DSS Images Other Images
|L-band (3.5 μm) IR-excess in massive star formation. II. RCW 57/NGC 3576|
Context: .We present a JHKsL survey of the massive star forming regionRCW 57 (NGC 3576) based on L-band data at 3.5 μm taken with SPIREX(South Pole Infrared Explorer), and 2MASS JHKs data at 1.25-2.2 μm.This is the second of two papers, the first one concerning a similarJHKsL survey of 30 Doradus. Aims: .Colour-colour andcolour-magnitude diagrams are used to detect sources with infraredexcess. This excess emission is interpreted as coming from circumstellardisks, and hence gives the cluster disk fraction (CDF). Based on the CDFand the age of RCW 57, it is possible to draw conclusions on theformation and early evolution of massive stars. Methods: .Theinfrared excess is detected by comparing the locations of sources inJHKsL colour-colour and L vs. (K_s-L) colour-magnitude diagrams to thereddening band due to interstellar extinction. Results: .A totalof 251 sources were detected. More than 50% of the 209 sources includedin the diagrams have an infrared excess. Conclusions: .Comparisonwith other JHKsL surveys, including the results on 30 Doradus from thefirst paper, support a very high initial disk fraction (>80%) evenfor massive stars, although there is an indication of a possible fasterevolution of circumstellar disks around high mass stars. 33 sources onlyfound in the L-band indicate the presence of heavily embedded, massiveClass I protostars. We also report the detection of diffuse PAHsemission throughout the RCW 57 region.
|Radial velocity measurements of B stars in the Scorpius-Centaurus association|
We derive single-epoch radial velocities for a sample of 56 B-type starsmembers of the subgroups Upper Scorpius, Upper Centaurus Lupus and LowerCentaurus Crux of the nearby Sco-Cen OB association. The radial velocitymeasurements were obtained by means of high-resolution echelle spectravia analysis of individual lines. The internal accuracy obtained in themeasurements is estimated to be typically 2-3 km s-1, butdepends on the projected rotational velocity of the target. Radialvelocity measurements taken for 2-3 epochs for the targets HD 120307, HD142990 and HD 139365 are variable and confirm that they arespectroscopic binaries, as previously identified in the literature.Spectral lines from two stellar components are resolved in the observedspectra of target stars HD 133242, HD 133955 and HD 143018, identifyingthem as spectroscopic binaries.
|Statistical Constraints for Astrometric Binaries with Nonlinear Motion|
Useful constraints on the orbits and mass ratios of astrometric binariesin the Hipparcos catalog are derived from the measured proper motiondifferences of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 (Δμ), accelerations ofproper motions (μ˙), and second derivatives of proper motions(μ̈). It is shown how, in some cases, statistical bounds can beestimated for the masses of the secondary components. Two catalogs ofastrometric binaries are generated, one of binaries with significantproper motion differences and the other of binaries with significantaccelerations of their proper motions. Mathematical relations betweenthe astrometric observables Δμ, μ˙, and μ̈ andthe orbital elements are derived in the appendices. We find a remarkabledifference between the distribution of spectral types of stars withlarge accelerations but small proper motion differences and that ofstars with large proper motion differences but insignificantaccelerations. The spectral type distribution for the former sample ofbinaries is the same as the general distribution of all stars in theHipparcos catalog, whereas the latter sample is clearly dominated bysolar-type stars, with an obvious dearth of blue stars. We point outthat the latter set includes mostly binaries with long periods (longerthan about 6 yr).
|Physical Parameters of Southern B- and Be-Type Stars|
In this paper we present new results on stellar fundamental parametersfor early B and Be field stars observed in the southern hemisphere:effective temperature, superficial gravity, and projected stellarrotation velocity. The estimation of their projected rotation velocitiesis made by two successive methods. We first obtain an initial valuebased on Fourier transforms of the He I λ4471 line for 34 B andBe field stars with magnitudes in the range0.5<=mv<=10, followed by a more accurate fittingprocedure of observed lines with non-LTE model line profiles. Thisprocedure yields stellar rotation velocity estimates that are inagreement with those of the literature. We derive also Teffand logg values by fitting equivalent widths and profiles of NLTE modelspectra to the observed ones. Finally, we give estimates of stellarages, masses, and bolometric luminosities derived from interpolations inthe evolutionary tracks calculated by Schaller.
