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Reliability Checks on the Indo-US Stellar Spectral Library Using Artificial Neural Networks and Principal Component Analysis
The Indo-US coudé feed stellar spectral library (CFLIB) madeavailable to the astronomical community recently by Valdes et al. (2004,ApJS, 152, 251) contains spectra of 1273 stars in the spectral region3460 to 9464Å at a high resolution of 1Å (FWHM) and a widerange of spectral types. Cross-checking the reliability of this databaseis an important and desirable exercise since a number of stars in thisdatabase have no known spectral types and a considerable fraction ofstars has not so complete coverage in the full wavelength region of3460-9464Å resulting in gaps ranging from a few Å to severaltens of Å. We use an automated classification scheme based onArtificial Neural Networks (ANN) to classify all 1273 stars in thedatabase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried outto reduce the dimensionality of the data set before the spectra areclassified by the ANN. Most importantly, we have successfullydemonstrated employment of a variation of the PCA technique to restorethe missing data in a sample of 300 stars out of the CFLIB.

Proposal of observational program of CCD monitoring of 30 carbon Miras in V, R and I
We present a new long-term observational program of CCD monitoring of 30selected carbon Miras (V 374 Aql, S Aur, UV Aur, AU Aur, AZ Aur, S Cam,R CMi, W Cas, X Cas, HV Cas, S Cep, V CrB, U Cyg, V Cyg, RS Cyg, WX Cyg,T Dra, R For, VX Gem, ZZ Gem, V Hya, CZ Hya, R Lep, U Lyr, CL Mon, VOph, RZ Peg, SY Per, RU Vir, SS Vir) in the standard V, RC and I Johnsonian filters. The aim of the program is to reveal and describephotometric behavior of above mentioned objects and to ascertain thereliability of visual observations of these variable stars. The authorswill send interested persons the pertinent finding charts and they willsee to process rough CCD exposures taken in desired colors themselves.

Carbon-rich Mira variables: radial velocities and distances
Optical radial velocities have been measured for 38 C-type Miravariables (C-Miras). These data together with others in the literatureare used to study the differences between optical and CO millimetre (mm)observations for C-Miras and the necessary corrections to the opticalvelocities are derived in order to obtain the true radial velocities ofthe variables. The difference between absorption and emission-linevelocities is also examined. A particularly large difference (+30kms-1) is found in the case of the Hα line. A catalogue isgiven of 177 C-Miras with estimated distances and radial velocities. Thedistances are based on bolometric magnitudes derived in Paper I usingSouth African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) observations or (for 60 ofthe stars) using non-SAAO photometry. In the latter case, the necessarytransformations to the SAAO system are derived. These data will be usedin Paper III to study the kinematics of the C-Miras.

Near-infrared photometry of carbon stars
Near-infrared, JHKL, photometry of 239 Galactic C-rich variable stars ispresented and discussed. From these and published data, the stars wereclassified as Mira or non-Mira variables, and amplitudes and pulsationperiods, ranging from 222 to 948 d for the Miras, were determined formost of them. A comparison of the colour and period relations with thoseof similar stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud indicates minordifferences, which may be the consequence of sample selection effects.Apparent bolometric magnitudes were determined by combining the meanJHKL fluxes with mid-infrared photometry from IRAS and MSX. Then, usingthe Mira period luminosity relation to set the absolute magnitudes,distances were determined - to greater accuracy than has hitherto beenpossible for this type of star. Bolometric corrections to the Kmagnitude were calculated and prescriptions derived for calculatingthese from various colours. Mass-loss rates were also calculated andcompared to values in the literature.Approximately one-third of the C-rich Miras and an unknown fraction ofthe non-Miras exhibit apparently random obscuration events that arereminiscent of the phenomena exhibited by the hydrogen-deficient RCoronae Borealis stars. The underlying cause of this is unclear, but itmay be that mass loss, and consequently dust formation, is very easilytriggered from these very extended atmospheres.Based on observations made at the South African AstronomicalObservatory.E-mail: paw@saao.ac.za

First Surface-resolved Results with the Infrared Optical Telescope Array Imaging Interferometer: Detection of Asymmetries in Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars
We have measured nonzero closure phases for about 29% of our sample of56 nearby asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, using the three-telescopeInfrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) interferometer at near-infraredwavelengths (H band) and with angular resolutions in the range 5-10 mas.These nonzero closure phases can only be generated by asymmetricbrightness distributions of the target stars or their surroundings. Wediscuss how these results were obtained and how they might beinterpreted in terms of structures on or near the target stars. We alsoreport measured angular sizes and hypothesize that most Mira stars wouldshow detectable asymmetry if observed with adequate angular resolution.

