lines 1-0 S(1), 1-0S(0), 2-1 S(1), 2-1 S(2), and 3-2 S(3). We detected H2emission from 16 of the 51 objects in our survey. Twelve of these arenew detections, doubling the number of PPNe with detected H2emission. We find that H2 emission commences at a spectralclass of mid-G in PPNe with bipolar morphologies and optically thickequatorial regions; in fact, all bipolar F-G PPNe with an opticallythick equatorial region have collisionally excited H2emission. Radiative excitation becomes important in PPNe when thecentral star reaches an early B spectral type, just beforephotoionization of the nebula and the commencement of the planetarynebula (PN) phase. Almost all of the PPNe with B central stars showH2 emission, with either a purely radiative or a mixedcollisional plus radiative spectrum. Since H2 emission israre in nonbipolar PNe, the destruction of the H2 in thenonbipolars must be roughly coincident with the photoionization of thenebula. As with H2-emitting PNe, the bipolarH2-emitting PPNe are found at low Galactic latitudes.Optically thin H2-emitting nebulae are not similarlyrestricted to low latitudes. Brγ emission is detected in 15 of thesources, including all those of B spectral type.

The Magnetic Properties of an L Dwarf Derived from Simultaneous Radio, X-Ray, and Hα Observations
We present the first simultaneous, multiwavelength observations of an Ldwarf, the L3.5 candidate brown dwarf 2MASS J00361617+1821104, conductedwith the Very Large Array, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the KittPeak 4 m telescope. We detect strongly variable and periodic radioemission (P=3 hr) with a fraction of about 60% circular polarization. NoX-ray emission is detected to a limit ofLX/Lbol<~2×10-5, severalhundred times below the saturation level observed in early M dwarfs.Similarly, we do not detect Hα emission to a limit ofLHα/Lbol<~2×10-7, thedeepest for any L dwarf observed to date. The ratio of radio to X-rayluminosity is at least 4 orders of magnitude in excess of that observedin a wide range of active stars (including M dwarfs), providing thefirst direct confirmation that late-M and L dwarfs violate theradio/X-ray correlation. The radio emission is due to gyrosynchrotronradiation in a large-scale magnetic field of about 175 G, which ismaintained on timescales longer than 3 yr. The detected 3 hr period maybe due to (1) the orbital motion of a companion at a separation of about5 stellar radii, similar to the configuration of RS CVn systems, (2) anequatorial rotation velocity of about 37 km s-1 and ananchored, long-lived magnetic field, or (3) periodic release of magneticstresses in the form of weak flares. In the case of orbital motion, themagnetic activity may be induced by the companion, possibly explainingthe unusual pattern of activity and the long-lived signal. We concludethat fully convective stars can maintain a large-scale and stablemagnetic field, but the lack of X-ray and Hα emission indicatesthat the atmospheric conditions are markedly different than inearly-type stars and even M dwarfs. Similar observations are thereforeinvaluable for probing both the internal and external structure oflow-mass stars and substellar objects, and for providing constraints ondynamo models.