|Formation scenarios for the young stellar associations between galactic longitudes l = 280degr - 360degr|
We investigate the spatial distribution, the space velocities and agedistribution of the pre-main sequence (PMS) stars belonging toOphiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions (SFRs), and of theyoung early-type star members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association.These young stellar associations extend over the galactic longituderange from 280degr to 360degr , and are at a distance interval ofaround 100 and 200 pc. This study is based on a compilation ofdistances, proper motions and radial velocities from the literature forthe kinematic properties, and of basic stellar data for the constructionof Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Although there was no well-known OBassociation in Chamaeleon, the distances and the proper motions of agroup of 21 B- and A-type stars, taken from the Hipparcos Catalogue,lead us to propose that they form a young association. We show that theyoung early-type stars of the OB associations and the PMS stars of theSFRs follow a similar spatial distribution, i.e., there is no separationbetween the low and the high-mass young stars. We find no difference inthe kinematics nor in the ages of these two populations studied.Considering not only the stars selected by kinematic criteria but thewhole sample of young early-type stars, the scattering of their propermotions is similar to that of the PMS stars and all the young starsexhibit a common direction of motion. The space velocities of theHipparcos PMS stars of each SFR are compatible with the mean values ofthe OB associations. The PMS stars in each SFR span a wide range of ages(from 1 to 20 Myr). The ages of the OB subgroups are 8-10 Myr for UpperScorpius (US), and 16-20 Myr for Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL) and forLower Centaurus Crux (LCC). Thus, our results do not confirm that UCL isolder than the LCC association. Based on these results and theuncertainties associated with the age determination, we cannot say thatthere is indeed a difference in the age of the two populations. Weanalyze the different scenarios for the triggering of large-scalestar-formation that have been proposed up to now, and argue that mostprobably we are observing a spiral arm that passes close to the Sun. Thealignment of young stars and molecular clouds and the average velocityof the stars in the opposite direction to the Galactic rotation agreewith the expected behavior of star formation in nearby spiral arms.Tables 1 to 4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/404/913
|Photodissociation regions and star formation in the Carina nebula|
We have obtained wide-field thermal infrared (IR) images of the Carinanebula, using the SPIREX/Abu telescope at the South Pole. Emission frompolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 3.29μm, a tracer ofphotodissociation regions (PDRs), reveals many interesting well-definedclumps and diffuse regions throughout the complex. Near-IR images(1-2μm), along with images from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX)satellite (8-21μm) have been incorporated to study the interactionsbetween the young stars and the surrounding molecular cloud in moredetail. Two new PAH emission clumps have been identified in the Keyholenebula, and have been mapped in 12CO(2-1) and (1-0) using theSwedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST). Analysis of their physicalproperties reveals that they are dense molecular clumps, externallyheated with PDRs on their surfaces and supported by external pressure ina similar manner to the other clumps in the region. A previouslyidentified externally heated globule containing IRAS 10430-5931 in thesouthern molecular cloud shows strong 3.29-, 8- and 21-μm emission,the spectral energy distribution (SED) revealing the location of anultracompact (UC) HII region. The northern part of the nebula iscomplicated, with PAH emission intermixed with mid-IR dust continuumemission. Several point sources are located here, and through atwo-component blackbody fit to their SEDs we have identified threepossible UC HII regions as well as a young star surrounded by acircumstellar disc. This implies that star formation in this region isongoing and not halted by the intense radiation from the surroundingyoung massive stars.
|Evidence for a Developing Gap in a 10 Myr Old Protoplanetary Disk|
We have developed a physically self-consistent model of the disk aroundthe nearby 10 Myr old star TW Hya that matches the observed spectralenergy distribution and 7 mm images of the disk. The model requires bothsignificant dust-size evolution and a partially evacuated inner diskregion, as predicted by theories of planet formation. The outer disk,which extends to at least 140 AU in radius, is very optically thick atinfrared wavelengths and quite massive (~0.06 Msolar) for therelatively advanced age of this T Tauri star. This implies long viscousand dust evolution timescales, although dust must have grown to sizes ofthe order of ~1 cm to explain the submillimeter and millimeter spectralslopes. In contrast, the negligible near-infrared excess emission ofthis system requires that the disk be optically thin inside <~4 AU.This inner region cannot be completely evacuated; we need ~0.5 lunarmass of ~1 μm particles remaining to produce the observed 10 μmsilicate emission. Our model requires a distinct transition in diskproperties at ~4 AU separating the inner and outer disks. The inner edgeof the optically thick outer disk must be heated almost frontally by thestar to account for the excess flux at mid-infrared wavelengths. Wespeculate that this truncation of the outer disk may be the signpost ofa developing gap due to the effects of a growing protoplanet; the gap isstill presumably evolving because material still resides in it, asindicated by the silicate emission, the molecular hydrogen emission, andthe continued accretion onto the central star (albeit at a much lowerrate than typical of younger T Tauri stars). Thus, TW Hya may become theRosetta stone for our understanding of the evolution and dissipation ofprotoplanetary disks.