Optical Spectropolarimetry of Asymptotic Giant Branch and Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars
Spectropolarimetric observations are presented for 21 AGB stars, 13proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs), and two R CrB-type stars. The spectracover the wavelength range from ~4200 to 8400 Å with 16 Åresolution. Among the AGB stars, 8 of 14 M giants, five of six carbonstars, and zero of one S star showed intrinsic polarization. At least 9of 13 PPNs exhibited intrinsic polarization, while the R CrB-type starsshow intrinsic polarization during fading episodes. There is astatistical correlation between mean polarization,

, and IRcolor, K-[12], among the AGB stars such that redder stars tend to bemore polarized. The PPN sample is significantly redder and morepolarized, on average, than the AGB stars. This increase in

with increased reddening is consistent with an evolutionary sequence inwhich AGB stars undergo increasing mass loss, with growing asymmetriesin the dust distribution as they evolve up and then off the AGB into theshort-lived PPN phase. A related trend is found between polarization andmass-loss rate in gas, M˙gas. The detectability ofpolarization increases with mass-loss rate, and probably all AGB starslosing mass at >10-6 Msolar yr-1have detectable polarization. Multiple observations of three polarizedAGB stars show that in some cases

increases withmV, and in others it decreases. If polarization arises fromscattering of starlight off an aysmmetric distribution of grains, thenthe distribution varies with time. Polarized features are detected inthe TiO bands of three M-type Mira variables, in the CN bands of thecarbon stars R Lep and V384 Per, and in the Swan bands of C2in R CrB and two PPNs. Polarization effects in the molecular bandsappear to be more common and the effects are larger in O-rich thanC-rich objects.

SiO in C-rich circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars: effects of non-LTE chemistry and grain adsorption
Aims.New SiO multi-transition millimetre line observations of a sampleof carbon stars, including J = 8→7 observations with the APEXtelescope, are used to probe the role of non-equilibrium chemistry andthe influence of grains in circumstellar envelopes of carbon stars. Methods: .A detailed radiative transfer modelling, including theeffect of dust emission in the excitation analysis, of the observed SiOline emission is performed. A combination of low- and high-energy linesare important in constraining the abundance distribution. Results:.It is found that the fractional abundance of SiO in these C-richenvironments can be several orders of magnitude higher than predicted byequilibrium stellar atmosphere chemistry. In fact, the SiO abundancedistribution of carbon stars closely mimic that of M-type (O-rich) AGBstars. A possible explanation for this behaviour is a shock-inducedchemistry, but also the influence of dust grains, both as a source fordepletion as well as production of SiO, needs to be furtherinvestigated. As observed for M-type AGB stars, a clear trend that theSiO fractional abundance decreases as the mass-loss rate of the starincreases is found for the carbon stars. This indicates that SiO isaccreted onto dust grains in the circumstellar envelopes.

A Unique Dust Formation Episode in the SC-Type Star UY Centauri
We report the first detection of new dust formation in an SC star. Theprototype of the SC stars, UY Cen, underwent a decline of 2 mag in the Vband. The SC stars show pulsational variations and have 60 μmexcesses, indicating past dust formation. It has been suggested that asa star evolves from being oxygen rich to carbon rich, there is a shortperiod of time when C/O~1 during which the star appearsspectroscopically as an SC star and ceases to produce dust. The SC starBH Cru has shown large spectroscopic and pulsation period variationsover only 30 yr, indicating rapid evolution, but it has shown no sign ofnew dust formation. UY Cen has not shown any pulsation or spectroscopicvariations accompanying the onset of its dust formation. In addition, UYCen did not show emission in the resonance lines of Na I, K I, or Rb Iwhen it was at its faintest, although these lines were a feature of thecarbon stars R Lep and V Hya during similar faint phases.