The Planet-Metallicity Correlation
We have recently carried out spectral synthesis modeling to determineTeff, logg, vsini, and [Fe/H] for 1040 FGK-type stars on theKeck, Lick, and Anglo-Australian Telescope planet search programs. Thisis the first time that a single, uniform spectroscopic analysis has beenmade for every star on a large Doppler planet search survey. We identifya subset of 850 stars that have Doppler observations sufficient todetect uniformly all planets with radial velocity semiamplitudes K>30m s-1 and orbital periods shorter than 4 yr. From this subsetof stars, we determine that fewer than 3% of stars with-0.5<[Fe/H]<0.0 have Doppler-detected planets. Above solarmetallicity, there is a smooth and rapid rise in the fraction of starswith planets. At [Fe/H]>+0.3 dex, 25% of observed stars have detectedgas giant planets. A power-law fit to these data relates the formationprobability for gas giant planets to the square of the number of metalatoms. High stellar metallicity also appears to be correlated with thepresence of multiple-planet systems and with the total detected planetmass. This data set was examined to better understand the origin of highmetallicity in stars with planets. None of the expected fossilsignatures of accretion are observed in stars with planets relative tothe general sample: (1) metallicity does not appear to increase as themass of the convective envelopes decreases, (2) subgiants with planetsdo not show dilution of metallicity, (3) no abundance variations for Na,Si, Ti, or Ni are found as a function of condensation temperature, and(4) no correlations between metallicity and orbital period oreccentricity could be identified. We conclude that stars with extrasolarplanets do not have an accretion signature that distinguishes them fromother stars; more likely, they are simply born in higher metallicitymolecular clouds.Based on observations obtained at Lick and Keck Observatories, operatedby the University of California, and the Anglo-Australian Observatories.

Prospects for Habitable ``Earths'' in Known Exoplanetary Systems
We have examined whether putative Earth-mass planets could remainconfined to the habitable zones (HZs) of the 111 exoplanetary systemsconfirmed by 2004 August. We find that in about half of these systemsthere could be confinement for at least the past 1000 Myr, though insome cases only in variously restricted regions of the HZ. The HZmigrates outward during the main-sequence lifetime, and we find that inabout two-thirds of the systems an Earth-mass planet could be confinedto the HZ for at least 1000 Myr sometime during the main-sequencelifetime. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list forexploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached our conclusions bydetailed investigations of seven systems, which has resulted in anestimate of the distance from the giant planet within which orbitalstability is unlikely for an Earth-mass planet. This distance is givenby nRH, where RH is the Hill radius of the giantplanet and n is a multiplier that depends on the giant's orbitaleccentricity and on whether the Earth-mass planet is interior orexterior to the giant planet. We have estimated n for each of the sevensystems by launching Earth-mass planets in various orbits and followingtheir fate with a hybrid orbital integrator. We have then evaluated thehabitability of the other exoplanetary systems using nRHderived from the giant's orbital eccentricity without carrying outtime-consuming orbital integrations. A stellar evolution model has beenused to obtain the HZs throughout the main-sequence lifetime.

Hot Jupiters and Hot Spots: The Short- and Long-Term Chromospheric Activity on Stars with Giant Planets
We monitored the chromospheric activity in the Ca II H and K lines of 13solar-type stars (including the Sun): 8 of them over 3 years at theCanada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and 5 in a single run at the VeryLarge Telescope (VLT). A total of 10 of the 13 targets have closeplanetary companions. All of the stars observed at the CFHT showlong-term (months to years) changes in H and K intensity levels. Fourstars display short-term (days) cyclical activity. For two, HD 73256 andκ1 Cet, the activity is likely associated with anactive region rotating with the star; however, the flaring in excess ofthe rotational modulation may be associated with a hot Jupiter. Aplanetary companion remains a possibility for κ1 Cet.For the other two, HD 179949 and υ And, the cyclic variation issynchronized to the hot Jupiter's orbit. For both stars thissynchronicity with the orbit is clearly seen in two out of three epochs.The effect is only marginal in the third epoch at which the seasonallevel of chromospheric activity had changed for both stars. Short-termchromospheric activity appears weakly dependent on the mean K linereversal intensities for the sample of 13 stars. In addition, asuggestive correlation exists between this activity and theMpsini of the star's hot Jupiter. Because of their smallseparation (<=0.1 AU), many of the hot Jupiters lie within theAlfvén radius of their host stars, which allows a direct magneticinteraction with the stellar surface. We discuss the conditions underwhich a planet's magnetic field might induce activity on the stellarsurface and why no such effect was seen for the prime candidate, τBoo. This work opens up the possibility of characterizing planet-starinteractions, with implications for extrasolar planet magnetic fieldsand the energy contribution to stellar atmospheres.Based on observations collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescopeoperated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre Nationalde la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii, aswell as data from the European Southern Observatory's Very LargeTelescope, Chile (programme ESO 73.C-0694).