|The mass ratio distribution of B-type visual binaries in the Sco OB2 association|
A sample of 115 B-type stars in the Sco OB2 association is examined forexistence of visual companions in the J and K_s bands, using the ADONISnear-infrared adaptive optics system and coronograph. Practically allthe components in the separation range 0farcs3 -6farcs4 (45-900 AU) andmagnitudes down to K = 16 were detected. The K and J - K photometry ofthe primaries and differential photometry and astrometry of the 96secondaries are presented. Ten secondaries are new physical components,as inferred from the photometric and statistical criteria, while therest of the newly detected objects are faint background stars. After asmall correction for detection incompleteness and a conversion of thefluxes into masses, an unbiased distribution of the components massratio q was derived. The power law f(q)~ q-0.5 fits theobservations well, whereas a q-1.8 distribution, whichcorresponds to a random pairing of stars, is rejected. The companionstar fraction is 0.20+/-0.04 per decade of separation which iscomparable to the highest measured binary fraction among low-mass PMSstars and ~ 1.6 times higher than the binary fraction of low-mass dwarfsin the solar neighborhood and in open clusters in the same separationrange. Based on observations collected at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile (ESO programme 65.H-0179). Tables 1, 3 andthe full version of Table 2 are only available in electronic form at theCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/382/92
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|OB association members in the ACT and TRC catalogues|
The Hipparcos Catalogue contains members of nearby OB associationsbrighter than 12th magnitude in V. However, membership lists arecomplete only to magnitude V=7.3. In this paper we discuss whetherproper motions listed in the `Astrographic Catalogue+Tycho' referencecatalogue (ACT) and the Tycho Reference Catalogue (TRC), which arecomplete to V~10.5mag, can be used to find additional associationmembers. Proper motions in the ACT/TRC have an average accuracy of~3masyr-1. We search for ACT/TRC stars which have propermotions consistent with the spatial velocity of the Hipparcos members ofthe nearby OB associations already identified by de Zeeuw et al. Thesestars are first selected using a convergent-point method, and thensubjected to further constraints on the proper-motion distribution,magnitude and colour to narrow down the final number of candidatemembers. Monte Carlo simulations show that the proper-motiondistribution, magnitude, and colour constraints remove ~97per cent ofthe field stars, while at the same time retain more than 90per cent ofthe cluster stars. The procedure has been applied to five nearbyassociations: the three subgroups of Sco OB2, plus Per OB3 and Cep OB6.In all cases except Cep OB6, we find evidence for new associationmembers fainter than the completeness limit of the Hipparcos Catalogue.However, narrow-band photometry and/or radial velocities are needed topinpoint the cluster members, and to study their physicalcharacteristics.
|On the normal spectral energy distribution of stars: Spectral types O9-B5|
The normal energy distributions for fifteen spectral subtypes from O9 toB5 for luminosity classes V, IV, and III are derived. Threephotometrically uniform catalogs served as the source of thespectrophotometric data used. Synthetic color indices for all spectraltypes are calculated using the energy distribution curves obtained.Comparison of these indices with the expected normal color indicessuggests that the energy distributions derived are reliable.