Visual Star Colours from Instrumental Photometry
In order to display graphically the visual colours of stars and otherastronomical objects, photometric broadband R, V, B colours are used toproxy for the r, g, b colours of the three visual sensors of the eye.From photometric Johnson B-V and V-R colour indices, R, V, and Bmagnitudes (V = 0) are calculated, and from these the respectivebrightnesses (r, v = 1 = g, and b) are calculated. After suitablenormalization these are then placed in a ternary diagram having r, g,and b as the vertices. All B-V and V-R are adjusted so that the Sunfalls in the same place as a blackbody at 5800 K. The resulting ternaryplot shows all of its objects (stars, planets) in their visual coloursat their relative positions in the ternary diagram. The star coloursdisplayed on a computer monitor screen or as a print with a colourprinter are more vivid than the usual visual impressions of isolatedstars, undoubtedly because of properties of the dark-adapted eye, butdouble-star pairs with contrasting colours correspond nicely totelescopic visual impressions.

Atlas of Hα emission lines and V light curves of 30 carbon Miras
This paper presents an atlas of V light curves and Hα emissionlines of 30 carbon Miras observed in various photometrical phases. Thevisualization of both photometric and spectral variations allowed us toreveal a strong correlation between the equivalent widths of theHα emission of carbon Miras and their V brightnesses as a functionof the photometric phase.

Secular Evolution in Mira Variable Pulsations
Stellar evolution theory predicts that asymptotic giant branch (AGB)stars undergo a series of short thermal pulses that significantly changetheir luminosity and mass on timescales of hundreds to thousands ofyears. These pulses are confirmed observationally by the existence ofthe short-lived radioisotope technetium in the spectra of some of thesestars, but other observational consequences of thermal pulses are subtleand may only be detected over many years of observations. Secularchanges in these stars resulting from thermal pulses can be detected asmeasurable changes in period if the star is undergoing Mira pulsations.It is known that a small fraction of Mira variables exhibit largesecular period changes, and the detection of these changes among alarger sample of stars could therefore be useful in evolutionary studiesof these stars. The American Association of Variable Star Observers(AAVSO) International Database currently contains visual data for over1500 Mira variables. Light curves for these stars span nearly a centuryin some cases, making it possible to study the secular evolution of thepulsation behavior on these timescales. In this paper we present theresults of our study of period change in 547 Mira variables using datafrom the AAVSO. We use wavelet analysis to measure the period changes inindividual Mira stars over the span of available data. By making linearfits to the period versus time measurements, we determine the averagerates of period change, dlnP/dt, for each of these stars. We findnonzero dlnP/dt at the 2 σ significance level in 57 of the 547stars, at the 3 σ level in 21 stars, and at the level of 6 σor greater in eight stars. The latter eight stars have been previouslynoted in the literature, and our derived rates of period change largelyagree with published values. The largest and most statisticallysignificant dlnP/dt are consistent with the rates of period changeexpected during thermal pulses on the AGB. A number of other starsexhibit nonmonotonic period change on decades-long timescales, the causeof which is not yet known. In the majority of stars, the periodvariations are smaller than our detection threshold, meaning theavailable data are not sufficient to unambiguously measure slowevolutionary changes in the pulsation period. It is unlikely that morestars with large period changes will be found among heretoforewell-observed Mira stars in the short term, but continued monitoring ofthese and other Mira stars may reveal new and serendipitous candidatesin the future.

CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements
We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular ResolutionMeasurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \cite{CHARM}, A&A,386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is acompilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods,as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is toprovide a reference list of sources which can be used for calibrationand verification observations with long-baseline optical and near-IRinterferometers. Single and binary stars are included, as are complexobjects from circumstellar shells to extragalactic sources. The presentupdate provides an increase of almost a factor of two over the previousedition. Additionally, it includes several corrections and improvements,as well as a cross-check with the valuable public release observationsof the ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). A total of 8231entries for 3238 unique sources are now present in CHARM2. Thisrepresents an increase of a factor of 3.4 and 2.0, respectively, overthe contents of the previous version of CHARM.The catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/431/773

The mass loss of C-rich giants
The mass loss rates, expansion velocities and dust-to-gas density ratiosfrom millimetric observations of 119 carbon-rich giants are compared, asfunctions of stellar parameters, to the predictions of recenthydrodynamical models. Distances and luminosities previously estimatedfrom HIPPARCOS data, masses from pulsations and C/O abundance ratiosfrom spectroscopy, and effective temperatures from a new homogeneousscale, are used. Predicted and observed mass loss rates agree fairlywell, as functions of effective temperature. The signature of the massrange M≤4 Mȯ of most carbon-rich AGB stars is seenas a flat portion in the diagram of mass loss rate vs. effectivetemperature. It is flanked by two regions of mass loss rates increasingwith decreasing effective temperature at nearly constant stellar mass.Four stars with detached shells, i.e. episodic strong mass loss, andfive cool infrared carbon-rich stars with optically-thick dust shells,have mass loss rates much larger than predicted values. The latter(including CW Leo) could be stars of smaller masses (M≃ 1.5-2.5Mȯ) while M≃ 4 Mȯ is indicated formost of the coolest objects. Among the carbon stars with detachedshells, R Scl returned to a predicted level (16 times lower) accordingto recent measurements of the central source. The observed expansionvelocities are in agreement with the predicted velocities at infinity ina diagram of velocities vs. effective temperature, provided the carbonto oxygen abundance ratio is 1≤ɛ C/ɛO≤2, i.e. the range deduced from spectra and modelatmospheres of those cool variables. Five stars with detached shellsdisplay expansion velocities about twice that predicted at theireffective temperature. Miras and non-Miras do populate the same locus inboth diagrams at the present accuracy. The predicted dust-to-gas densityratios are however about 2.2 times smaller than the values estimatedfrom observations. Recent drift models can contribute to minimize thediscrepancy since they include more dust. Simple approximate formulaeare proposed.This research has made use of the Simbad database operated at CDS.Partially based on data from the ESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite.Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/429/235

The analysis of indexed astronomical time series - IX. A period change test
A frequency domain test statistic is applied to the full time series ofbrightness maxima and minima in order to test for changes in the meanpulsation periods of 382 Mira stars. The test statistic depends on twoparameters that are related to the intrinsic cycle-to-cycle scatter inthe period, and to the measurement error, respectively. It is shown thatthe former is strongly related to the mean pulsation period of the star.

Letter to the Editor: Brighter Maxima of 30 Selected Mira-Type Variable Stars for the Period 1978-1977
Letter to the Editor

Beobachtungsergebnisse Bundesdeutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Veranderlichen Serne e.V.
Not Available

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

The case for asymmetric dust around a C-rich asymptotic giant branch star
JHKL observations of the mass-losing carbon Mira variable IRAS15194-5115 (II Lup) extending over about 18 yr are presented anddiscussed. The pulsation period is 575 d and has remained essentiallyconstant over this time span. The star has undergone an extensiveobscuration minimum during this time. This is complex and, like suchminima in similar objects (e.g. R For), does not fit the modelpredictions of a simple long-term periodicity. Together with thehigh-resolution observations of Lopez et al., the results suggest thatthe obscuration changes are caused by the formation of dust clouds oflimited extent in the line of sight. This is an R Coronae Borealis-type(RCB-type) model. The effective reddening law at J and H is similar tothat found for R For.

Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
For a complete 12 μm flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources(F12>=150 Jy, |b|>=5deg), the majority ofwhich are AGB stars (~87%), we have extracted light curves in seveninfrared bands between 1.25 and 60 μm using the database of theDiffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument on the CosmicBackground Explorer (COBE) satellite. Using previous infrared surveys,we filtered these light curves to remove data points affected by nearbycompanions and obtained time-averaged flux densities and infraredcolors, as well as estimates of their variability at each wavelength. Inthe time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation ofsemiregulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giantswithout circumstellar dust (i.e., V-[12]<5) and with little or novisual variation (ΔV<0.1 mag). The DIRBE 1.25-25 μm colorsbecome progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE databaseincreases along the oxygen-rich sequence nondusty slightly varying redgiants-->SRb/Lb-->SRa-->Mira-->OH/IR and the carbon-richSRb/Lb-->Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that theseare evolutionary sequences involving the continued production andejection of dust. The carbon stars are redder than their oxygen-richcounterparts for the same variability type, except in theF12/F25 ratio, where they are bluer. Of the 28sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearlyvariable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 mag at4.9 μm and ~0.6 mag at 12 μm, consistent with them being verydusty Mira-like variables. We also present individual DIRBE light curvesof a few selected stars. The DIRBE light curves of the semiregularvariable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 μm occur 10-20 days before those at 4.9 and 12μm, and, at 4.9 and 12 μm, another maximum is seen between the twonear-infrared maxima.

Reprocessing the Hipparcos data of evolved stars. III. Revised Hipparcos period-luminosity relationship for galactic long-period variable stars
We analyze the K band luminosities of a sample of galactic long-periodvariables using parallaxes measured by the Hipparcos mission. Theparallaxes are in most cases re-computed from the Hipparcos IntermediateAstrometric Data using improved astrometric fits and chromaticitycorrections. The K band magnitudes are taken from the literature andfrom measurements by COBE, and are corrected for interstellar andcircumstellar extinction. The sample contains stars of several spectraltypes: M, S and C, and of several variability classes: Mira, semiregularSRa, and SRb. We find that the distribution of stars in theperiod-luminosity plane is independent of circumstellar chemistry, butthat the different variability types have different P-L distributions.Both the Mira variables and the SRb variables have reasonablywell-defined period-luminosity relationships, but with very differentslopes. The SRa variables are distributed between the two classes,suggesting that they are a mixture of Miras and SRb, rather than aseparate class of stars. New period-luminosity relationships are derivedbased on our revised Hipparcos parallaxes. The Miras show a similarperiod-luminosity relationship to that found for Large Magellanic CloudMiras by Feast et al. (\cite{Feast-1989:a}). The maximum absolute Kmagnitude of the sample is about -8.2 for both Miras and semi-regularstars, only slightly fainter than the expected AGB limit. We show thatthe stars with the longest periods (P>400 d) have high mass lossrates and are almost all Mira variables.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA \cite{Hipparcos}).Table \ref{Tab:data1} is only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/993

Dust formation in winds of long-period variables. V. The influence of micro-physical dust properties in carbon stars
We present self-consistent dynamical models for dust-driven winds ofcarbon-rich AGB stars. The models are based on the coupled system offrequency-dependent radiation hydrodynamics and time-dependent dustformation. We investigate in detail how the wind properties of themodels are influenced by the micro-physical properties of the dustgrains that are required by the description of grain formation. Thechoice of dust parameters is significant for the derived outflowvelocities, the degrees of condensation and the resulting mass-lossrates of the models. In the transition region between models with andwithout mass-loss the choice of micro-physical parameters turns out tobe very significant for whether a particular set of stellar parameterswill give rise to a dust-driven mass-loss or not. We also calculatenear-infrared colors to test how the dust parameters influence theobservable properties of the models, however, at this point we do notattempt to fit particular stars.