Radial Velocity Detectability of Low-Mass Extrasolar Planets in Close Orbits
Detection of Jupiter-mass companions to nearby solar-type stars withprecise radial velocity measurements is now routine, and Doppler surveysare moving toward lower velocity amplitudes. The detection of severalNeptune-mass planets with orbital periods of less than a week has beenreported. The drive toward the search for close-in, Earth-mass planetsis on the agenda. Successful detection or meaningful upper limits willplace important constraints on the process of planet formation. In thispaper, we quantify the statistics of detection of low-mass planets inclose orbits, showing how the detection threshold depends on the numberand timing of the observations. In particular, we consider the case of alow-mass planet close to but not on the 2:1 mean motion resonance with ahot Jupiter. This scenario is a likely product of the core-accretionhypothesis for planet formation coupled with migration of Jupiters inthe protoplanetary disk. It is also advantageous for detection becausethe orbital period is well constrained. We show that the minimumdetectable mass is ~4 M⊕(N/20)-1/2(σ/ms-1)(P/days)1/3(M*/Msolar)2/3for N>=20, where N is the number of observations, P is the orbitalperiod, σ is the quadrature sum of Doppler velocity measurementerrors and stellar jitter, and M* is the stellar mass.Detection of few Earth-mass rocky cores will require ~1 m s-1velocity precision and, most important, a better understanding ofstellar radial velocity ``jitter.''

Interactions between hot Jupiters and their host stars
A young hot Jupiter might have been tidally inflated beyond its Rocheradius when its orbit was being circularized. This scenario has thepotential to explain a couple of solid or tentative observations such asa pile-up of hot Jupiters around 0.04-0.05 AU, the mass-periodcorrelation of transiting planets, as well as the existence of hotNeptunes. Other scenarios such as tidal dissipation in a planet-hoststar as well as the magnetic interaction will be also discussed.

Evolution of Cold Circumstellar Dust around Solar-type Stars
We present submillimeter (Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 350 μm)and millimeter (Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope [SEST] 1.2 mm, OwensValley Radio Observatory [OVRO] 3 mm) photometry for 127 solar-typestars from the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems SpitzerLegacy program that have masses between ~0.5 and 2.0 Msolarand ages from ~3 Myr to 3 Gyr. Continuum emission was detected towardfour stars with a signal-to-noise ratio>=3: the classical T Tauristars RX J1842.9-3532, RX J1852.3-3700, and PDS 66 with SEST, and thedebris-disk system HD 107146 with OVRO. RX J1842.9-3532 and RXJ1852.3-3700 are located in projection near the R CrA molecular cloud,with estimated ages of ~10 Myr (Neuhäuser et al.), whereas PDS 66is a probable member of the ~20 Myr old Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup ofthe Scorpius-Centaurus OB association (Mamajek et al.). The continuumemission toward these three sources is unresolved at the 24" SESTresolution and likely originates from circumstellar accretion disks,each with estimated dust masses of ~5×10-5Msolar. Analysis of the visibility data toward HD 107146(age~80-200 Myr) indicates that the 3 mm continuum emission is centeredon the star within the astrometric uncertainties and resolved with aGaussian-fit FWHM size of (6.5"+/-1.4")×(4.2"+/-1.3"), or185AU×120 AU. The results from our continuum survey are combinedwith published observations to quantify the evolution of dust mass withtime by comparing the mass distributions for samples with differentstellar ages. The frequency distribution of circumstellar dust massesaround solar-type stars in the Taurus molecular cloud (age~2 Myr) isdistinguished from that around 3-10 Myr and 10-30 Myr old stars at asignificance level of ~1.5 and ~3 σ, respectively. These resultssuggest a decrease in the mass of dust contained in small dust grainsand/or changes in the grain properties by stellar ages of 10-30 Myr,consistent with previous conclusions. Further observations are needed todetermine if the evolution in the amount of cold dust occurs on evenshorter timescales.