|An ultraviolet, optical and infrared study of Herbig Ae/Be stars|
We have selected a list of 45 Herbig Ae/Be-type candidates on the baseof their IRAS colors and their spectral types. We propose the presenceof a broad infrared excess as a defining criterion for these stars,rather than the detection of circumstellar nebulosity. In this way, ourselection also includes more evolved young stars, that are no longerembedded in their star-forming region. A few objects in our sample arewell-known Herbig Ae/Be stars, others are new. New optical andnear-infrared photometric observations, as well as ultraviolet ones, arepresented. The position of the objects in several color-color diagrams,as well as their de-reddened energy distributions, permit a reliableclassification. Three objects probably are binaries with a coolsecondary, 9 appear to be related to the Vega-type stars and 33 objectscan be classified as genuine Herbig Ae/Be stars. The majority of theHerbig Ae/Be stars have a dusty environment consisting of a distinct hotand cool component. These isolated Herbig Ae/Be stars suggest anevolution from embedded Herbig Ae/Be stars to beta Pictoris-likemain-sequence stars, an evolution in which planet formation may play animportant role. Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile; and at the Swiss Telescope, La Silla,Chile; and at the Swiss Telescope, Hochalpine ForschungsstationJungfraujoch, Switzerland, and with the International UltravioletExplorer (IUE)
|Kinematical Structure of the Local Interstellar Medium: The Galactic Center Hemisphere|
A survey of interstellar Na I D1 and D2 absorption features found in thespectra of 31 early-type stars in the first and fourth Galacticquadrants reveals a new picture of the large-scale kinematics ofinterstellar gas in the vicinity of the Sun. While absorption featuresfound in the spectra of stars in the fourth Galactic quadrant show thegas expanding from stars in the Scorpio-Centaurus OB association, starsin the first Galactic quadrant, in the range of distances covered bythis survey (74--312 pc from the Sun), show interstellar gas fallingtoward the Galactic plane with a bulk motion whose component parallel tothat plane is directed toward the Scorpio-Centaurus association. Thispicture differs completely from generally accepted models in which thenearby interstellar gas flows away from the Scorpio-Centaurusassociation toward the Galactic anticenter. Evidence for the presence ofan expanding shell-like feature that is reaching the solar system ispresented.
|High S/N Echelle spectroscopy in young stellar groups. II. Rotational velocities of early-type stars in SCO OB2.|
We investigate the rotational velocities of early-type stars in the ScoOB2 association. We measure v.sin(i) for 156 established and probablemembers of the association. The measurements are performed with threedifferent techniques, which are in increasing order of expectedv.sin(i): 1) converting the widths of spectral lines directly tov.sin(i), 2) comparing artificially broadened spectra of low v.sin(i)stars to the target spectrum, 3) comparing the HeI λ4026 lineprofile to theoretical models. The sample is extended with literaturedata for 47 established members of Sco OB2. Analysis of the v.sin(i)distributions shows that there are no significant differences betweenthe subgroups of Sco OB2. We find that members of the binary populationof Sco OB2 on the whole rotate more slowly than the single stars. Inaddition, we find that the B7-B9 single star members rotatesignificantly faster than their B0-B6 counterparts. We test varioushypotheses for the distribution of v.sin(i) in the association. Theresults show that we cannot clearly exclude any form of randomdistribution of the direction and/or magnitude of the intrinsicrotational velocity vector. We also investigate the effects of rotationon colours in the Walraven photometric system. We show that positions ofB7-B9 single dwarfs above the main sequence are a consequence ofrotation. This establishes the influence of rotation on the Walravencolours, due primarily to surface gravity effects.
|The velocity structure of the local interstellar medium probed by ultra-high-resolution spectroscopy.|
We present ultra-high-resolution (0.35km/s FWHM) observations of theinterstellar Ca K line towards eight nearby stars (six of which arecloser than 30pc). The spectral resolution is sufficient to resolve theline profiles fully, thereby enabling us to detect hitherto unresolvedvelocity components, and to obtain accurate measurements of the velocitydispersions (b-values). Absorption components due to the LocalInterstellar Cloud (LIC) and/or the closely associated `G Cloud' areidentified towards all but one star (γ Oph), but only in one case(51 Oph) are both clouds reliably detected towards the same star. Mostof these nearby clouds have velocity dispersions (b=~2km/s) whichsuggest physical conditions similar to those inferred for the LIC(T_k_=~7000K, v_t_=~1km/s), although at least three lines of sight(towards γ Aqr, β Cen and ρ Cen) also sample coolerand/or less turbulent material. The spectrum of the nearby Vega-excessstar 51 Oph is of particular interest, owing to evidence that several ofthe absorption components arise in the circumstellar environment.
|The Pulkovo Spectrophotometric Catalog of Bright Stars in the Range from 320 TO 1080 NM|
A spectrophotometric catalog is presented, combining results of numerousobservations made by Pulkovo astronomers at different observing sites.The catalog consists of three parts: the first contains the data for 602stars in the spectral range of 320--735 nm with a resolution of 5 nm,the second one contains 285 stars in the spectral range of 500--1080 nmwith a resolution of 10 nm and the third one contains 278 stars combinedfrom the preceding catalogs in the spectral range of 320--1080 nm with aresolution of 10 nm. The data are presented in absolute energy unitsW/m(2) m, with a step of 2.5 nm and with an accuracy not lower than1.5--2.0%.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.|
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.
|A library of H band stellar spectra for stellar population analysis purposes.|
A sample of 37 stars of luminosity classes I, III, V, including few SMRstars observed in the H band with a medium resolution (R=1500-2000) ispresented. This sample of flux calibrated spectra is intended to widenexisting stellar libraries. A new IR spectrograph, ISIS/IR, foreseen forCFHT has been used. Its main characteristics are briefly described.Stellar spectra obtained with this new spectrograph are compared tosimilar data obtained with the ESO NTT IRSPEC spectrograph. Thebehaviour of some prominent features is described and it is shown thatthe COλ1.60/SiIλ1.60 line ratio is a good luminosityindicator for stellar types later than K0.
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|The determination of T_eff_ of B, A and F main sequence stars from the continuum between 3200 A and 3600 A.|
A method of determination of the effective temperature of B, A and Fmain sequence stars is proposed, using the slope of the continuumbetween 3200A and 3600A. The effective temperature calibration is basedon a sample of stars with energy distributions known from UV to the red.We have determined the Balmer jump and the effective temperatures for235 main sequence stars. The temperatures found have been compared withthose derived by Underhill et al. (1979), Kontizas & Theodossiou(1980), Theodossiou (1985), Morossi & Malagnini (1985). Thecomparison showed good agreement for most of the stars in common. On theother hand, the temperatures derived from the reddening-free colourfactor QUV, from the colour index (m1965-V) and from (B-V), given inGulati et al. (1989), are systematically lower than our temperatures,however the differences are within one-sigma error.
|High-resolution spectroscopy and NLTE calculations of the HeI 10830A line in magnetic chemically peculiar stars. A search for indirect evidences of hot stellar envelopes.|
Observations of CIV and SIIV lines in the ultraviolet spectra, X-ray andradio emission for some of the hottest chemically peculiar stars haveled to the suggestion that high temperature plasmas are present aroundthem. A possible indirect way to prove the existence of a corona aroundthe CP stars is to observe the HeI 10830A line since, in presence of aX-ray emitting corona, this line should disappear in the spectrum ofB-type stars (Mitskevich & Tsymbal 1992). Searching for possibledifferences, we have obtained high resolution HeI 10830A spectra for 7early type magnetic CP and 8 normal stars. The equivalent width of theHeI 10830A line, always in absorption, increases from A1 to B3 and thendecreases. The HeI 10830A line is present in the spectrum of CP starswith the same strength as in normal stars. Comparison with Mitskevich& Tsymbal (1992) calculations suggests that no X-ray emitting plasmais present around the observed CP stars. We also present new NLTEcalculations for HeI 10830A, analysing the sensitivity of this line toabundance variations. For normal main sequence stars of spectral typeA1-B3 our computations are in closer agreement with observations than inprevious work. In this spectral range, the line is found to be weaklydependent on the chemical composition.
|The MSSSO near-infrared photometric system|
The JHKL photometric system currently used at the Mount Stromlo andSiding Spring Observatories (MSSSO) is described via an extensive listof standard-star values and filter transmission curves. At JHK thissystem is identical to the Mount Stromlo Observatory (MSO) systemdefined by Jones and Hyland (1982), except for small zero-pointdifferences which we impose here. Transformations are given between theMSSSO system and several near-infrared photometric systems in use inother observatories and the homogenized JHKL system proposed by Besselland Brett (1988).
|High-resolution CA II observations of the local interstellar medium|
High-resolution absorption measurements of the interstellar Ca II K lineobserved toward 46 early-type stars in the local ISM (LISM) arepresented. Ca II was detected in 36 of the 46 stars with 82 individualcloud components identified. Ca II was detected to most of the starscloser than 50 pc, except in the region of the Galactic quadrant l =180-270 degrees which also contains the empty line of sight to B CMa at220 pc. The mean local standard of rest velocity of the 82 Ca IIcomponents implies that the LISM clouds are associated with the motionof the solar neighborhood and not the sun. If the present data arecombined with other nearby Ca II component velocities taken from theliterature, then a cloud centered approximately at l = 90 deg, b = -40deg moving coherently with the local interstellar wind vector issupported at a significance level of 99 percent. The Ca II data havebeen combined with Na I data for the same stars to produce a N(NaI)/N(Ca II) ratio for each identified absorption feature. This ratioplotted against the local standard of rest velocities of the cloudsshows that the Routly-Spitzer effect exists down to +/- 10 km/s, whichsupports grain desorption/destruction models that are efficient atreturning calcium to the gas phase at these low velocities.
|A homogeneous catalog of new UBV and H-beta photometry of B- and A-type stars in and around the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association|
B- and A-type stars in and near the Sco-Cen OB association areinvestigated with UBV and H-beta photometry to acquire data relevant tothe luminosity function of Sco-Cen. The measurements generally consistof two 10-s integrations of U, B, V, (W, N) filters, and theobservations are corrected iteratively for atmospheric extinction andinstrumental response. The data presented give the mean V magnitude,mean B-V, mean U-B, and the estimated uncertainties for these values.The catalog provides a homogeneous catalog of data for a large fieldwith stellar objects delineating membership to the association Sco-Cenand that affect the luminosity function of the aggregate.
|An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars|
About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are usedto measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars fallingin the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-fourdetected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it isestimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to theX-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition tosummarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant opticaldata, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process andanalyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completenessand IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-rayemission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quitecommon in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless ofluminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes lesscommon, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.
|The stellar temperature scale for stars of spectral types from O8 to F6 and the standard deviation of the MK spectral classification|
Empirical effective temperature of 211 early-type stars found in aprevious investigation (Kontizas and Theodossiou, 1980; Theodossiou,1985) are combined with the effective temperatures of 313 early-typestars from the literature. From these effective temperatures of a totalnumber of 524 early-type stars of spectral types from O8 to F6 a newstellar temperature scale is developed along with the standard deviationof the MK spectral classification.
|JHKLM standard stars in the ESO system|
A list of 199 standard stars suitable for the ESO standard photometricsystem at JHKLM is given. Faint stars (although brighter than K = 7.7)to be used on larger telescopes are included. This list is based on ananalysis of all infrared photometric observations carried out at LaSilla from 1979 until 1989 inclusive. The accuracy of the data (about0.02 mag. at J, H, K, L, and M) is similar to the one achieved at SAAOand CTIO. Comparisons with these systems, as well as with the AAO andMSSO systems, are made: it is shown that the ESO system is very close tothe other ones, with the exception of CTIOs.
|Effective temperature and gravity from c(0) and beta indices for B-type stars|
A sample of nonsupergiant B-type stars of solar chemical composition hasbeen analyzed for T(eff) and gravity differences due to the use of c(0)and beta indices from different photometric grids. The Moon andDworetsky (1985) grid, as well as an extension of the grid, are found toyield T(eff)s closer to those derived with other methods than the Lesteret al. (1986) grid; in addition, the former grid yields gravities thatare closer to values in the literature than the latter grid. A modifiedversion of the TEFFLOGG code of Moon (1985), which employs polynomialfunctions of the Stromgren indices, yields both T(eff) and gravity forthe present sample of B-type stars.
|High resolution observations of interstellar NA I and CA II towards the Scorpio-Centaurus association|
High-resolution observations (3.6 km/s FWHM) of interstellar Na I and CaII toward 28 stars in the direction of the Sco-Cen association arepresented. The observed velocity structure, velocity dispersions, columndensities and Na I/Ca II ratios are discussed. Of the 58 identifiedvelocity components (toward 23 stars), 46 (or 79 percent) were found tohave negative LSR velocities. This is in agreement with previousresults, and indicates a general outflow from the Sco-Cen association.By fitting an expanding shell model to the observed velocities anexpansion velocity of 7 km/s was obtained. If the further assumption ismade that only one component per star arises in such a shell, thebest-fitting expansion velocity was found to be 9 km/s. In the lattercase, the remaining components were variously identified (depending ontheir velocities and Na I/Ca II ratios).
|Southern JHKL standards|
The basis for the current SAAO standard photometric system at JHKL isgiven. This depends on an extensive investigation involving 230 starsdistributed around the sky. The accuracy is estimated at + or - 0.02 magfor J, H and K and + or - 0.05 mag for L.