Hipparcos red stars in the HpV_T2 and V I_C systems
For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibratedinstantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derivedHpV_T2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins V I data havebeen obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasetsin combination with the published sources of V I photometry served toobtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-V_T2 with theCousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-typestars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I isabout 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly atfainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify thepublished Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified ahandful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random fieldstar has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/Vsolutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely suchspurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color inthe astrometric processing.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\fnmsep\thanks{Table 7 is onlyavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

Fading of light maximum and linear polarization variation in the carbon Mira R Leporis
Polarimetry of R Lep obtained over the years 1991-2002 is presented.During this period the star underwent an episode of fading of thebrightness at light maximum, after an interval of about 35 yr. Ananalysis of the data shows that the percentage linear polarizationincreased as the fading progressed, attained a maximum of slightly over3 per cent in the V band close to the epoch of minimum, and remainedmore or less at the same level during and well after the recovery tonormal brightness. The polarization, apparently, originated from thecircumstellar envelope above the region where the dust that caused thefading in the star condensed. The physical mechanism that causes therather large polarization during fadings is perhaps selective extinctionby aligned foreground grains produced by the passage of shocks throughthe circumstellar envelope. The small-amplitude, short-term fluctuationsin polarization observed in R Lep, which appear to be superposed on thefading-related large-amplitude variation, are probably pulsation-relatedand arise from the inner zones of the circumstellar envelope.

Aus der Sektion Mirasterne.
Not Available

L'-Band Interferometric Observations of Evolved Stars
Ten bright Miras, six semiregular variable giants, and two semiregularvariable supergiants have been observed with the Infrared-OpticalTelescope Array interferometer in the L' band (from 3.4 to 4.1 μm).Observations were carried out in 2000 March and November with theFLUOR/TISIS instrument, using optimized single-mode waveguides foroptical recombination and a dedicated chopping system for accuratesubtraction of slow thermal background drifts. Four of the sources (theMira stars R Leo and R Cnc, α Ori, and RS Cnc) were observed inboth runs. We report on visibility measurements and derive L' broadbanduniform disk (UD) diameter best fits for all 18 stars in our sample. Wealso detect strong departures from UD models in some peculiar cases.

Infrared Light Curves of Mira Variable Stars from COBE DIRBE Data
We have used the COBE DIRBE database to derive near- and mid-infraredlight curves for a well-defined sample of 38 infrared-bright Miravariable stars and compared with optical data from the AAVSO. In generalthe 3.5 and 4.9 μm DIRBE bandpasses provide the light curves with thebest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), with S/N decreasing with wavelength atlonger wavelengths. At 25 μm good light curves are only available for~10% of our stars, and at wavelengths >=60 μm extracting highquality light curves is not possible. The amplitude of variability istypically less in the near-infrared than in the optical and less in themid-infrared than in the near-infrared, with decreasing amplitude withincreasing wavelength. On average there are 0.20+/-0.01 mag variation at1.25 μm and 0.14+/-0.01 mag variation at 4.9 μm for each magnitudevariation in V. The observed amplitudes are consistent with results ofrecent theoretical models of circumstellar dust shells around Miravariables. For a few stars in our sample we find clear evidence of timelags between the optical and near-infrared maxima of phase ~0.05-0.13,with no lags in the minima. For three stars mid-infrared maximum appearsto occur slightly before that in the near-infrared, but after opticalmaximum. We find three examples of secondary maxima in the risingportions of the DIRBE light curves, all of which have opticalcounterparts in the AAVSO data, supporting the hypothesis that they aredue to shocks rather than newly formed dust layers. We find noconclusive evidence for rapid (hours to days) variations in the infraredbrightnesses of these stars.

The modelling of intermediate-age stellar populations. II. Average spectra for upper AGB stars, and their use
The upper Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) is populated with oxygen richand carbon rich Long Period Variables (LPVs). These stars are essentialcontributors to the near-IR light of intermediate age stellarpopulations. Individual observed spectra of LPVs are so diverse thatthey cannot be used directly in the synthesis of galaxy spectra. In thispaper, the library of individual spectra of Lançon & Wood(\cite{LM00_fluct}) is used to construct averages that can beincorporated conveniently in population synthesis work. The connectionbetween such spectra and stellar evolution tracks is discussed. In orderto select a sorting criterion and to define averaging bins for the LPVspectra, correlations between their spectrophotometric properties arereexamined. While optical properties and broad baseline colours such as(I-K) are well correlated, a large dispersion is observed when theseindices are plotted against near-IR ones. This is partly due to theintrinsic width of the upper AGB, which is illustrated by locating eachof the multiple observations of individual LPVs on the HR diagram. It isargued that broad baseline colour-temperatures are the most sensiblesorting criteria. The properties of the resulting sequence of averagespectra indeed vary regularly. We further address: (i) the bolometriccorrections and temperature scales needed to associate a spectrum with agiven point on a theoretical stellar evolution track (or isochrone),(ii) the simplifying assumptions that will be implicitely made whenusing the average spectra, (iii) potential biases in the sample ofLançon & Wood and their effects, (iv) the small contributionof LPVs to the interstellar hydrogen emission lines in galaxies. It isemphasized that an a posteriori calibration of the effective temperaturescale remains necessary, until consistent models for the evolution, thepulsation and the spectral appearance of LPVs become available. Wesuggest a recipe for the use of the average spectra at variousmetallicities.

The pulsation modes and masses of carbon-rich long period variables
Following our study of the carbon-rich giants in the HR diagram and oftheir luminosity function (Paper III), we investigate the pulsation dataof the long period variables (LPVs) included in our sample. Pulsationmodes (fundamental, overtone(s)) for carbon LPVs are identified in theperiod-radius diagram, making use of observed bi-periodicity in a smallsubsample of those stars, and of comparison to models. Mean pulsationmasses are then deduced from theoretical PMR-relations, with dueattention paid to a possible bias while averaging. Mean (present)pulsation masses (0.6 - 4.0 Msun) are found to increase alongthe group sequence HC5 to CV6, with still larger masses possiblyassociated with cool extreme CV7-objects with strong mass loss and thickcircumstellar shells. This is consistent with the 0.8-4 Msunrange of initial masses found in Paper III for the majority ofcarbon-rich giants affected by mass loss during their evolution. Thepulsation masses found for a few HC-stars (Mle0 .8 Msun) areconsistent with their low initial masses (Mi<~ 1.1Msun), as inferred from their thick disk membership (age =~11 Gyr?) and locus in the HR diagram. A mean pulsation mass of =~ 0.6Msun is found for the three population II Cepheids in thesample. A mass-luminosity diagram is proposed for the Galactic carbongiants. The data from observations is found consistent with theoreticalpredictions from AGB modeling, specially the third dredge-up (TDU)through thermal pulses (TP) with a carbon star formation line (CSFL) forTP-AGB stars. It appears that the CV-giants are close to the tip and endof their evolutionary tracks in the TP-AGB of the HR diagram. It isconfirmed that this end shifts toward lower effective temperatures andhigher luminosities, with increasing masses. It is shown that the C/Oabundance ratios do correlate with effective temperatures, according tothree distinct distributions (halo CH stars, thick disk HC-stars, andthin disk CV-stars). The mean stellar density decreases along theHC5-CV7 sequence, while the surface gravity remains nearly constant atabout 0.5 CGS unit (log g =~ -0.3; 5 x 10-3 SI). The natureof (thin disk) CV-stars as TP-AGB objects being confirmed, thediscussion is focused on (thick disk) HC-stars since the origin of theseold low-mass giants remains unclear. Unpredicted extra mixing on RGBand/or E-AGB is favored. Evolution from (old, low O/H) dwarf carbonstars is also considered since observations of metal-poor stars andrecent calculations point to large supersolar [C/Fe] ratios inPopulation III objects and contamination through rapid cycling in theinterstellar medium. This research has made use of the Simbad databaseoperated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Partially based on data from theESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite.

Carbon-rich giants in the HR diagram and their luminosity function
The luminosity function (LF) of nearly 300 Galactic carbon giants isderived. Adding BaII giants and various related objects, about 370objects are located in the RGB and AGB portions of the theoretical HRdiagram. As intermediate steps, (1) bolometric corrections arecalibrated against selected intrinsic color indices; (2) the diagram ofphotometric coefficients 1/2 vs. astrometric trueparallaxes varpi are interpreted in terms of ranges of photosphericradii for every photometric group; (3) coefficients CR andCL for bias-free evaluation of mean photospheric radii andmean luminosities are computed. The LF of Galactic carbon giantsexhibits two maxima corresponding to the HC-stars of the thick disk andto the CV-stars of the old thin disk respectively. It is discussed andcompared to those of carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Galacticbulge. The HC-part is similar to the LF of the Galactic bulge,reinforcing the idea that the Bulge and the thick disk are part of thesame dynamical component. The CV-part looks similar to the LF of theLarge Magellanic Cloud (LMC), but the former is wider due to thesubstantial errors on HIPPARCOS parallaxes. The obtained meanluminosities increase with increasing radii and decreasing effectivetemperatures, along the HC-CV sequence of photometric groups, except forHC0, the earliest one. This trend illustrates the RGB- and AGB-tracks oflow- and intermediate-mass stars for a range in metallicities. From acomparison with theoretical tracks in the HR diagram, the initial massesMi range from about 0.8 to 4.0 Msun for carbongiants, with possibly larger masses for a few extreme objects. A largerange of metallicities is likely, from metal-poor HC-stars classified asCH stars on the grounds of their spectra (a spheroidal component), tonear-solar compositions of many CV-stars. Technetium-rich carbon giantsare brighter than the lower limit Mbol =~ -3.6+/- 0.4 andcentered at =~-4.7+0.6-0.9 at about =~(2935+/-200) K or CV3-CV4 in our classification. Much like the resultsof Van Eck et al. (\cite{vaneck98}) for S stars, this confirms theTDU-model of those TP-AGB stars. This is not the case of the HC-stars inthe thick disk, with >~ 3400 K and>~ -3.4. The faint HC1 and HC2-stars( =~ -1.1+0.7-1.0) arefound slightly brighter than the BaII giants ( =~-0.3+/-1.3) on average. Most RCB variables and HdC stars range fromMbol =~ -1 to -4 against -0.2 to -2.4 for those of the threepopulation II Cepheids in the sample. The former stars show the largestluminosities ( <~ -4 at the highest effectivetemperatures (6500-7500 K), close to the Mbol =~ -5 value forthe hot LMC RCB-stars (W Men and HV 5637). A full discussion of theresults is postponed to a companion paper on pulsation modes andpulsation masses of carbon-rich long period variables (LPVs; Paper IV,present issue). This research has made use of the Simbad databaseoperated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Partially based on data from theESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite. Table 2 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/390/967

Period-doubling events in the light curve of R Cygni: Evidence for chaotic behaviour
A detailed analysis of the century long visual light curve of thelong-period Mira star R Cygni is presented and discussed. The data werecollected from the publicly available databases of the AFOEV, the BAAVSSand the VSOLJ. The full light curve consists of 26655 individual pointsobtained between 1901 and 2001. The light curve and its periodicity wereanalysed with help of the O-C diagram, Fourier analysis andtime-frequency analysis. The results demonstrate the limitations ofthese linear methods. The next step was to investigate the possiblepresence of low-dimensional chaos in the light curve. For this, asmoothed and noise-filtered signal was created from the averaged dataand with the help of time delay embedding, we have tried to reconstructthe attractor of the system. The main result is that R Cygni shows suchperiod-doubling events that can be interpreted as being caused by arepetitive bifurcation of the chaotic attractor between a period 2Torbit and chaos. The switch between these two states occurs in a certaincompact region of the phase space, where the light curve ischaracterized by ~ 1500-day long transients. The Lyapunov spectrum wascomputed for various embedding parameters confirming the chaoticattractor, although the exponents suffer from quite high uncertaintybecause of the applied approximation. Finally, the light curve iscompared with a simple one zone model generated by a third-orderdifferential equation which exhibits well-expressed period-doublingbifurcation. The strong resemblance is another argument for chaoticbehaviour. Further studies should address the problem of global flowreconstruction, including the determination of the accurate Lyapunovexponents and dimension.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:04h59m36.50s
Apparent magnitude:7.71
Distance:250.627 parsecs
Proper motion RA:6.1
Proper motion Dec:-1.7
B-T magnitude:14.609
V-T magnitude:8.811

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesR Lep
HD 1989HD 31996
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 5329-366-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0750-01178089
BSC 1991HR 1607
HIPHIP 23203

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