On the ages of exoplanet host stars
We obtained spectra, covering the CaII H and K region, for 49 exoplanethost (EH) stars, observable from the southern hemisphere. We measuredthe chromospheric activity index, R'{_HK}. We compiled previouslypublished values of this index for the observed objects as well as theremaining EH stars in an effort to better smooth temporal variations andderive a more representative value of the average chromospheric activityfor each object. We used the average index to obtain ages for the groupof EH stars. In addition we applied other methods, such as: Isochrone,lithium abundance, metallicity and transverse velocity dispersions, tocompare with the chromospheric results. The kinematic method is a lessreliable age estimator because EH stars lie red-ward of Parenago'sdiscontinuity in the transverse velocity dispersion vs dereddened B-Vdiagram. The chromospheric and isochrone techniques give median ages of5.2 and 7.4 Gyr, respectively, with a dispersion of 4 Gyr. The medianage of F and G EH stars derived by the isochrone technique is 1-2 Gyrolder than that of identical spectral type nearby stars not known to beassociated with planets. However, the dispersion in both cases is large,about 2-4 Gyr. We searched for correlations between the chromosphericand isochrone ages and L_IR/L* (the excess over the stellarluminosity) and the metallicity of the EH stars. No clear tendency isfound in the first case, whereas the metallicy dispersion seems toslightly increase with age.

Sulphur abundance in Galactic stars
We investigate sulphur abundance in 74 Galactic stars by using highresolution spectra obtained at ESO VLT and NTT telescopes. For the firsttime the abundances are derived, where possible, from three opticalmultiplets: Mult. 1, 6, and 8. By combining our own measurements withdata in the literature we assemble a sample of 253 stars in themetallicity range -3.2  [Fe/H]  +0.5. Two important features,which could hardly be detected in smaller samples, are obvious from thislarge sample: 1) a sizeable scatter in [S/Fe] ratios around [Fe/H]˜-1; 2) at low metallicities we observe stars with [S/Fe]˜ 0.4, aswell as stars with higher [S/Fe] ratios. The latter do not seem to bekinematically different from the former ones. Whether the latter findingstems from a distinct population of metal-poor stars or simply from anincreased scatter in sulphur abundances remains an open question.

Outbursts on normal stars. FH Leo misclassified as a novalike variable
We present high resolution spectroscopy of the common proper motionsystem FH Leo (components HD 96273 andBD+07 2411B), which has been classified as a novalike variabledue to an outburst observed by Hipparcos, and we present and review theavailable photometry. We show from our spectra that neither star canpossibly be a cataclysmic variable, instead they are perfectly normallate-F and early-G stars. We measured their radial velocities andderived the atmospheric fundamental parameters, abundances of severalelements including Fe, Ni, Cr, Co, V, Sc, Ti, Ca and Mg, and we derivethe age of the system. From our analysis we conclude that the stars doindeed constitute a physical binary. However, the observed outburstcannot be readily explained. We examine several explanations, includingpollution with scattered light from Jupiter, binarity, microlensing,background supernovae, interaction with unseen companions and planetaryengulfment. While no explanation is fully satisfactory, the scatteredlight and star-planet interaction scenarios emerge as the least unlikelyones, and we give suggestions for further study.

Submit a new article


Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link


Member of following groups:


Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Schütze
Right ascension:19h15m33.20s
Declination:-24°10'45.0"
Apparent magnitude:6.25
Distance:27.049 parsecs
Proper motion RA:116.6
Proper motion Dec:-101.7
B-T magnitude:6.883
V-T magnitude:6.299

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
HD 1989HD 179949
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 6875-3273-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0600-39793964
BSC 1991HR 7291
HIPHIP 94645

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR